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- This paper provides an update of our previous scaling relations (Genzel et al.2015) between galaxy integrated molecular gas masses, stellar masses and star formation rates, in the framework of the star formation main-sequence (MS), with the main goal to test for possible systematic effects. For this purpose our new study combines three independent methods of determining molecular gas masses from CO line fluxes, far-infrared dust spectral energy distributions, and ~1mm dust photometry, in a large sample of 1444 star forming galaxies (SFGs) between z=0 and 4. The sample covers the stellar mass range log(M*/M_solar)=9.0-11.8, and star formation rates relative to that on the MS, delta_MS=SFR/SFR(MS), from 10^{-1.3} to 10^{2.2}. Our most important finding is that all data sets, despite the different techniques and analysis methods used, follow the same scaling trends, once method-to-method zero point offsets are minimized and uncertainties are properly taken into account. The molecular gas depletion time t_depl, defined as the ratio of molecular gas mass to star formation rate, scales as (1+z)^{-0.6}x(delta_MS)^{-0.44}, and is only weakly dependent on stellar mass. The ratio of molecular-to-stellar mass mu_gas depends on (1+z)^{2.5}x (delta_MS)^{0.52}x(M*)^{-0.36}, which tracks the evolution of the specific star formation rate. The redshift dependence of mu_gas requires a curvature term, as may the mass-dependences of t_depl and mu_gas. We find no or only weak correlations of t_depl and mu_gas with optical size R or surface density once one removes the above scalings, but we caution that optical sizes may not be appropriate for the high gas and dust columns at high-z.Star formation rateStellar massScaling lawOf starsSystematic errorPhotometryMain sequence starStar-forming galaxyAtacama Large Millimeter ArrayStar formation...
- We study star cluster formation in various environments with different metallicities and column densities by performing a suite of three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations. We find that the photoionization feedback from massive stars controls the star formation efficiency (SFE) in a star-forming cloud, and its impact sensitively depends on the gas metallicity $Z$ and initial cloud surface density $\Sigma$. At $Z=1~Z_{\odot}$, SFE increases as a power law from 0.03 at $\Sigma = 10~M_{\odot}{\rm pc^{-2}}$ to 0.3 at $\Sigma = 300~M_{\odot}{\rm pc^{-2}}$. In low-metallicity cases $10^{-2}- 10^{-1} Z_{\odot}$, star clusters form from atomic warm gases because the molecule formation time is not short enough with respect to the cooling or dynamical time. In addition, the whole cloud is disrupted more easily by expanding H{\sc ii} bubbles which have higher temperature owing to less efficient cooling. With smaller dust attenuation, the ionizing radiation feedback from nearby massive stars is stronger and terminate star formation in dense clumps. These effects result in inefficient star formation in low-metallicity environments: the SFE drops by a factor of $\sim 3$ at $Z=10^{-2}~Z_{\odot}$ compared to the results for $Z=1~Z_{\odot}$, regardless of $\Sigma$. Newborn star clusters are also gravitationally less bound. We further develop a new semi-analytical model that can reproduce the simulation results well, particularly the observed dependencies of the SFEs on the cloud surface densities and metallicities.Star formationMetallicityStar formation efficiencyStar clusterDust grainPhotoionizationMassive starsStarIonizing radiationCooling...
- By performing three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations, we study the formation of young massive star clusters (YMCs, $M_{*}>10^4~M_{\odot}$) in clouds with the surface density ranging from $\Sigma_{\rm cl} = 80$ to $3200~M_{\odot}\;{\rm pc^{-2}}$. We find that photoionization feedback suppresses star formation significantly in clouds with low surface density. Once the initial surface density exceeds $\sim 100~M_{\odot}\;{\rm pc^{-2}}$ for clouds with $M_{\rm cl}=10^{6}~M_{\odot}$ and $Z= Z_{\odot}$, most of the gas is converted into stars because the photoionization feedback is inefficient in deep gravitational potential. In this case, the star clusters are massive and gravitationally bounded as YMCs. The transition surface density increases as metallicity decreases, and it is $\sim 350~M_{\odot}\;{\rm pc^{-2}}$ for $Z=10^{-2}~Z_{\odot}$. We show that more than 10 percent of star-formation efficiency (SFE) is needed to keep a star cluster gravitationally bounded even after the disruption of a cloud. Also, we develop a semi-analytical model reproducing the SFEs obtained in our simulations. We find that the SFEs are fit with a power-law function with the dependency $\propto \Sigma_{\rm cl}^{1/2}$ for low-surface density and rapidly increases at the transition surface densities. The conditions of the surface density and the metallicity match recent observations of giant molecular clouds forming YMCs in nearby galaxies.Star formation efficiencyStar formationStar clusterMetallicityStar formation rateStellar massStarPhotoionizationInfrared limitOf stars...
- We investigate how different magnetohydrodynamic models of propagation of a weak (Mach number ~1.2) shock in the core of a galaxy cluster affect its observational appearance, using the Perseus cluster as our fiducial model. In particular, we study how thermal conduction, both isotropic and anisotropic, and ion-electron temperature equilibration modify a weak shock. Strong thermal conduction is expected to produce an electron temperature precursor. Less prominent pressure and density precursors are formed as well. A longer equilibration time largely reduces the density precursor, but does not change the electron temperature precursor much. When thermal conduction becomes anisotropic, the intracluster magnetic field imprints its characteristic spatial scale on the distortions of the shock induced by heat fluxes.PrecursorElectron temperaturePerseus galaxy clusterIntra-cluster mediumMach numberMean free pathMagnetohydrodynamicsCool core galaxy clusterTemperature profileSurface brightness...
- We study the implications of the Planck temperature power spectrum at low multipoles, $\ell<1000$, and SPTPol data. We show that this combination predicts consistent lensing-induced smoothing of acoustic peaks within $\Lambda$CDM cosmology and yields the robust predictions of the cosmological parameters. Combining only the Planck large-scale temperature data and the SPTPol polarization and lensing measurements within $\Lambda$CDM model we found substantially lower values of linear matter density perturbation $\sigma_8$ which bring the late-time parameter $S_8=\sigma_8\sqrt{\Omega_m/0.3}=0.763\pm0.022$ into accordance with galaxy clustering and weak lensing measurements. It also raises up the Hubble constant $H_0=69.68\pm1.00{\rm \,\,km\,s^{-1}Mpc^{-1}}$ that reduces the Hubble tension to the $2.5\sigma$ level. We examine the residual tension in the Early Dark Energy (EDE) model which produces the brief energy injection prior to recombination. We implement both the background and perturbation evolutions of the scalar field which potential scales as $V(\phi)\propto \phi^{2n}$. Including cosmic shear measurements (KiDS, VIKING-450, DES) and local distance-ladder data (SH0ES) to the combined fit we found that EDE completely alleviates the Hubble tension while not degradating the fit to large-scale structure data. The EDE scenario significantly improves the goodness-of-fit by $2.9\sigma$ in comparison with the concordance $\Lambda$CDM model. The account for the intermediate-redshift data (the supernova dataset and baryon acoustic oscillation data) fits perfectly to our parameter predictions and indicates the preference of EDE over $\Lambda$CDM at $3\sigma$.Early dark energyPlanck missionHubble constant tensionSigma8Lambda-CDM modelSupernovae H0 for the Equation of StateVISTA Kilo-Degree Infrared Galaxy SurveyCosmological parametersGalaxy clusteringWeak lensing mass estimate...
