- Transformation of CMB photons into light pseudoscalar particles at post big bang nucleosynthesis epoch is considered. Using the present day value of a large scale magnetic field to estimate it at earlier cosmological epochs, the oscillation probability of photons into light pseudoscalar particles with an account of coherence breaking in cosmological plasma is calculated. Demanding that the photon transformation does not lead to an exceedingly large CMB spectral distortion and temperature anisotropy, the constraints on the coupling constant of axion like particles to photons, $ g_{\phi\gamma} B \lesssim (10^{-15} - 10^{-12}) \textrm{nG}\times \textrm{GeV}^{-1}$, are found for the axion like particle mass in the interval $10^{-25}$ eV $\lesssim m_{\phi}\lesssim 10^{-5}$ eV, where $B$ is the strength of the large scale magnetic field at the present time. Our results update the previously obtained ones since we use the density matrix formalism which is more accurate than the wave function approximation for the description of oscillations with an essential coherence breaking. In the axion like particle mass range $10^{-25}$ eV $\lesssim m_{\phi}\lesssim 10^{-14}$ eV, weaker limits, by at least 2 orders of magnitude $g_{\phi\gamma} B \lesssim 10^{-11}\textrm{nG}\times \textrm{GeV}^{-1}$, are obtained in comparison with the wave function approximation. In the mass range $10^{-14}$ eV $\lesssim m_{\phi}\lesssim 10^{-5}$ eV, on the other hand, limits that are stronger, by more than an order of magnitude are obtained. Our results are derived by using upper limits on spectral distortion parameter $\mu$ and temperature anisotropy $\Delta T/T$ found by COBE and expected sensitivities by PIXIE/PRISM.Axion-like particleIndex of refractionALP parameter spaceCompton scatteringIonization fractionAbsorptivityAxionKinetic equationQuantum electrodynamicsBig bang nucleosynthesis...
- We study implications of exact conformal invariance of scalar quantum field theories at the critical point in non-integer dimensions for the evolution kernels of the light-ray operators in physical (integer) dimensions. We demonstrate that all constraints due the conformal symmetry are encoded in the form of the generators of the collinear sl(2) subgroup. Two of them, S_- and S_0, can be fixed at all loops in terms of the evolution kernel, while the generator of special conformal transformations, S_+, receives nontrivial corrections which can be calculated order by order in perturbation theory. Provided that the generator S_+ is known at the k-1 loop order, one can fix the evolution kernel in physical dimension to the k-loop accuracy up to terms that are invariant with respect to the tree-level generators. The invariant parts can easily be restored from the anomalous dimensions. The method is illustrated on two examples: The O(n)-symmetric phi^4 theory in d=4 to the three-loop accuracy, and the su(n) matrix phi^3 theory in d=6 to the two-loop accuracy. We expect that the same technique can be used in gauge theories e.g. in QCD.Anomalous dimensionEvolution equationConformal invarianceSubgroupPerturbation theorySpecial conformal transformationCritical pointConformal symmetryQuantum field theoryGauge theory...
- We present a variational principle for relativistic hydrodynamics with gauge-anomaly terms for a fluid coupled to an Abelian background gauge field. For this we utilize the Clebsch parametrization of the velocity field. We also set up the Hamiltonian formulation and the canonical framework for the theory. While the equations of motion only involve the density and velocity fields, i.e., the Clebsch potentials only appear in the combination which is the velocity field, the generators of symmetry transformations (including the Hamiltonian) depend explicitly on one of the Clebsch potentials, if the background field is time-dependent. For the special case of time-independent background fields, this feature is absent.Quantum anomalyGauge transformationPoisson bracketConstitutive relationGauge invarianceQuantum field theoryPerfect fluidPoisson algebraHamiltonian reductionDiffeomorphism...
- The properties of the extremely strong magnetic fields of neutron stars affect in a unique way their evolution and the associated phenomenology. Due to the lack of constraints from direct observations, our understanding of the magnetic field configuration in neutron star interiors depends on the progress in theoretical modelling. Here we discuss the effort in building models of magnetized neutron stars focussing on some of the recent results. In particular, we comment on the instability of purely poloidal and purely toroidal magnetic field configurations and on the evidence in favour of the so-called twisted-torus solutions. We conclude with an outlook on the present status of the field and future directions.Neutron starMagnetized neutron starInstabilityGravitational waveMagnetohydrodynamicsMagnetic energyStarEllipticityDissipationMagnetar...
- Since reionization prevents star formation in most halos below 3 x 10^9 solar masses, dwarf galaxies only populate a fraction of existing dark matter halos. We use hydrodynamic cosmological simulations of the Local Group to study the discriminating factors for galaxy formation in the early Universe and connect them to the present-day properties of galaxies and halos. A combination of selection effects related to reionization, and the subsequent evolution of halos in different environments, introduces strong biases between the population of halos that host dwarf galaxies, and the total halo population. Halos that host galaxies formed earlier and are more concentrated. In addition, halos more affected by tidal stripping are more likely to host a galaxy for a given mass or maximum circular velocity, vmax, today. Consequently, satellite halos are populated more frequently than field halos, and satellite halos of 10^8 - 10^9 solar masses or vmax of 12 - 20 km/s, similar to the Local Group dwarf spheroidals, have experienced a greater than average reduction in both mass and vmax after infall. They are on closer, more radial orbits with higher infall velocities and earlier infall times. Together, these effects make dwarf galaxies highly biased tracers of the underlying dark matter distribution.ReionizationGalaxyLocal groupStar formationDwarf galaxyDark matter haloStarHydrodynamical simulationsTidal strippingHost galaxy...
- If a primordial magnetic field in the universe has non-zero helicity, the violation of parity symmetry results in non-zero correlations between cosmic microwave background temperature and B-mode polarization. In this paper we derive approximations to the relevant microwave background power spectra arising from a helical magnetic field. Using the cross-power spectrum between temperature and B-mode polarization from the WMAP nine-year data, we set a 95\% confidence level upper limit on the helicity amplitude to be 10 nG$^2$ Gpc for helicity spectral index $n_H = -1.9$, for a cosmological magnetic field with effective field strength of 3 nG and a power-law index $n_B = -2.9$ near the scale-invariant value. Future microwave background polarization maps with greater sensitivity will be able to detect the helicity of an inflationary magnetic field well below the maximum value allowed by microwave background constraints on the magnetic field amplitude.Power spectrumVorticityCosmologyParity violationCosmological modelHelicityCosmic microwave backgroundDiffusion dampingCutoff scaleAngular power spectrum...