- Contradictory results have been reported on the time evolution of the alignment between clusters and their Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG). We study this topic by analyzing cosmological hydro-simulations of 24 massive clusters with $M_{200}|_{z=0} \gtrsim 10^{15}\, M_\odot$, plus 5 less massive with $1 \times 10^{14} \lesssim M_{200}|_{z=0} \lesssim 7 \times 10^{14}\, M_\odot$, which have already proven to produce realistic BCG masses. We compute the BCG alignment with both the distribution of cluster galaxies and the dark matter (DM) halo. At redshift $z=0$, the major axes of the simulated BCGs and their host cluster galaxy distributions are aligned on average within 20$^\circ$. The BCG alignment with the DM halo is even tighter. The alignment persists up to $z\lesssim2$ with no evident evolution. This result continues, although with a weaker signal, when considering the projected alignment. The cluster alignment with the surrounding distribution of matter ($3R_{200}$) is already in place at $z\sim4$ with a typical angle of $35^\circ$, before the BCG-Cluster alignment develops. The BCG turns out to be also aligned with the same matter distribution, albeit always to a lesser extent. These results taken together might imply that the BCG-Cluster alignment occurs in an outside-in fashion. Depending on their frequency and geometry, mergers can promote, destroy or weaken the alignments. Clusters that do not experience recent major mergers are typically more relaxed and aligned with their BCG. In turn, accretions closer to the cluster elongation axis tend to improve the alignment as opposed to accretions closer to the cluster minor axis.GalaxyDark matterAccretionPrincipal axesDark matter haloStarDark matter subhaloOrientationMilky WayGalaxy distribution...
- We study the importance of gravitational lensing in the modelling of the number counts of galaxies. We confirm previous results for photometric surveys, showing that lensing cannot be neglected in a survey like LSST since it would infer a significant shift of cosmological parameters. For a spectroscopic survey like SKA2, we find that neglecting lensing in the monopole, quadrupole and hexadecapole of the correlation function also induces an important shift of parameters. For ${\Lambda}$CDM parameters, the shift is moderate, of the order of 0.6${\sigma}$ or less. However, for a model-independent analysis, that measures the growth rate of structure in each redshift bin, neglecting lensing introduces a shift of up to 2.3${\sigma}$ at high redshift. Since the growth rate is directly used to test the theory of gravity, such a strong shift would wrongly be interpreted as the breakdown of General Relativity. This shows the importance of including lensing in the analysis of future surveys. On the other hand, for a survey like DESI, we find that lensing is not important, mainly due to the value of the magnification bias parameter of DESI, $s(z)$, which strongly reduces the lensing contribution at high redshift. We also propose a way of improving the analysis of spectroscopic surveys, by including the cross-correlations between different redshift bins (which is neglected in spectroscopic surveys) from the spectroscopic survey or from a different photometric sample. We show that including the cross-correlations in the SKA2 analysis does not improve the constraints. On the other hand replacing the cross-correlations from SKA2 by cross-correlations measured with LSST improves the constraints by 10 to 20 %. Interestingly, for ${\Lambda}$CDM parameters, we find that LSST and SKA2 are highly complementary, since they are affected differently by degeneracies between parameters.Redshift binsGalaxyTwo-point correlation functionSpectroscopic surveyDark Energy Spectroscopic InstrumentRedshift-space distortionCross-correlationCovarianceAngular power spectrumMilky Way...
- We use N-body simulation to study the structure formation in the Cubic Galileon Gravity model where along with the usual kinetic and potential term we also have a higher derivative self-interaction term. We find that the large scale structure provides a unique constraining power for this model. The matter power spectrum, halo mass function, galaxy-galaxy weak lensing signal, marked density power spectrum as well as count in cell are measured. The simulations show that there are less massive halos in the Cubic Galileon Gravity model than corresponding $\Lambda$CDM model and the marked density power spectrum in these two models are different by more than $10\%$. Furthermore, the Cubic Galileon model shows significant differences in voids compared to $\Lambda$CDM. The number of low density cells is far higher in the Cubic Galileon model than that in the $\Lambda$CDM model. Therefore, it would be interesting to put constraints on this model using future large scale structure observations, especially in void regions.Lambda-CDM modelGalileon modelCosmic voidN-body simulationMatter power spectrumStructure formationHalo mass functionLarge scale structureGalaxy galaxy lensingDensity contrast...
- The Hubble parameter $H(z)$ is directly related to the expansion of our Universe. It can be used to study dark energy and constrain cosmology models. In this paper, we propose that $H(z)$ can be measured using fast radio bursts (FRBs) with redshift measurements. We use dispersion measures contributed by the intergalactic medium, which is related to $H(z)$, to measure Hubble parameter. We find that 500 mocked FRBs with dispersion measures and redshift information can accurately measure Hubble parameters using Monte Carlo simulation. The maximum deviation of $H(z)$ from standard $\Lambda$CDM model is about 6\% at redshift $z= 2.4$. We also test our method using Monte Carlo simulation. Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test is used to check the simulation. The $p$-value of K-S test is 0.23, which confirms internal consistency of the simulation. In future, more localizations of FRBs make it as an attractive cosmological probe.Fast Radio BurstsHubble parameterDispersion measureMonte Carlo methodCosmologyCanadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping ExperimentDark energyRedshift binsChi-squared statisticSupernova Type Ia...
- We use a suite of $N$-body simulations to study intrinsic alignments (IA) of halo shapes with the surrounding large-scale structure in the $\Lambda$CDM model. For this purpose, we develop a novel method to measure multipole moments of the three-dimensional power spectrum of the $E$-mode field of halo shapes with the matter/halo distribution, $P_{\delta E}^{(\ell)}(k)$ (or $P^{(\ell)}_{{\rm h}E}$), and those of the auto-power spectrum of the $E$ mode, $P^{(\ell)}_{EE}(k)$, based on the $E$/$B$-mode decomposition. The IA power spectra have non-vanishing amplitudes over the linear to nonlinear scales, and the large-scale amplitudes at $k\lesssim 0.1~h~{\rm Mpc}^{-1}$ are related to the matter power spectrum via a constant coefficient ($A_{\rm IA}$), similar to the linear bias parameter of galaxy or halo density field. We find that the cross- and auto-power spectra $P_{\delta E}$ and $P_{EE}$ at nonlinear scales, $k\gtrsim 0.1~h~{\rm Mpc}^{-1}$, show different $k$-dependences relative to the matter power spectrum, suggesting a violation of the nonlinear alignment model commonly used to model contaminations of cosmic shear signals. The IA power spectra exhibit baryon acoustic oscillations, and vary with halo samples of different masses, redshifts and cosmological parameters ($\Omega_{\rm m}, S_8$). The cumulative signal-to-noise ratio for the IA power spectra is about 60% of that for the halo density power spectrum, where the super-sample covariance is found to give a significant contribution to the total covariance. Thus our results demonstrate that the IA power spectra of galaxy shapes, measured from imaging and spectroscopic surveys for an overlapping area of the sky, can be used to probe the underlying matter power spectrum, the primordial curvature perturbations, and cosmological parameters, in addition to the standard galaxy density power spectrum.GalaxyCovarianceShearedEllipticityCosmic shearMatter power spectrumRedshift-space distortionCosmologyLine of sightLarge scale structure...
- Multi-messenger astronomy has experienced an explosive development in the past few years. While not being a particularly young field, it has recently attracted a lot of attention by several major discoveries and unprecedented observation campaigns covering the entity of the electromagnetic spectrum as well as observations of cosmic rays, neutrinos, and gravitational waves. The exploration of synergies is in full steam and requires close cooperation between different instruments. Here I give an overview over the subject of multi-messenger astronomy and its virtues compared to classical "single messenger" observations, present the recent break throughs of the field, and discuss some of its organisational and technical challenges.NeutrinoCosmic rayGamma ray burstGravitational waveGW170817Neutron starCosmic ray spectrumIceCube Neutrino ObservatoryBinary neutron starCherenkov telescope...
- We construct the Wightman function for symmetric traceless tensors and Dirac fermions in dS$_{d+1}$ in a coordinate and index free formalism using a $d+2$ dimensional ambient space. We expand the embedding space formalism to cover spinor and tensor fields in any even or odd dimension. Our goal is to furnish a self-contained toolkit for the study of fields of arbitrary spin in de Sitter, with applications to cosmological perturbation theory. The construction for spinors is shown in extensive detail. Concise expressions for the action of isometry generators on generic bulk fields, the 2-point function of bulk spinors, and a derivation of the uplift of the spinorial covariant derivative are included.Ds mesonDe Sitter spaceEmbeddingDirac spinorWightman functionPropagatorAnti de Sitter spaceCovariant derivativeIsometryConformal field theory...
- We evaluate the statistical significance of the 3+1 sterile-neutrino hypothesis using $\nu_e$ and $\bar\nu_e$ disappearance data from reactor, solar and gallium radioactive source experiments. Concerning the latter, we investigate the implications of the recent BEST results. For reactor data we focus on relative measurements independent of flux predictions. For the problem at hand, the usual $\chi^2$-approximation to hypothesis testing based on Wilks' theorem has been shown in the literature to be inaccurate. We therefore present results based on Monte Carlo simulations, and find that this typically reduces the significance by roughly $1\,\sigma$ with respect to the na\"ive expectation. We find no significant indication of sterile-neutrino oscillations from reactor data. On the other hand, gallium data (dominated by the BEST result) show more than $5\,\sigma$ of evidence supporting the sterile-neutrino hypothesis, favoring oscillation parameters in agreement with reactor data. This explanation is, however, in significant tension ($\sim 3\,\sigma$) with solar neutrino experiments. In order to assess the robustness of the signal for gallium experiments we present a discussion of the impact of cross-section uncertainties on the results.NeutrinoSterile neutrinoMonte Carlo methodWilks theoremSolar neutrinoSterile neutrino oscillationsNuisance parameterSolar Terrestrial Relations ObservatoryReactor neutrino experimentsDetector of AntiNeutrino based on Solid Scintillator...
- From the S-matrix of spinning particles, we extract the 2 PM conservative potential for binary spinning black holes up to quartic order in spin operators. An important ingredient is the exponentiated gravitational Compton amplitude in the classical spin-limit for all graviton helicity sectors. The validity of the resulting Hamiltonian is verified by matching to known lower spin order results, as well as direct computation of the 2PM impulse and spin kicks from the eikonal phase and that from the test black hole scattering based on Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon equations.HamiltonianSpin representationHelicityBox integralsGravitonImpact parameterQuadruple cutMagnetic orderBlack holeKinematics...
- The non-Gaussian fluctuations of baryon density are sensitive to the presence of the conjectured QCD critical point. Their observational consequences are crucial for the ongoing experimental search for this critical point through the beam energy scan program at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). In the expanding fireball created in a heavy-ion collision, critical fluctuations would inescapably fall out of equilibrium, and require a systematic description within a dynamical framework. In this paper, we employ newly developed effective field theory (EFT) for fluctuating hydrodynamics to study the real-time critical non-Gaussian fluctuations of a conserved charge density. In particular, we derive the evolution equations for multi-point correlators of density fluctuations and obtain the closed-form solutions with arbitrary initial conditions that can readily be implemented in realistic simulations for heavy-ion collisions. We find that non-linear interactions among noise fields, which are missing in traditional stochastic hydrodynamics, could potentially contribute to the quartic (fourth order) fluctuations in scaling regime even at tree level in off-equilibrium situations.Critical pointEvolution equationEffective field theoryHeavy ion collisionSchwinger-Dyson equationPropagatorWigner transformRelativistic Heavy Ion ColliderProgrammingHydrodynamic regime...
- We present an explicit reconstruction of the interior of an AdS$_2$ black hole in Jackiw-Teitelboim gravity, that is entirely formulated in the dual SYK model and makes no direct reference to the gravitational bulk. We do this by introducing a probe "observer" in the right wormhole exterior and using the prescription of [arXiv:2009.04476] to transport SYK operators along the probe's infalling worldline and into the black hole interior, using an appropriate SYK modular Hamiltonian. Our SYK computation recovers the precise proper time at which signals sent from the left boundary are registered by our observer's apparatus inside the wormhole. The success of the computation relies on the universal properties of SYK and we outline a promising avenue for extending it to higher dimensions and applying it to the computation of scattering amplitudes behind the horizon.Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev modelWormholeGeodesicProper timeTwo-point correlation functionAnti de Sitter spacePath integralHorizonBlack holePropagator...
- We investigate the formation of topological defects in the course of a dynamical phase transition with different boundary conditions in a ring from AdS/CFT correspondence. According to the Kibble-Zurek mechanism, quenching the system across the critical point to symmetry-breaking phase will result in topological defects -- winding numbers -- in a compact ring. By setting two different boundary conditions, i.e., Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions for the spatial component of the gauge fields in the AdS boundary, we achieve the holographic superfluid and holographic superconductor models, respectively. In the final equilibrium state, different configurations of the order parameter phases for these two models indicate a persistent superflow in the holographic superfluid, however, the holographic superconductor lacks this superflow due to the existence of local gauge fields. The two-point correlation functions of the order parameter also behave differently. In particular, for holographic superfluid the correlation function is a cosine function depending on the winding number. The correlation function for the holographic superconductor, however, decays rapidly at short distances and vanishes at long distance, due to the random localities of the gauge fields. These results are consistent with our theoretical analysis.SuperfluidSuperconductorWinding numberTwo-point correlation functionGauge fieldTopological defectQuenchingAnti de Sitter spaceNeumann boundary conditionPhase transitions...