- Force-Free Electrodynamics (FFE) describes magnetically dominated relativistic plasma via non-linear equations for the electromagnetic field alone. Such plasma is thought to play a key role in the physics of pulsars and active black holes. Despite its simple covariant formulation, FFE has primarily been studied in 3+1 frameworks, where spacetime is split into space and time. In this article we systematically develop the theory of force-free magnetospheres taking a spacetime perspective. Using a suite of spacetime tools and techniques (notably exterior calculus) we cover 1) the basics of the theory, 2) exact solutions that demonstrate the extraction and transport of the rotational energy of a compact object (in the case of a black hole, the Blandford-Znajek mechanism), 3) the behavior of current sheets, 4) the general theory of stationary, axisymmetric magnetospheres and 5) general properties of pulsar and black hole magnetospheres. We thereby synthesize, clarify and generalize known aspects of the physics of force-free magnetospheres, while also introducing several new results.HorizonStarRegularizationTwo-formDifferential formInclinationDifferential form of degree threeOrientationSpinning Black HoleConserved quantities...
- The soft X-ray flux produced by solar axions in the Earth's magnetic field is evaluated in the context of ESA's XMM-Newton observatory. Recent calculations of the scattering of axion-conversion X-rays suggest that the sunward magnetosphere could be an observable source of 0.2-10 keV photons. For XMM-Newton, any conversion X-ray intensity will be seasonally modulated by virtue of the changing visibility of the sunward magnetic field region. A simple model of the geomagnetic field is combined with the ephemeris of XMM-Newton to predict the seasonal variation of the conversion X-ray intensity. This model is compared with stacked XMM-Newton blank sky datasets from which point sources have been systematically removed. Remarkably, a seasonally varying X-ray background signal is observed. The EPIC count rates are in the ratio of their X-ray grasps, indicating a non-instrumental, external photon origin, with significances of 11(pn), 4(MOS1) and 5(MOS2) sigma. After examining the constituent observations spatially, temporally and in terms of the cosmic X-ray background, we conclude that this variable signal is consistent with the conversion of solar axions in the Earth's magnetic field. The spectrum is consistent with a solar axion spectrum dominated by bremsstrahlung- and Compton-like processes, i.e. axion-electron coupling dominates over axion-photon coupling and the peak of the axion spectrum is below 1 keV. A value of 2.2e-22 /GeV is derived for the product of the axion-photon and axion-electron coupling constants, for an axion mass in the micro-eV range. Comparisons with limits derived from white dwarf cooling may not be applicable, as these refer to axions in the 0.01 eV range. Preliminary results are given of a search for axion-conversion X-ray lines, in particular the predicted features due to silicon, sulphur and iron in the solar core, and the 14.4 keV transition line from 57Fe.Solar axionIntensityXMM-Newton EPIC cameraXMM-NewtonMoS2ThermalisationSolar axion fluxBlank sky datasetAxion massHigh Earth orbit...
- We identify a weak line at $E \sim 3.5$ keV in X-ray spectra of the Andromeda galaxy and the Perseus galaxy cluster -- two dark matter-dominated objects, for which there exist deep exposures with the XMM-Newton X-ray observatory. Such a line was not previously known to be present in the spectra of galaxies or galaxy clusters. Although the line is weak, it has a clear tendency to become stronger towards the centers of the objects; it is stronger for the Perseus cluster than for the Andromeda galaxy and is absent in the spectrum of a very deep "blank sky" dataset. Although for individual objects it is hard to exclude the possibility that the feature is due to an instrumental effect or an atomic line of anomalous brightness, it is consistent with the behavior of a line originating from the decay of dark matter particles. Future detections or non-detections of this line in multiple astrophysical targets may help to reveal its nature.Andromeda galaxyDark matterPerseus ClusterCluster of galaxiesXMM-NewtonDark matter decayEPIC PN cameraXMM-Newton MOS cameraDM decay lineNGC 1275...
- Assuming that mass scales arise in nature only via dimensional transmutation, we extend the dimension-less Standard Model by adding vector-like fermions charged under a new strong gauge interaction. Their non-perturbative dynamics generates a mass scale that is transmitted to the elementary Higgs boson by electro-weak gauge interactions. In its minimal version the model has the same number of parameters as the Standard Model, predicts that the electro-weak symmetry gets broken, predicts new-physics in the multi-TeV region and is compatible with all existing bounds, provides two Dark Matter candidates stable thanks to accidental symmetries: a composite scalar in the adjoint of SU(2)_L and a composite singlet fermion; their thermal relic abundance is predicted to be comparable to the measured cosmological DM abundance. Some models of this type allow for extra Yukawa couplings; DM candidates remain even if explicit masses are added.Higgs boson massStandard ModelTechnicolorCondensationElectroweak interactionQuadratic divergenceVector mesonYukawa interactionVacuum expectation valueHiggs boson...
- We consider some implications of X-ray lines from certain astronomical objects as potential effects of dark matter decay in the context of the scotogenic model, where neutrinos acquire mass radiatively via one-loop interactions with dark matter. As an example, we focus on the 3.5 keV line recently detected in the X-ray spectra of galaxy clusters, assuming that it stands future scrutiny. We explore the scenario in which the line originates from the slow decay of fermionic dark matter in the model. After obtaining a number of benchmark points representing the parameter space consistent with the new data and various other constraints, we make predictions on several observables in leptonic processes. They include the effective Majorana mass in neutrinoless double-beta decay, the sum of neutrino masses, and the rate of flavor-changing decay mu -> e gamma, as well as the cross sections of e+e- collisions into final states containing nonstandard particles in the model. These are testable in ongoing or future experiments and thus offer means to probe the scotogenic scenario studied.Dark matterStandard ModelYukawa couplingNeutrino oscillationsBranching ratioBaryon acoustic oscillationsCosmic microwave backgroundVacuum expectation valueHiggs bosonAbundance...