- Using action-based distribution function for the dynamical model of the Milky Way we have estimated its total mass and its density profile. Constraints are coming from the globular cluster proper motions from Gaia EDR3, from the rotation curve based on Gaia DR2 data, and from the vertical force data. We use Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method to explore the parameters, for which the globular cluster distribution function and the Galactic potential are fully constrained. Numerical simulations are used to study the uncertainties on the potential constraint if considering a possible massive Large Magellanic Could (LMC). We found that a massive LMC (1.5$\times10^{11}$ M$_{\odot}$) will affect the MW mass measurement at large radius, which includes both the Milky Way and the LMC. We also use the FIRE2 Latte cosmological hydrodynamic simulations to make mock data set from a Milky-Way like galaxy that includes many unrelaxed substructures. We test the effect of these unrelaxed substructures on the final results, and found that the measured rotation curve fluctuated around input value within 5 percent. By keeping a large freedom in choosing a priori mass profile for both baryonic and dark matter leads a total mass of the MW that ranges from $5.36_{-0.68}^{+0.81}\times10^{11}$ M$_{\odot}$ to $7.84_{-1.97}^{+3.08} \times 10^{11}$ M$\odot$. This includes the contribution of a putative massive LMC and significantly narrows the MW total mass range published earlier. Such total mass leads to dark matter density at solar position of $0.34_{-0.02}^{+0.02}$ GeV cm$^{-3}$.Rotation CurveGlobular clusterProper motionDark matterDark Matter Density ProfileMass of the Milky WayGAIA missionMilky WayDark matter haloKinematics...
- Here we show that precise Gaia EDR3 proper motions have provided robust estimates of 3D velocities, angular momentum and total energy for 40 Milky Way dwarfs. The results are statistically robust and are independent of the Milky Way mass profile. Dwarfs do not behave like long-lived satellites of the Milky Way because of their excessively large velocities, angular momenta, and total energies. Comparing them to other MW halo population, we find that many are at first passage, $\le$ 2 Gyr ago, i.e., more recently than the passage of Sagittarius, $\sim$ 4-5 Gyr ago. We suggest that this is in agreement with the stellar populations of all dwarfs, for which we find that a small fraction of young stars cannot be excluded. We also find that dwarf radial velocities contribute too little to their kinetic energy when compared to satellite systems with motions only regulated by gravity, and some other mechanism must be at work such as ram pressure. The latter may have preferentially reduced radial velocities when dwarf progenitors entered the halo until they lost their gas. It could also explain why most dwarfs lie near their pericenter. We also discover a novel large scale structure perpendicular to the Milky Way disk, which is made by 20% of dwarfs orbiting or counter orbiting with the Sagittarius dwarf.StarGAIA missionSagittarius Dwarf Elliptical GalaxyRam pressureMass of the Milky WayRadial velocityK giantsPeriapsisSagittarius streamMilky Way...
- The presence of HI gas in galaxies is inextricably linked to their morphology and evolution. This paper aims to understand the HI content of the already identified 2210 dwarfs located in the low-to-moderate density environments of the MATLAS deep imaging survey. We combine the HI observations from the ATLAS$^{3D}$ survey, with the extragalactic HI sources from the ALFALFA survey, to extract the HI line width, velocity and mass of the MATLAS dwarfs. From the 1773 dwarfs in our sample with available HI observations, 8% (145) have an HI line detection. The majority of the dwarfs show irregular morphology, while 29% (42) are ellipticals, the largest sample of HI-bearing dwarf ellipticals (dEs) to date. Of the HI dwarf sample, 2% (3) are ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs), 12% have a transition-type morphology, 5% are tidal dwarf candidates, and 10% appear to be disrupted objects. In our optically selected sample, 9.5% of the dEs, 7% of the UDGs and 10% of the classical dwarfs are HI-bearing. The HI-bearing dwarfs have on average bluer colors than the dwarfs without detected HI. We find relations between the stellar and HI masses, gas fraction, color and absolute magnitude consistent with previous studies of dwarfs probing similar masses and environments. For 79% of the dwarfs identified as satellites of massive early-type galaxies, we find that the HI mass increases with the projected distance to the host. Using the HI line width, we estimate dynamical masses and find that 5% (7) of the dwarfs are dark matter deficient.Health informaticsUltra-diffuse galaxy-like objectGalaxyEarly-type galaxyStellar massALFALFA surveyMass to light ratioMassive galaxiesDark matterDwarf galaxy...
- This paper presents a multiwavelength investigation of the Galactic HII IRAS 17149$-$3916. Using the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope, India, first low-frequency radio continuum observations at 610 and 1280 MHz for this region are presented. The ionized gas emission displays an interesting cometary morphology which is likely powered by the early type source, E4 (IRS-1). The origin of the cometary morphology is discussed under the framework of the widely accepted bow shock, champagne flow, and clumpy cloud mechanisms. The mid- and far-infrared data from Spitzer-GLIMPSE and Herschel-Hi-GAL reveal a complex network of pillars, clumps, bubble, filaments, and arcs suggesting the profound influence of massive stars on the surrounding medium. Triggered star formation at the tip of an observed pillar structure is reported. High-resolution ALMA continuum data show a string of cores detected within the identified clumps. The core masses are well explained by thermal Jeans fragmentation and support the hierarchical fragmentation scenario. Four `super-Jeans' cores are identified which, at the resolution of the present data set, are suitable candidates to form high-mass stars.IRASStar formationFragmentationMassive starsStarStellar classificationNear-infraredInfrared limitYoung stellar objectRadio continuum emission...
- We consider the $2\to 2$ scattering amplitude of identical massive particles. We identify the Landau curves in the multi-particle region $16m^2 \leq s, t < 36m^2$. We systematically generate and select the relevant graphs and numerically solve the associated Landau equations for the leading singularity. We find an infinite sequence of Landau curves that accumulates at finite $s$ and $t$ on the physical sheet. We expect that such accumulations are generic for $s,t > 16m^2$. Our analysis sheds new light on the complicated analytic structure of nonperturbative relativistic scattering amplitudes.GraphUnitarityScattering amplitudeFeynman diagramsAnalytic continuationPropagatorAutomorphismPhase spacePerturbation theoryMandelstam variables...
- The quantum measurement problems are discussed from a new perspective. One of the main ideas of this work is that the basic entities of our world are various types of particles, elementary or composite. It follows that each elementary process, hence each measurement process at its core, is a spacetime, pointlike, event. Another key idea is that, when a microsystem $\psi$ gets into contact with the experimental device, factorization of $\psi$ rapidly fails and entangled mixed states appear. The wave functions for the microsystem-apparatus coupled systems for different measurement outcomes then lack overlapping spacetime support. It means that the aftermath of each measurement is a single term in the sum: a ``wave-function collapse". Our discussion leading to a diagonal density matrix, $\rho= {\rm diag} ( |c_1|^2, \ldots, |c_n|^2, \ldots )$ shows how the information encoded in the wave function $|\psi\rangle = \sum_n c_n | n \rangle$ gets transcribed, via entanglement with the experimental device and environment, into the relative frequencies ${\cal P}_n = |c_n|^2$ for various experimental results $F=f_n$. These results represent the first, significant steps towards filling in the logical gaps in the standard interpretation based on Born's rule, and replacing it with a more natural one. Accepting objective reality of quantum fluctuations, independent of any experiments, and independently of human presence, one renounces the idea that in a fundamental, complete theory of Nature the result of each single experiment must necessarily be predictable. A few well-known puzzles such as the Schr\"odinger cat conundrum and the EPR paradox are briefly reviewed: they can all be naturally explained away.Quantum mechanicsMixed statesEntanglementQuantum fluctuationSuperpositionQuantum measurementUnitarityExpectation ValueDensity matrixIonization...