- Massive gravitons in effective field theories can be recovered by extending General Relativity and taking into account generic functions of the curvature invariants not necessarily linear in the Ricci scalar R. In particular, adopting the minimal extension of f(R) gravity, an effective field theory with a massive state is straightforwardly recovered. This approach allows to evade shortcomings like ghosts and discontinuities if a suitable choice of expansion parameters is performed. We show that the massive state can be identified with a massive graviton.GravitonEffective LagrangianGeneral relativityEffective field theoryDegree of freedomDark energyEffective theoryGravitational interactionCosmological constantScalar field...
- I briefly review the conceptual developments that led to the Standard Model and discuss some of its remarkable qualitative features. On the way, I draw attention to several puzzling aspects that are beyond the reach of our present understanding of the basic laws of physics.QuarkGauge fieldStrong interactionsWeak interactionQuantum chromodynamicsCondensationQuantum electrodynamicsGauge invarianceFlavourQuantum field theory...
- Landau's Fermi-liquid theory is the standard model for metals, characterized by the existence of electron quasiparticles near a Fermi surface as long as Landau's interaction parameters lie below critical values for instabilities. Recently, this fundamental paradigm has been challenged by physics of strong spin-orbit coupling although the concept of electron quasiparticles remains valid near the Fermi surface, where the Landau's Fermi-liquid theory fails to describe electromagnetic properties of this novel metallic state, referred to as Weyl metal. A novel ingredient is that such a Fermi surface encloses a Weyl point with definite chirality, referred to as a chiral Fermi surface, which can arise from breaking of either time reversal or inversion symmetry in systems with strong spin-orbit coupling, responsible for both Berry curvature and chiral anomaly. As a result, electromagnetic properties of the Weyl metallic state are described not by conventional Maxwell equations but by axion electrodynamics, where Maxwell equations are modified with a topological-in-origin spatially modulated $\theta(\bm{r}) \bm{E} \cdot \bm{B}$ term. This novel metallic state has been realized recently in Bi$_{1-x}$Sb$_{x}$ around $x \sim 3%$ under magnetic fields, where the Dirac spectrum appears around the critical point between the normal semiconducting ($x < 3%$) and topological semiconducting phases ($x > 3%$) and the time reversal symmetry breaking perturbation causes the Dirac point to split into a pair of Weyl points along the direction of the applied magnetic field for such a strong spin-orbit coupled system. In this review article, we discuss how the topological structure of both the Berry curvature and chiral anomaly (axion electrodynamics) gives rise to anomalous transport phenomena in Bi$_{1-x}$Sb$_{x}$ around $x \sim 3%$ under magnetic fields, modifying the Drude model of Landau's Fermi liquids.Boltzmann transport equationBerry phaseWeak antilocalizationMomentum spaceGrapheneTransport theoryAnomalous Hall EffectQuantum electrodynamicsEffective field theoryChern number...
- This review aims at a theoretical discussion of Dirac points in two-dimensional systems. Whereas Dirac points and Dirac fermions are prominent low-energy electrons in graphene (two-dimensional graphite), research on Dirac fermions in low-energy physics has spread beyond condensed-matter systems. In these alternative systems, a large versatility in the manipulation of the relevant band parameters can be achieved. This allows for a systematic study of the motion and different possible fusions of Dirac points, which are beyond the physical limits of graphene. We introduce the basic properties of Dirac fermions and the motion of Dirac points here and aim at a topological classification of these motions. The theoretical concepts are illustrated in particular model systems.HamiltonianWinding numberTime-reversal symmetryLandau levelTopological quantum numberWave vectorBrillouin zoneReciprocal spaceQuantum mechanicsTight-binding model...
- Motivated by the possibility of explaining the 3.5 keV line through dark matter decaying to axion-like particles that subsequently convert to photons, we study ALP-photon conversion for sightlines passing within 50 pc of the galactic centre. Conversion depends on the galactic centre magnetic field which is highly uncertain. For fields at low or mid-range of observational estimates (10--100 $\mu$G), no observable signal is possible. For fields at the high range of observational estimates (a pervasive poloidal mG field over the central 150 pc) it is possible to generate sufficient signal to explain recent observations of a 3.5 keV line in the galactic centre. In this scenario, the galactic centre line signal comes predominantly from the region with $z > 20$ pc, reconciling the results from the Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray telescopes. The dark matter to ALP to photon scenario also naturally predicts the non-observation of the 3.5 keV line in stacked galaxy spectra. We further explore predictions for the line flux in galaxies and suggest a set of galaxies that is optimised for observing the 3.5 keV line in this model.Field of viewElectronic densityCluster of galaxiesMilky WayRegularizationAndromeda galaxyLine of sightDark matter decaySagittarius A*Dwarf spheroidal galaxy...
- The scalar averaging approach to cosmology interprets dark energy as the growth of average, void-dominated, negative spatial curvature during the virialisation epoch, leaving the metric a priori unspecified, while models with a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) metric assume comoving spatial rigidity of metrical properties. The former predicts that voids are hyperbolic and that superclusters occupy positively curved space, and that a best-fit metric should be close to the void case modelled as a constant-curvature metric on a given time slice. Thus, comoving separations near superclusters should be compressed in comparison to the homogeneous case. We demonstrate this by measuring the two-point auto-correlation function on comoving scales in order to detect shifts in the baryonic acoustic oscillation (BAO) peak location for Large Red Galaxy (LRG) pairs of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. In tangential directions, subsets of pairs overlapping with superclusters or voids show the BAO peak. The tangential BAO peak location for overlap with Nadathur & Hotchkiss superclusters is 4.3\pm1.6 Mpc/h less than that for LRG pairs unselected for supercluster overlap, and 6.6\pm2.8 Mpc/h less than that of the complementary pairs. Liivamagi et al. superclusters give corresponding differences of 3.7\pm2.9 Mpc/h and 6.3\pm2.6 Mpc/h, respectively. We have found moderately significant evidence (Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests suggest very significant evidence) that the BAO peak location for supercluster-overlapping pairs is compressed by about 6% compared to that of the complementary sample, providing a potential challenge to FLRW models and a benchmark for predictions from backreaction models.Two-point correlation functionSloan Digital Sky SurveyLambda-CDM modelPeculiar velocityLine of sightStatisticsSuperclusterBaryon acoustic oscillationsCold dark matterComoving distance...
- This paper introduces a new publicly available numerical library for cosmology, Cosmo++. The library has been designed using object-oriented programming techniques, and fully implemented in C++. Cosmo++ introduces a unified interface for using most of the frequently used numerical methods in cosmology. Most of the features are implemented in Cosmo++ itself, while a part of the functionality is implemented by linking to other publicly available libraries. The most important features of the library are Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropies power spectrum and transfer function calculations, likelihood calculations, parameter space sampling tools, sky map simulations, and mask apodization. Cosmo++ also includes a few mathematical tools that are frequently used in numerical research in cosmology and beyond. A few simple examples are included in Cosmo++ to help the user understand the key features. The library has been fully tested, and we describe some of the important tests in this paper. Cosmo++ is publicly available at http://cosmo.grigoraslanyan.comPlanck missionPower spectrum of primordial density perturbationsCosmological parametersCovariance matrixCovarianceCosmic microwave backgroundLikelihood functionCold dark matterCMB power spectraWhite noise...
- We performed a deep search for radio synchrotron emissions induced by weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) annihilation or decay in six dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies of the Local Group. Observations were conducted with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) at 16 cm wavelength, with an rms sensitivity better than 0.05 mJy/beam in each field. In this work, we first discuss the uncertainties associated with the modeling of the expected signal, such as the shape of the dark matter (DM) profile and the dSph magnetic properties. We then investigate the possibility that point-sources detected in the proximity of the dSph optical center might be due to the emission from a DM cuspy profile. No evidence for an extended emission over a size of few arcmin (which is the DM halo size) has been detected. We present the associated bounds on the WIMP parameter space for different annihilation/decay final states and for different astrophysical assumptions. If the confinement of electrons and positrons in the dSph is such that the majority of their power is radiated within the dSph region, we obtain constraints on the WIMP annihilation rate which are well below the thermal value for masses up to few TeV. On the other hand, for conservative assumptions on the dSph magnetic properties, the bounds can be dramatically relaxed. We show however that, within the next 10 years and regardless of the astrophysical assumptions, it will be possible to progressively close in on the full parameter space of WIMPs by searching for radio signals in dSphs with SKA and its precursors.Dark Matter Density ProfileNavarro-Frenk-White profileDiffuse emissionRadio telescopeCarina DwarfTelescopesDark matter annihilationInverse ComptonHercules ConstellationMultidimensional Array...
- We simulate the adiabatic contraction of a dark matter (DM) distribution during the process of the star formation, paying particular attention to the phase space distribution of the DM particles after the contraction. Assuming the initial uniform density and Maxwellian distribution of DM velocities, we find that the number $n(r)$ of DM particles within the radius $r$ scales like $n(r) \propto r^{1.5}$, leading to the DM density profile $\rho\propto r^{-1.5}$, in agreement with the Liouville theorem and previous numerical studies. At the same time, the number of DM particles $\nu(r)$ with periastra smaller than $r$ is parametrically larger, $\nu(r) \propto r$, implying that many particles contributing at any given moment into the density $\rho(r)$ at small $r$ have very elongated orbits and spend most of their time at distances larger than $r$. This has implications for the capture of DM by stars in the process of their formation. As a concrete example we consider the case of primordial black holes (PBH). We show that accounting for very eccentric orbits boosts the amount of captured PBH by a factor of up to $2\times 10^3$ depending on the PBH mass, improving correspondingly the previously derived constraints on the PBH abundance.Compact starNeutron starVelocity dispersionPre-stellar coreWhite dwarfDwarf spheroidal galaxyGiant Molecular CloudPrimordial black holeMain sequence starProtostar...
- We propose a mechanism for baryogenesis from particle decays or annihilations that can work at the TeV scale. Some heavy particles annihilate or decay into a heavy sterile neutrino N (with M > 0.5 TeV) and a "light" one \nu (with m << 100 GeV), generating an asymmetry among the two helicity degrees of freedom of \nu. This asymmetry is partially transferred to Standard Model leptons via fast Yukawa interactions and reprocessed into a baryon asymmetry by the electroweak sphalerons. We illustrate this mechanism in a WIMPy baryogenesis model where the helicity asymmetry is generated in the annihilation of dark matter. This model connects the baryon asymmetry, dark matter, and neutrino masses. Moreover it also complements previous studies on general requirements for baryogenesis from dark matter annihilation. Finally we discuss other possible realizations of this helicitogenesis mechanism.Dark matterStandard ModelBaryon asymmetry of the UniverseYukawa couplingLepton numberFreeze-outDark matter annihilationCP violationThermalisationCP asymmetry...
- A tight-binding approach based on the Chebyshev-Bogoliubov-de Gennes method is used to describe disordered single-layer graphene Josephson junctions. Scattering by vacancies, ripples or charged impurities is included. We compute the Josephson current and investigate the nature of multiple Andreev reflections, which induce bound states appearing as peaks in the density of states for energies below the superconducting gap. In the presence of single atom vacancies, we observe a strong suppression of the supercurrent that is a consequence of strong inter-valley scattering. Although lattice deformations should not induce inter-valley scattering, we find that the supercurrent is still suppressed, which is due to the presence of pseudo-magnetic barriers. For charged impurities, we consider two cases depending on whether the average doping is zero, i.e. existence of electron-hole puddles, or finite. In both cases, short range impurities strongly affect the supercurrent, similar to the vacancies scenario.Density of statesBumpingDirac pointHamiltonianGreen's functionCritical currentTime-reversal symmetryFermi levelLocal density of statesInterference...
- Ultra-light axions (ULAs) with masses in the range 10^{-33} eV <m <10^{-20} eV are motivated by string theory and might contribute to either the dark-matter or dark-energy density of the Universe. ULAs could suppress the growth of structure on small scales, or lead to an enhanced integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect on large-scale cosmic microwave-background (CMB) anisotropies. In this work, cosmological observables over the full ULA mass range are computed, and then used to search for evidence of ULAs using CMB data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), Planck satellite, Atacama Cosmology Telescope, and South Pole Telescope, as well as galaxy clustering data from the WiggleZ galaxy-redshift survey. In the mass range 10^{-32} eV < m <10^{-25.5} eV, the axion relic-density \Omega_{a} (relative to the total dark-matter relic density \Omega_{d}) must obey the constraints \Omega_{a}/\Omega_{d} < 0.05 and \Omega_{a}h^{2} < 0.006 at 95%-confidence. For m> 10^{-24} eV, ULAs are indistinguishable from standard cold dark matter on the length scales probed, and are thus allowed by these data. For m < 10^{-32} eV, ULAs are allowed to compose a significant fraction of the dark energy.Cold dark matterDark matterDark energyMatter power spectrumNeutrinoIntegrated Sachs-Wolfe effectScalar fieldQCD axionLarge scale structureAxion mass...