- Dark plasmonic modes have interesting properties, such as a longer lifetime and a narrower linewidth than their radiative counterpart, as well as little to no radiative losses. However, they have not been extensively studied yet due to their optical inaccessibility. Using electron-energy loss (EEL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy, the dark radial breathing modes (RBMs) in thin, monochrystalline gold nanodisks are systematically investigated in this work. It is found that the RBMs can be detected in a CL set-up despite only collecting the far-field. Their visibility in CL is attributed to the breaking of the mirror symmetry by the high-index substrate, creating an effective dipole moment. The outcoupling into the far-field is demonstrated to be enhanced by a factor of 4 by increasing the thickness of the supporting SiN membrane from 5 to 50 nm due to the increased net electric dipole moment in the substrate. Furthermore, it is shown that the resonance energy of RBMs can be easily tuned by varying the diameter of the nanodisk, making them promising candidates for nanophotonic applications.Radial breathing modeFar-fieldMembraneIntensityDark modeNear-fieldNanophotonicsMirror symmetryCathodoluminescenceNanostructure...
- We present a new method to identify connected components on a triangular grid. Triangular grids are, for example, used in atmosphere and climate models to discretize the horizontal dimension. Because they are unstructured, neighbor relations are not self-evident and identifying connected components is challenging. Our method addresses this challenge by involving the mathematical tool of cubulation. We show that cubulation allows one to map the 2-d cells of the triangular grid onto the vertices of the 3-d cells of a cubic grid. The latter is structured and so connected components can be readily identified on the cubic grid by previously developed software packages. We further implement our method in a python package that we name TriCCo and that is made available via pypi and gitlab. We document the package, demonstrate its application using cloud data from the ICON atmosphere model, and characterize its computational performance. This shows that TriCCo is ready for triangular grids with 100,000 cells, but that its speed and memory requirements need to be improved to analyse larger grids.Vertex connectivityDual graphEdge connectivityClimateMultidimensional ArrayPythonClimate modelSoftwareGraphOpen source...
- We quantify the relative importance of environmental quenching versus pre-processing in $z\sim1$ clusters by analysing the infalling galaxy population in the outskirts of 15 galaxy clusters at $0.8<z<1.4$ drawn from the GOGREEN and GCLASS surveys. We find significant differences between the infalling galaxies and a control sample; in particular, an excess of massive quiescent galaxies in the infalling region. These massive infalling galaxies likely reside in larger dark matter haloes than similar-mass control galaxies because they have twice as many satellite galaxies. Furthermore, these satellite galaxies are distributed in an NFW profile with a larger scale radius compared to the satellites of the control galaxies. Based on these findings, we conclude that it may not be appropriate to use 'field' galaxies as a substitute for infalling pre-cluster galaxies when calculating the efficiency and mass dependency of environmental quenching in high redshift clusters. By comparing the quiescent fraction of infalling galaxies at $1<R/R_{200}<3$ to the cluster sample ($R/R_{200}<1$) we find that almost all quiescent galaxies with masses $>10^{11}M_{\odot}$ were quenched prior to infall, whilst up to half of lower mass galaxies were environmentally quenched after passing the virial radius. This means most of the massive quiescent galaxies in $z\sim1$ clusters were self-quenched or pre-processed prior to infall.GalaxyCluster of galaxiesQuenchingSatellite galaxyInfall regionField galaxyStellar agesProtoclustersStellar massMassive cluster...
- Using the state-of-the-art suite of hydrodynamic simulations Simba, as well as its dark-matter-only counterpart, we study the impact of the presence of baryons and of different stellar/AGN feedback mechanisms on large-scale structure, halo density profiles, and on the abundance of different baryonic phases within halos and in the intergalactic medium (IGM). The unified picture that emerges from our analysis is that the main physical drivers shaping the distribution of matter at all scales are star formation-driven galactic outflows at $z>2$ for lower mass halos and AGN jets at $z<2$ in higher mass halos. Feedback suppresses the baryon mass function with time relative to the halo mass function, and it even impacts the halo mass function itself at the ~20% level, particularly evacuating the centres and enhancing dark matter just outside halos. At early epochs baryons pile up in the centres of halos, but by late epochs and particularly in massive systems gas has mostly been evacuated from within the inner halo. AGN jets are so efficient at such evacuation that at low redshifts the baryon fraction within $\sim 10^{12}-10^{13} \, \rm M_{\odot}$ halos is only 25% of the cosmic baryon fraction, mostly in stars. The baryon fraction enclosed in a sphere around such halos approaches the cosmic value $\Omega_{\rm b}/\Omega_{\rm m}$ only at 10-20 virial radii. As a result, 87% of the baryonic mass in the Universe lies in the IGM at $z=0$, with 67% being in the form of warm-hot IGM ($T>10^5 \, \rm K$).Halo mass functionVirial massCircumgalactic mediumAGN jetsActive Galactic NucleiIntergalactic mediumInterstellar mediumCoolingStarStar formation...
- In this paper, we investigate the direct and indirect stability of locally coupled wave equations with local viscous damping on cylindrical and non-regular domains without any geometric control condition. If only one equation is damped, we prove that the energy of our system decays polynomially with the rate $t^{-\frac{1}{2}}$ if the two waves have the same speed of propagation, and with rate $t^{-\frac{1}{3}}$ if the two waves do not propagate at the same speed. Otherwise, in case of two damped equations, we prove a polynomial energy decay rate of order $t^{-1}$.Wave equationDecay rateEnergy
- In this paper we consider the modular properties of generalised Gibbs ensembles in the Ising model, realised as a theory of one free massless fermion. The Gibbs ensembles are given by adding chemical potentials to chiral charges corresponding to the KdV conserved quantities. (They can also be thought of as simple models for extended characters for W-algebras). The eigenvalues and Gibbs ensembles for the charges can be easily calculated exactly using their expression as bilinears in the fermion fields. We re-derive the constant term in the charges, previously found by zeta-function regularisation, from modular properties. We expand the Gibbs ensembles as a power series in the chemical potentials and find the modular properties of the corresponding expectation values of polynomials of KdV charges. This leads us to an asymptotic expansion of the Gibbs ensemble calculated in the opposite channel. We obtain the same asymptotic expansion using Dijkgraaf's results for chiral partition functions. By considering the corresponding TBA calculation, we are led to a conjecture for the exact closed-form expression of the GGE in the opposite channel. This has the form of a trace over multiple copies of the fermion Fock space. We give analytic and numerical evidence supporting our conjecture.Generalized Gibbs ensembleModular formPartition functionTorusFree fermionsExpectation ValueKorteweg-de Vries equationAsymptotic expansionPrimary fieldThermodynamic Bethe Ansatz...