- In this talk we explore the possibility that the smallness of the observed neutrino masses is naturally understood in a modified version of the standard model with N extra generations of fermions and N right-handed neutrinos, in which light neutrino masses are generated at two loops. We find that with N = 1 it is not possible to fit the observed spectrum of masses and mixings while with N = 2 it is. Within this extension, we analyse the parameters which are allowed and the possible phenomenological signals of the model in future experiments. Contribution to the proceedings of Les Rencontres de Moriond EW 2011, Young Scientist Forum.NeutrinoStandard ModelMajorana massCharged leptonColumn vectorSterile neutrinoMajorana neutrinoFlavourInverted hierarchyNormal hierarchy...
- In this short review, I present some of the recent progresses on the pending questions of solar physics. These questions let us revisit the solar wind, the solar dynamo problem, the dynamics of the photosphere and finally have a glimpse at other solar type stars. Discussing the use of direct numerical simulations in solar physics, I show that the full numerical calculation of the flow in a single supergranule would require more electric power than the luminosity of the sun itself with present computer technology.StarMagnetic helicityCoronaGranuleNumerical simulationEarthMagnetohydrodynamicsTurbulence modelingIntensityChromosphere...
- Our understanding of the state of the universe between the end of inflation and big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) is incomplete. The dynamics at the end of inflation are rich and a potential source of observational signatures. Reheating, the energy transfer between the inflaton and Standard Model fields (possibly through intermediaries), can provide clues to how inflation fits in with known high-energy physics. We provide an overview of our current understanding of the nonperturbative, nonlinear dynamics at the end of inflation, some salient features of realistic particle physics models of reheating, and how the universe reaches a thermal state before BBN. In addition, we review the analytical and numerical tools available in the literature to study reheating and discuss potential observational signatures from this fascinating era.Big bang nucleosynthesisThermalisationStandard Model fieldReheatingInflationInflatonUniversePotentialParticle physicsEnergy
- Given a finite simple graph G=(V,E) with chromatic number c and chromatic polynomial C(x). Every vertex graph coloring f of G defines an index i_f(x) satisfying the Poincare-Hopf theorem sum_x i_f(x)=chi(G). As a variant to the index expectation result we prove that E[i_f(x)] is equal to curvature K(x) satisfying Gauss-Bonnet sum_x K(x) = \chi(G), where the expectation is the average over the finite probability space containing the C(c) possible colorings with c colors, for which each coloring has the same probability.GraphEuler characteristicLinear functionalPlanar graphManifoldRiemannian metricChromatic polynomialWheel graphPermutationIsomorphism...
- We explore relations between various variational problems for graphs like Euler characteristic chi(G), characteristic length mu(G), mean clustering nu(G), inductive dimension iota(G), edge density epsilon(G), scale measure sigma(G), Hilbert action eta(G) and spectral complexity xi(G). A new insight in this note is that the local cluster coefficient C(x) in a finite simple graph can be written as a relative characteristic length L(x) of the unit sphere S(x) within the unit ball B(x) of a vertex. This relation L(x) = 2-C(x) will allow to study clustering in more general metric spaces like Riemannian manifolds or fractals. If eta is the average of scalar curvature s(x), a formula mu ~ 1+log(epsilon)/log(eta) of Newman, Watts and Strogatz relates mu with the edge density epsilon and average scalar curvature eta telling that large curvature correlates with small characteristic length. Experiments show that the statistical relation mu ~ log(1/nu) holds for random or deterministic constructed networks, indicating that small clustering is often associated to large characteristic lengths and lambda=mu/log(nu) can converge in some graph limits of networks. Mean clustering nu, edge density epsilon and curvature average eta therefore can relate with characteristic length mu on a statistical level. We also discovered experimentally that inductive dimension iota and cluster-length ratio lambda correlate strongly on Erdos-Renyi probability spaces.GeodesicClustering coefficientArboricityLine graphTorusManifoldGraph theoryEigenvalueCohomologyGeneral relativity...
- The interaction induced chiral asymmetry is calculated in cold QED plasma beyond the weak-field approximation. By making use of the recently developed Landau-level representation for the fermion self-energy, the chiral shift and the parity-even chiral chemical potential function are obtained with the help of numerical methods. The results are used to quantify the chiral asymmetry of the Fermi surface in dense QED matter. Because of the weakness of the QED interactions, the value of the asymmetry appears to be rather small even in the strongest magnetic fields and at the highest stellar densities. However, the analogous asymmetry can be substantial in the case of dense quark matter.Lowest Landau LevelChiral separation effectChiral magnetic effectFermion propagatorCoupling constantMonte Carlo methodTranslational invarianceRadiative correctionGamma distributionMagnetic field strength...