- In this paper I have proposed a method to find the major pixel intensity inside the text and thresholding an image accordingly to make it easier to be used for optical character recognition (OCR) models. In our method, instead of editing whole image, I are removing all other features except the text boundaries and the color filling them. In this approach, the grayscale intensity of the letters from the input image are used as one of thresholding parameters. The performance of the developed model is finally validated with input images, with and without image processing followed by OCR by PyTesseract. Based on the results obtained, it can be observed that this algorithm can be efficiently applied in the field of image processing for OCR.Optical Character RecognitionImage ProcessingIntensityAlgorithmsField...
- A family $\mathcal{F}$ of subsets of $\{1,\dots,n\}$ is called $k$-wise intersecting if any $k$ members of $\mathcal{F}$ have non-empty intersection, and it is called maximal $k$-wise intersecting if no family strictly containing $\mathcal{F}$ satisfies this condition. We show that for each $k\geq 2$ there is a maximal $k$-wise intersecting family of size $O(2^{n/(k-1)})$. This matches the best known lower bound up to a constant factor, and (partially) answers an old question of Erd\H{o}s and Kleitman, recently studied by Hendrey, Lund, Tompkins, and Tran.Lower and upperEmpty Lattice ApproximationIsomorphismOrder of magnitudeContradiction...
- We prove that if $H$ is a subgraph of a complete multipartite graph $G$, then $H$ contains a connected component $H'$ satisfying $|E(H')||E(G)|\geq |E(H)|^2$. We use this to prove that every three-coloring of the edges of a complete graph contains a monochromatic connected subgraph with at least $1/6$ of the edges. We further show that such a coloring has a monochromatic circuit with a fraction $1/6-o(1)$ of the edges. This verifies a conjecture of Conlon and Tyomkyn.GraphMultipartite graphBipartite networkSparsityAttentionLower and upperNonnegativeCountingCauchy-Schwarz inequalityDouble star...
- Warm dark matter (WDM) can potentially explain small-scale observations that currently challenge the cold dark matter (CDM) model, as warm particles suppress structure formation due to free-streaming effects. Observing small-scale matter distribution provides a valuable way to distinguish between CDM and WDM. In this work, we use observations from the Dark Energy Survey and PanSTARRS1, which observe 270 Milky-Way satellites after completeness corrections. We test WDM models by comparing the number of satellites in the Milky Way with predictions derived from the Semi-Analytical SubHalo Inference ModelIng (SASHIMI) code, which we develop based on the extended Press-Schechter formalism and subhalos' tidal evolution prescription. We robustly rule out WDM with masses lighter than 4.4 keV at 95% confidence level for the Milky-Way halo mass of $10^{12} M_\odot$. The limits are a weak function of the (yet uncertain) Milky-Way halo mass, and vary as $m_{\rm WDM}>3.6$-$5.1$ keV for $(0.6$-$2.0) \times 10^{12} M_\odot$. For the sterile neutrinos that form a subclass of WDM, we obtain the constraints of $m_{\nu_s}>11.6$ keV for the Milky-Way halo mass of $10^{12} M_{\odot}$. These results based on SASHIMI do not rely on any assumptions of galaxy formation physics or are not limited by numerical resolution. The models, therefore, offer a robust and fast way to constrain the WDM models. By applying a satellite forming condition, however, we can rule out the WDM mass lighter than 9.0 keV for the Milky-Way halo mass of $10^{12} M_\odot$.Dark matter subhaloWarm dark matterVirial massCold dark matterMilky Way haloWDM particlesGalaxy FormationWDM particle massHalo accretion historyExtended Press-Schechter formalism...
- We present NeSF, a method for producing 3D semantic fields from posed RGB images alone. In place of classical 3D representations, our method builds on recent work in implicit neural scene representations wherein 3D structure is captured by point-wise functions. We leverage this methodology to recover 3D density fields upon which we then train a 3D semantic segmentation model supervised by posed 2D semantic maps. Despite being trained on 2D signals alone, our method is able to generate 3D-consistent semantic maps from novel camera poses and can be queried at arbitrary 3D points. Notably, NeSF is compatible with any method producing a density field, and its accuracy improves as the quality of the density field improves. Our empirical analysis demonstrates comparable quality to competitive 2D and 3D semantic segmentation baselines on complex, realistically rendered synthetic scenes. Our method is the first to offer truly dense 3D scene segmentations requiring only 2D supervision for training, and does not require any semantic input for inference on novel scenes. We encourage the readers to visit the project website.Semantic segmentationPoint cloudArchitectureGround truthInferenceSparsityHidden layerRegularizationCalibrationAblation...
- Large-scale pre-trained models (PTMs) such as BERT and GPT have recently achieved great success and become a milestone in the field of artificial intelligence (AI). Owing to sophisticated pre-training objectives and huge model parameters, large-scale PTMs can effectively capture knowledge from massive labeled and unlabeled data. By storing knowledge into huge parameters and fine-tuning on specific tasks, the rich knowledge implicitly encoded in huge parameters can benefit a variety of downstream tasks, which has been extensively demonstrated via experimental verification and empirical analysis. It is now the consensus of the AI community to adopt PTMs as backbone for downstream tasks rather than learning models from scratch. In this paper, we take a deep look into the history of pre-training, especially its special relation with transfer learning and self-supervised learning, to reveal the crucial position of PTMs in the AI development spectrum. Further, we comprehensively review the latest breakthroughs of PTMs. These breakthroughs are driven by the surge of computational power and the increasing availability of data, towards four important directions: designing effective architectures, utilizing rich contexts, improving computational efficiency, and conducting interpretation and theoretical analysis. Finally, we discuss a series of open problems and research directions of PTMs, and hope our view can inspire and advance the future study of PTMs.AttentionComputational linguisticsArchitectureDeep learningSelf-supervised learningOptimizationConvolution Neural NetworkDeep Neural NetworksMachine translationNatural language...
- Let $T$ be an arbitrary phylogenetic tree with $n$ leaves. It is well-known that the average quartet distance between two assignments of taxa to the leaves of $T$ is $\frac 23 \binom{n}{4}$. However, a longstanding conjecture of Bandelt and Dress asserts that $(\frac 23 +o(1))\binom{n}{4}$ is also the {\em maximum} quartet distance between two assignments. While Alon, Naves, and Sudakov have shown this indeed holds for caterpillar trees, the general case of the conjecture is still unresolved. A natural extension is when partial information is given: the two assignments are known to coincide on a given subset of taxa. The partial information setting is biologically relevant as the location of some taxa (species) in the phylogenetic tree may be known, and for other taxa it might not be known. What can we then say about the average and maximum quartet distance in this more general setting? Surprisingly, even determining the {\em average} quartet distance becomes a nontrivial task in the partial information setting and determining the maximum quartet distance is even more challenging, as these turn out to be dependent of the structure of $T$. In this paper we prove nontrivial asymptotic bounds that are sometimes tight for the average quartet distance in the partial information setting. We also show that the Bandelt and Dress conjecture does not generally hold under the partial information setting. Specifically, we prove that there are cases where the average and maximum quartet distance substantially differ.Information setOptimizationSubtypingRandom treeGraphLinear optimizationNP-hard problemCountingIsomorphismProbability...