#### Prediction of an $I=1$ $D \bar D^*$ state and relationship to the claimed $Z_c(3900)$, $Z_c(3885)$ver. 2

We study here the interaction of $D \bar D^*$ in the isospin $I=1$ channel in the light of recent theoretical advances that allow to combine elements of the local hidden gauge approach with heavy quark spin symmetry. We find that the exchange of light $q \bar q$ is OZI suppressed and, thus, we concentrate on the exchange of heavy vectors and of two pion exchange. The latter is found to be small compared to the exchange of heavy vectors, which then determines the strength of the interaction. A barely $D\bar{D}^*$ bound state decaying into $\eta_c\rho$ and $\pi J/\psi$ is found. At the same time we reanalyze the data of the BESIII experiment on $e^+ e^- \to \pi^{\pm} (D \bar D^*)^\mp$, from where a $Z_c(3885)$ state was claimed, associated to a peak in the $(D \bar D^*)^\mp$ invariant mass distribution close to threshold, and we find the data compatible with a resonance with mass around $3875$ MeV and width around $30$ MeV. We discuss the possibility that this and the $Z_c(3900)$ state found at BESIII, reconfirmed at 3896 MeV at Belle, or 3885 MeV at CLEO, could all be the same state and correspond to the one that we find theoretically.Vector mesonPseudoscalarCharmed baryonsPseudoscalar mesonRegularizationX(3872)Form factorTetraquarkQuarkPolarization vector...- The ratio of branching fractions of the radiative B decays B0 -> K*0 gamma and Bs0 phi gamma has been measured using an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb-1 of pp collision data collected by the LHCb experiment at a centre-of-mass energy of sqrt(s)=7 TeV. The value obtained is BR(B0 -> K*0 gamma)/BR(Bs0 -> phi gamma) = 1.23 +/- 0.06(stat.) +/- 0.04(syst.) +/- 0.10(fs/fd), where the first uncertainty is statistical, the second is the experimental systematic uncertainty and the third is associated with the ratio of fragmentation fractions fs/fd. Using the world average value for BR(B0 -> K*0 gamma), the branching fraction BR(Bs0 -> phi gamma) is measured to be (3.5 +/- 0.4) x 10^{-5}. The direct CP asymmetry in B0 -> K*0 gamma decays has also been measured with the same data and found to be A(CP)(B0 -> K*0 gamma) = (0.8 +/- 1.7(stat.) +/- 0.9(syst.))%. Both measurements are the most precise to date and are in agreement with the previous experimental results and theoretical expectations.Branching ratioInvariant massVector mesonStandard ModelIntegrated luminosityCrystal BallCharm quarkPionKinematicsMass distribution...
- We extend the notion of simplicial set with effective homology to diagrams of simplicial sets. Further, for a given finite diagram of simplicial sets $X \colon \mathcal{I} \to \mathsf{sSet}$ such that each simplicial set $X(i)$ has effective homology, we present an algorithm computing the homotopy colimit $\mathsf{hocolim} X$ as a simplicial set with effective homology. We also give an algorithm computing the cofibrant replacement $X^\mathsf{cof}$ of $X$ as a diagram with effective homology. This is applied to computing of equivariant cohomology operations.Chain complexMorphismModel structureSimplicial setHomomorphismFibrationEquivariant mapIsomorphismTensor productPerturbation theory...
- We propose a method for inferring human attributes (such as gender, hair style, clothes style, expression, action) from images of people under large variation of viewpoint, pose, appearance, articulation and occlusion. Convolutional Neural Nets (CNN) have been shown to perform very well on large scale object recognition problems. In the context of attribute classification, however, the signal is often subtle and it may cover only a small part of the image, while the image is dominated by the effects of pose and viewpoint. Discounting for pose variation would require training on very large labeled datasets which are not presently available. Part-based models, such as poselets and DPM have been shown to perform well for this problem but they are limited by flat low-level features. We propose a new method which combines part-based models and deep learning by training pose-normalized CNNs. We show substantial improvement vs. state-of-the-art methods on challenging attribute classification tasks in unconstrained settings. Experiments confirm that our method outperforms both the best part-based methods on this problem and conventional CNNs trained on the full bounding box of the person.ClassificationDeep learningTraining setDAMA/LIBRAArchitectureCrowdsourcingGlassStatisticsBinary starClassification systems...
- A large fraction of this thesis is dedicated to the study of the information content of random fields with heavy tails, in particular the lognormal field, a model for the matter density fluctuation field. It is well known that in the nonlinear regime of structure formation, the matter fluctuation field develops such large tails. It has also been suggested that fields with large tails are not necessarily well described by the hierarchy of $N$-point functions. In this thesis, we are able to make this last statement precise and with the help of the lognormal model to quantify precisely its implications for inference on cosmological parameters : we find as our main result that only a tiny fraction of the total Fisher information of the field is still contained in the hierarchy of $N$-point moments in the nonlinear regime, rendering parameter inference from such moments very inefficient. We show that the hierarchy fails to capture the information that is contained in the underdense regions, which at the same time are found to be the most rich in information. We find further our results to be very consistent with numerical analysis using $N$-body simulations. We also discuss these issues with the help of explicit families of fields with the same hierarchy of $N$-point moments defined in this work. A similar analysis is then applied to the convergence field, the weighted projection of the matter density fluctuation field along the line of sight, with similar conclusions. We also show how simple mappings can correct for this inadequacy, consistently with previous findings in the literature (Abridged) .EntropyFisher informationFisher information matrixCosmologyGalaxyCovariance matrixStatisticsWeak lensingOrthogonal polynomialsTwo-point correlation function...
- The low energy dynamics of QCD is investigated with special attention paid to the matching between QCD and chiral perturbation theory(ChPT), and also to some useful algebraic chiral operator relations which survive even when we include chiral loop corrections. It then allows us to evaluate the hadronic matrix elements below the energy scale $\Lambda_{\chi} \simeq 1$ GeV. Based on the new analyzes, we present a consistent prediction for both direct CP-violating parameter $\epsilon'/\epsilon$ and $\Delta I =1/2$ rule in the kaon decays. In the leading $1/N_c$ approximation, the isospin amplitudes $A_0$ and $A_2$ are found to agree well with the data, and the direct CP-violating parameter $\epsilon'/\epsilon$ is predicted to be large, which also confirms our early conclusion. Its numerical value is $\epsilon'/\epsilon = 23.6^{+12.4}_{-7.8}\times 10^{-4}(Im\lambda_t/1.2\times 10^{-4})$ which is no longer sensitive to the strange quark mass due to the matching conditions. Taking into account a simultaneous consistent analysis on the isospin amplitudes $A_0$ and $A_2$, the ratio $\epsilon'/\epsilon$ is in favor of the values $\epsilon'/\epsilon = (20\pm 9)\times 10^{-4}$.ChiralityQuantum chromodynamicsCP violationIsospinQuarkRenormalizationPerturbative QCDCoupling constantHadronizationQuark mass...
- Through defining irreducible loop integrals (ILIs), a set of consistency conditions for the regularized (quadratically and logarithmically) divergent ILIs are obtained to maintain the generalized Ward identities of gauge invariance in non-Abelian gauge theories. Overlapping UV divergences are explicitly shown to be factorizable in the ILIs and be harmless via suitable subtractions. A new regularization and renormalization method is presented in the initial space-time dimension of the theory. The procedure respects unitarity and causality. Of interest, the method leads to an infinity free renormalization and meanwhile maintains the symmetry principles of the original theory except the intrinsic mass scale caused conformal scaling symmetry breaking and the anomaly induced symmetry breaking. Quantum field theories (QFTs) regularized through the new method are well defined and governed by a physically meaningful characteristic energy scale (CES) $M_c$ and a physically interesting sliding energy scale (SES) $\mu_s$ which can run from $\mu_s \sim M_c$ to a dynamically generated mass gap $\mu_s=\mu_c$ or to $\mu_s =0$ in the absence of mass gap and infrared (IR) problem. It is strongly indicated that the conformal scaling symmetry and its breaking mechanism play an important role for understanding the mass gap and quark confinement.RegularizationGraphGauge invarianceQuantum field theoryDimensional regularizationLoop integralLoop momentumRenormalizationQuadratic divergenceVacuum polarization...
- A star collapsing gravitationally into a black hole emits a flux of radiation, knowns as Hawking radiation. When the initial state of a quantum field on the background of the star, is placed in the Unruh vacuum in the far past, then Hawking radiation corresponds to a flux of positive energy radiation travelling outwards to future infinity. The evaporation of the collapsing star can be equivalently described as a negative energy flux of radiation travelling radially inwards towards the center of the star. Here, we are interested in the evolution of the star during its collapse. Thus we include the backreaction of the negative energy Hawking flux in the interior geometry of the collapsing star and solve the full 4-dimensional Einstein and hydrodynamical equations numerically. We find that Hawking radiation emitted just before the star passes through its Schwarzschild radius slows down the collapse of the star and substantially reduces its mass thus the star bounces before reaching the horizon. The area radius starts increasing after the bounce. Beyond this point our program breaks down due to shell crossing. We find that the star stops collapsing at a finite radius larger than its horizon, turns around and its core explodes. This study provides a more realistic investigation of the backreaction of Hawking radiation on the collapsing star, that was first presented in [1].LuminosityThermalisationEvolution equationCausalityFinite differenceUnitarityStencilEinstein field equationsCollapsed starsNull geodesic...
- Determination of properties of quasiparticle excitations is an important task in the experimental investigation of the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE). We propose a model-independent method for finding the scaling dimension of FQHE quasiparticles from measurements of the electric current tunneling between two FQHE edges and its noise. In comparison to the commonly used method based on measuring the tunneling current only, the proposed method is less prone to the errors due to non-universal physics of tunnel junctions.Tunneling amplitudesQuantum point contactFilling fractionFractional Quantum Hall EffectChiralityQuantum Hall EffectNeutral edge modeExact solutionSystematic errorMinimal models...
- Ultra-faint dwarf galaxies (UFDs) are newcomers among galaxies, and are the faintest galaxies in the observed universe. To date, they have only been found around the Milky Way Galaxy and M31 in the Local Group. We present the discovery of an UFD in the intracluster field in the core of the Virgo cluster (Virgo UFD1), which is far from any massive galaxies. The color-magnitude diagram of the resolved stars in this galaxy shows a narrow red giant branch, similar to those of metal-poor globular clusters in the Milky Way. We estimate its distance by comparing the red giant branch with isochrones, and we obtain a value 16.4 +/- 0.4 Mpc. This shows that it is indeed a member of the Virgo cluster. From the color of the red giants we estimate its mean metallicity to be very low, [Fe/H]= -2.4 +/- 0.4. Its absolute V-band magnitude and effective radius are derived to be M_V = -6.5 +/- 0.2 and r_eff = 81 +/- 7 pc, much fainter and smaller than the classical dwarf spheroidal galaxies. Its central surface brightness is estimated to be as low as u_V,0 = 26.37 +/- 0.05 mag arcsec^-2. Its properties are similar to those of the Local Group analogs. No evidence of tidal features are found in this galaxy. Considering its narrow red giant branch with no asymptotic giant branch stars, low metallicity, and location, it may be a fossil remnant of the first galaxies.Hertzsprung-Russell diagramTip of the red giant branchPhotometryA dwarfsAsymptotic giant branch starIntegrated magnitudeDistance modulusGalaxyMessier 87Local Universe...
- Charged plasmas with chirality imbalance are unstable and tend to reduce the imbalance. This chiral plasma instability is, however, not captured in (anomalous) hydrodynamics for high-temperature non-Abelian plasmas. We derive a Langevin-type classical effective theory with anomalous parity-violating effects for non-Abelian plasmas that describes the chiral plasma instability at the magnetic scale. We show that the time scale of the instability is of order $[g^4 T \ln(1/g)]^{-1}$ at weak coupling.Gauge fieldBerry phaseKinetic theoryBoltzmann transport equationChiral magnetic effectThermalisationDegree of freedomDissipationLangevin equationChiral chemical potential...
- The Strukov model was the phenomenological model that accompanied the announcement of the first recognised physical instantiation of the memristor and, as such, it has been widely used. This model described the motion of a boundary, $w$, between two types of inter-converting material, $R_{\mathrm{off}}$ and $R_{\mathrm{on}}$, seemingly under a uniform field across the entire device. In fact, what was intended was a field with a discontinuity at $w$, that was uniform between $0<x<w$. In this paper we show that the discontinuity is required for the Strukov model derivation to be completed, and thus the derivation as given does not describe a situation with a uniform field across the entire device. The discontinuity can be described as a Heaviside function, $H$, located on $w$, for which there are three common single-valued approximations for $H(w)$. The Strukov model as intended includes an approximation for the Heaviside function (the field is taken to be the same as that across the $R_{\mathrm{on}}$ part of the device). We compare approximations and give solutions. We then extend the description of the field to a more-realistic continuously varying sigmoidal transition between two uniform fields and demonstrate that the centro-symmetric approximation model (taking the field as being the average of the fields across $R_{\mathrm{on}}$ and $R_{\mathrm{off}}$) is a better single-point model of that situation: the other two approximations over or underestimate the field.ResistorHysteresisConstitutive relationHysteresis loopCapacitorPinchMolecular dynamicsMean fieldTransistorsCrystal structure...