- The recent discoveries in the theory of diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) that stem from first-principle kinetic plasma simulations are discussed. When ion acceleration is efficient, the back-reaction of non-thermal particles and self-generated magnetic fields becomes prominent and leads to both enhanced shock compression and particle spectra significantly softer than those predicted by the standard test-particle DSA theory. These results are discussed in the context of the non-thermal phenomenology of astrophysical shocks, with a special focus on the remnant of SN1006.Cosmic rayDiffusive shock accelerationSupernova remnantMagnetohydrodynamic turbulencePrecursorSupernova 1006Parallel ShockCosmic ray spectrumMagnetic pressureMach number...
- Reinhard Schlickeiser has made groundbreaking contributions to various aspects of blazar physics, including diffusive shock acceleration, the theory of synchrotron radiation, the production of gamma-rays through Compton scattering in various astrophysical sources, etc. This paper, describing the development of a self-consistent shock-in-jet model for blazars with a synchrotron mirror feature, is therefore an appropriate contribution to a Special Issue in honor of Reinhard Schlickeiser's 70th birthday. The model is based on our previous development of a self-consistent shock-in-jet model with relativistic thermal and non-thermal particle distributions evaluated via Monte-Carlo simulations of diffusive shock acceleration, and time-dependent radiative transport. This model has been very successful in modeling spectral variability patterns of several blazars, but has difficulties describing orphan flares, i.e., high-energy flares without a significant counterpart in the low-frequency (synchrotron) radiation component. As a solution, this paper investigates the possibility of a synchrotron mirror component within the shock-in-jet model. It is demonstrated that orphan flares result naturally in this scenario. The model's applicability to a recently observed orphan gamma-ray flare in the blazar 3C279 is discussed and it is found that only orphan flares with mild ($\lesssim$ a factor of 2 - 3) enhancements of the Compton dominance can be reproduced in a synchrotron-mirror scenario, if no additional parameter changes are invoked.SynchrotronBlazarSynchrotron radiationLight curveDiffusive shock accelerationSpectral energy distributionActive Galactic NucleiCoolingRelativistic electronPitch angle...
- I apply the jittering jets in cooling flow scenario to explain the perpendicular to each other and almost coeval two pairs of bubbles in the cooling flow galaxy cluster RBS 797, and conclude that the interaction of the jets with the cold dense clumps that feed the supermassive black hole (SMBH) takes place in the zone where the gravitational influence of the SMBH and that of the cluster are about equal. According to the jittering jets in cooling flow scenario jets uplift and entrain cold and dense clumps, impart the clumps velocity perpendicular to the original jets' direction, and `drop' them closer to the jets' axis. The angular momentum of these clumps is at a very high angle to the original jets' axis. When these clumps feed the SMBH in the next outburst the new jets' axis is at a high angle to the axis of the first pair of jets. I apply this scenario to recent observations that show the two perpendicular pairs of bubbles in RBS 797 to have a small age difference of <10Myr, and conclude that the jets-clumps interaction takes place in a distance of about ~10-100 pc from the SMBH. Interestingly, in this zone the escape velocity from the SMBH is about equal to the sound speed of the intracluster medium (ICM). I discuss the implications of this finding.Supermassive black holeCooling flowIntra-cluster mediumOptical burstsAccretion diskHot gasSpeed of soundActive Galactic NucleiCluster of galaxiesEscape velocity...
- We present spectral and temporal properties of all the thermonuclear X-ray bursts observed from Aql X-1 by the Neutron Star Interior and Composition Explorer (NICER) between 2017 July and 2021 April. This is the first systematic investigation of a large sample of type I X-ray bursts from Aql X-1 with improved sensitivity at low energies. We detect 22 X-ray bursts including two short recurrence burst events in which the separation was only 451 s and 496 s. We perform time resolved spectroscopy of the bursts using the fixed and scaled background (f_a method) approaches. We show that the use of a scaling factor to the pre-burst emission is the statistically preferred model in about 68% of all the spectra compared to the fixed background approach. Typically the f_a values are clustered around 1-3, but can reach up to 11 in a burst where photospheric radius expansion is observed. Such f_a values indicate a very significant increase in the pre-burst emission especially at around the peak flux moments of the bursts. We show that the use of the f_a factor alters the best fit spectral parameters of the burst emission. Finally, we employed a reflection model instead of scaling the pre-burst emission. We show that reflection models also do fit the spectra and improve the goodness of the fits. In all cases we see that the disc is highly ionized by the burst emission and the fraction of the reprocessed emission to the incident burst flux is typically clustered around 20%.X-ray burstsNeutron starMass accretion rateAccretion diskSoft X-rayOptical burstsIonizationIntensityTime ResolvedCooling...
- Combining discrete probability distributions and combinatorial optimization problems with neural network components has numerous applications but poses several challenges. We propose Implicit Maximum Likelihood Estimation (I-MLE), a framework for end-to-end learning of models combining discrete exponential family distributions and differentiable neural components. I-MLE is widely applicable as it only requires the ability to compute the most probable states and does not rely on smooth relaxations. The framework encompasses several approaches such as perturbation-based implicit differentiation and recent methods to differentiate through black-box combinatorial solvers. We introduce a novel class of noise distributions for approximating marginals via perturb-and-MAP. Moreover, we show that I-MLE simplifies to maximum likelihood estimation when used in some recently studied learning settings that involve combinatorial solvers. Experiments on several datasets suggest that I-MLE is competitive with and often outperforms existing approaches which rely on problem-specific relaxations.Maximum likelihood estimationStatistical estimatorRelaxationOptimizationNeural networkVariational autoencodersPolytopeMaximum likelihoodTraining setLatent variable...
- Non-trivial inflaton self-interactions can yield calculable signatures of primordial non-Gaussianity that are measurable in cosmic surveys. Surprisingly, we find that the phase transition to slow-roll eternal inflation is often incalculable in the same models. Instead, this transition is sensitive to the non-Gaussian tail of the distribution of scalar fluctuations, which probes physics inside the horizon, potentially beyond the cutoff scale of the Effective Field Theory of Inflation. We demonstrate this fact directly by calculating non-Gaussian corrections to Stochastic Inflation within the framework of Soft de Sitter Effective Theory, from which we derive the associated probability distribution for the scalar fluctuations. We find parameter space consistent with current observations and weak coupling at horizon crossing in which the large fluctuations relevant for eternal inflation can only be determined by appealing to a UV completion. We also show this breakdown of the perturbative description is required for the de Sitter entropy to reflect the number of de Sitter microstates.InflationDe Sitter spaceEternal inflationEffective field theoryEntropyUnitarityPrimordial Non-GaussianitiesSlow-roll inflationHorizonBorn-Infeld action...
- We refute the Probabilistic Universal Graph Conjecture of Harms, Wild, and Zamaraev, which states that a hereditary graph property admits a constant-size probabilistic universal graph if and only if it is stable and has at most factorial speed. Our counter-example follows from the existence of a sequence of $n \times n$ Boolean matrices $M_n$, such that their public-coin randomized communication complexity tends to infinity, while the randomized communication complexity of every $n^{1/4}\times n^{1/4}$ submatrix of $M_n$ is bounded by a universal constant.Communication complexityGraphGraph propertyBinary treeAlice and BobOf starsRankBernstein's inequalityHereditary propertyStar...
- The general solution of the anomaly consistency condition (Wess-Zumino equation) has been found recently for Yang-Mills gauge theory. The general form of the counterterms arising in the renormalization of gauge invariant operators (Kluberg-Stern and Zuber conjecture) and in gauge theories of the Yang-Mills type with non power counting renormalizable couplings has also been worked out in any number of spacetime dimensions. This Physics Report is devoted to reviewing in a self-contained manner these results and their proofs. This involves computing cohomology groups of the differential introduced by Becchi, Rouet, Stora and Tyutin, with the sources of the BRST variations of the fields ("antifields") included in the problem. Applications of this computation to other physical questions (classical deformations of the action, conservation laws) are also considered. The general algebraic techniques developed in the Report can be applied to other gauge theories, for which relevant references are given.CohomologyGauge theoryRenormalizationGauge symmetryPower countingNoether identitiesAuxiliary fieldCommutantYang-Mills theoryGauge transformation...
- Whether the Cygnus X complex consists of one physically connected region of star formation or of multiple independent regions projected close together on the sky has been debated for decades. The main reason for this puzzling scenario is the lack of trustworthy distance measurements. We aim to understand the structure and dynamics of the star-forming regions toward Cygnus X by accurate distance and proper motion measurements. To measure trigonometric parallaxes, we observed 6.7 GHz methanol and 22 GHz water masers with the European VLBI Network and the Very Long Baseline Array. We measured the trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions of five massive star-forming regions toward the Cygnus X complex and report the following distances within a 10% accuracy: 1.30+-0.07 kpc for W 75N, 1.46^{+0.09}_{-0.08} kpc for DR 20, 1.50^{+0.08}_{-0.07} kpc for DR 21, 1.36^{+0.12}_{-0.11} kpc for IRAS20290+4052, and 3.33+-0.11kpc for AFGL 2591. While the distances of W 75N, DR 20, DR 21, and IRAS 20290+4052 are consistent with a single distance of 1.40+-0.08 kpc for the Cygnus X complex, AFGL 2591 is located at a much greater distance than previously assumed. The space velocities of the four star-forming regions in the Cygnus X complex do not suggest an expanding Stroemgren sphere.MaserParallaxProper motionStar-forming regionWater maserVery Long Baseline ArrayX-regionEuropean VLBI NetworkIRASQuasar...
- We find the set of generalized symmetries associated with the free graviton theory in four dimensions. These are generated by gauge invariant topological operators that violate Haag duality in ring-like regions. As expected from general QFT grounds, we find a set of ``electric'' and a dual set of ``magnetic'' topological operators and compute their algebra. To do so, we describe the theory using phase space gauge-invariant electric and magnetic dual variables constructed out of the curvature tensor. Electric and magnetic fields satisfy a set of constraints equivalent to the ones of a stress tensor of a $3d$ CFT. The constraints give place to a group $\mathbb{R}^{20}$ of topological operators that are charged under space-time symmetries. Finally, we discuss similarities and differences between linearized gravity and tensor gauge theories that have been introduced recently in the context of fractonic systems in condensed matter physics.GravitonDs mesonFractonGauge theoryWilson loopLinearized gravityDualityGauge transformationCurvature tensorGauge field...
- We study the effects of a magnetic field on the chaotic dynamics of a string with endpoints on the boundary of an asymptotically AdS$_5$ space with black hole. We study Poincar\'e sections and compute the Lyapunov exponents for the string perturbed from the static configuration, for two different orientations, with position of the endpoints on the boundary orthogonal and parallel to the magnetic field. We find that the magnetic field stabilizes the string dynamics, with the largest Lyapunov exponent remaining below the Maldacena-Shenker-Stanford bound.Black holeOrientationAnti de Sitter spaceEinstein field equationsBlack hole horizonChaosHorizonEigenfunctionWorldsheetTwo-point correlation function...
- In this article we discuss how one can systematically construct the point particle theories that realize the vanishing one-loop cosmological constant without the bose-fermi cancellation. Our construction is based on the asymmetric (or non-geometric) orbifolds of supersymmetric string vacua. Using the building blocks of their partition functions and their modular properties, we construct the theories which would be naturally identified with certain point particle theories including infinite mass spectra, but not with string vacua. They are obviously non-supersymmetric due to the mismatch of the bosonic and fermionic degrees of freedom at each mass level. Nevertheless, it is found that the one-loop cosmological constant vanishes, after removing the parameter playing the role of the UV cut-off. As concrete examples we demonstrate the constructions of the models based on the toroidal asymmetric orbifolds with the Lie algebra lattices (Englert-Neveu lattices) by making use of the analysis given in [26].OrbifoldPartition functionCosmological constantLattice (order)SupersymmetricCovarianceTorusMass spectrumUnitaritySuperstring theory...
- We study asymptotically flat spacetimes in five spacetime dimensions by Hamiltonian methods, focusing on spatial infinity and keeping all asymptotically relevant nonlinearities in the transformation laws and in the charge-generators. Precise boundary conditions that lead to a consistent variational principle are given. We show that the algebra of asymptotic symmetries, which had not been uncovered before, is a nonlinear deformation of the semi-direct product of the Lorentz algebra by an abelian algebra involving four independent (and not just one) arbitrary functions of the angles on the $3$-sphere at infinity, with non trivial central charges. The nonlinearities occur in the Poisson brackets of the boost generators with themselves and with the other generators. They would be invisible in a linearized treatment of infinity.HamiltonianGauge transformationDiffeomorphismCentral chargeVariational principleSupergravityLorentz boostSymmetry algebraGravitational fieldsGauge fixing...
- We investigate the low-energy dynamics of systems with pseudo-spontaneously broken $U(1)$ symmetry and Goldstone phase relaxation. We construct a hydrodynamic framework which is able to capture these, in principle independent, effects. We consider two generalisations of the standard holographic superfluid model by adding an explicit breaking of the $U(1)$ symmetry by either sourcing the charged bulk scalar or by introducing an explicit mass term for the bulk gauge field. We find agreement between the hydrodynamic dispersion relations and the quasi-normal modes of both holographic models. We verify that phase relaxation arises only due to the breaking of the inherent Goldstone shift symmetry. The interplay of a weak explicit breaking of the $U(1)$ and phase relaxation renders the DC electric conductivity finite but does not result in a Drude-like peak. In this scenario we show the validity of a universal relation, found in the context of translational symmetry breaking, between the phase relaxation rate, the mass of the pseudo-Goldstone and the Goldstone diffusivity.RelaxationGoldstone bosonSuperfluidSymmetry breakingGauge fieldSpontaneous symmetry breakingQuasi-normal modesHolographic principleField theoryDirect current...