- We present a one-loop calculation of the oblique S parameter within Higgsless models of electroweak symmetry breaking and analyze the phenomenological implications of the available electroweak precision data. We use the most general effective Lagrangian with at most two derivatives, implementing the chiral symmetry breaking SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R -> SU(2)_{L+R} with Goldstones, gauge bosons and one multiplet of vector and axial-vector massive resonance states. Using the dispersive representation of Peskin and Takeuchi and imposing the short-distance constraints dictated by the operator product expansion, we obtain S at the NLO in terms of a few resonance parameters. In asymptotically-free gauge theories, the final result only depends on the vector-resonance mass and requires M_V > 1.8 TeV (3.8 TeV) to satisfy the experimental limits at the 3 \sigma (1\sigma) level; the axial state is always heavier, we obtain M_A > 2.5 TeV (6.6 TeV) at 3\sigma (1\sigma). In strongly-coupled models, such as walking or conformal technicolour, where the second Weinberg sum rule does not apply, the vector and axial couplings are not determined by the short-distance constraints; but one can still derive a lower bound on S, provided the hierarchy M_V < M_A remains valid. Even in this less constrained situation, we find that in order to satisfy the experimental limits at 3\sigma one needs M_{V,A} > 1.8 TeV.Standard ModelGoldstone bosonQuantum chromodynamicsElectroweak symmetry breakingGauge theoryUnitaritySelf-energyGauge symmetryOperator product expansionHiggs boson...
- In this review article we revisit and spell out the details of previous work on how Berry phase can be used to construct a precision quantum thermometer. An important advantage of such a scheme is that there is no need for the thermometer to acquire thermal equilibrium with the sample. This reduces measurement times and avoids precision limitations. We also review how such methods can be used to detect the Unruh effect.Unruh effectBerry phaseMeasurement
- We consider hadron production in high energy collisions as an Unruh radiation phenomenon. This mechanism describes the production pattern of newly formed hadrons and is directly applicable at vanishing baryochemical potential, mu = 0. It had already been found to correctly yield the hadronisation temperature, T_h = sqrt(sigma / 2 pi) = 165 MeV in terms of the string tension sigma. Here we show that the Unruh mechanism also predicts hadronic freeze-out conditions, giving s/T_h^3 = 3 pi^2 / 4 = 7.4 in terms of the entropy density s and E/N = \sqrt(2 pi sigma) = 1.09 for the average energy per hadron. These predictions provide a theoretical basis for previous phenomenological results and are also in accord with recent lattice studies.QuarkEvent horizonAbundanceFreeze-outHorizonLattice QCDQuark massEntanglementBekenstein-Hawking entropyColor confinement...
- We construct a new inflation model in which the standard model Higgs boson couples minimally to gravity and acts as the inflaton. Our construction of Higgs inflation incorporates the standard model with Einstein gravity which exhibits asymptotic safety in the ultraviolet region. The slow roll condition is satisfied at large field value due to the asymptotically safe behavior of Higgs self-coupling at high energies. We find that this minimal construction is highly predictive, and is consistent with both cosmological observations and collider experiments.Standard ModelHiggs potentialPlanck missionHiggs bosonTop quark massHiggs boson massBICEP2UV fixed pointHigher dimensional operatorsNon-minimal coupling...
- We propose a method of measuring extremely weak magnetic fields in the inter galactic medium prior to and during the epoch of cosmic reionization. The method utilizes the Larmor precession of spin-polarized neutral hydrogen in the triplet state of the hyperfine transition. The resulting change in the brightness temperature fluctuations encodes information about the magnetic field the atoms are immersed in. The method is most suited to probing fields that are coherent on large scales. Due to the long lifetime of the triplet state of the 21-cm transition, this technique is naturally sensitive to extremely weak field strengths, of order $10^{-19}$ G (or $10^{-21}$ G if scaled to the present day). Therefore, this might open up the possibility of probing primordial magnetic fields just prior to reionization. Moreover, such measurements are unaffected by later magnetic fields since 21-cm observations preserve redshift information. If the magnetic fields are much stronger, it is still possible to recover information about their orientation. In this paper (Paper I in a series on this effect), we perform detailed calculations of the microphysics behind this effect, and take into account all the processes that affect the hyperfine transition, including radiative decays, collisions, and optical pumping by Lyman-$\alpha$ photons. We conclude with an analytic formula for the brightness temperature of linear-regime fluctuations in the presence of a magnetic field, and discuss its limiting behavior for weak and strong fields.Density matrixPhase space densityIrreducible componentAbsorptivityHydrogen atomExcited stateRankingQuadrupolePlane waveHamiltonian...
- Approximated numerical techniques, for the solution of the elastic wave scattering problem over semi-infinite domains are reviewed. The approximations involve the representation of the half-space by a boundary condition described in terms of 2D boundary element discretizations. The classical BEM matrices are initially re-written into the form of a dense dynamic stiffness matrix and later approximated to a banded matrix. The resulting final banded matrix is then used like a standard finite element to solve the wave scattering problem at lower memory requirements. The accuracy of the reviewed methods is benchmarked against the classical problems of a semi-circular and a rectangular canyon. Results are presented in the time and frequency domain, as well as in terms of relative errors in the considered approximations. The main goal of the paper is to give the analyst a method that can be used at the practising level where an approximate solution is enough in order to support engineering decisions.Green's functionBoundary element methodAbsorbanceDegree of freedomPlane waveSingular valueRadiation dampingTransfer functionFar-fieldArchitecture...
- We evaluated the performance of the classical and spectral finite element method in the simulation of elastodynamic problems. We used as a quality measure their ability to capture the actual dispersive behavior of the material. Four different materials are studied: a homogeneous non-dispersive material, a bilayer material, and composite materials consisting of an aluminum matrix and brass inclusions or voids. To obtain the dispersion properties, spatial periodicity is assumed so the analysis is conducted using Floquet-Bloch principles. The effects in the dispersion properties of the lumping process for the mass matrices resulting from the classical finite element method are also investigated, since that is a common practice when the problem is solved with explicit time marching schemes. At high frequencies the predictions with the spectral technique exactly match the analytical dispersion curves, while the classical method does not. This occurs even at the same computational demands. At low frequencies however, the results from both the classical (consistent or mass-lumped) and spectral finite element coincide with the analytically determined curves. Surprisingly, at low frequencies even the results obtained with the artificial diagonal mass matrix from the classical technique exactly match the analytic dispersion curves.EigenvalueWave vectorWave propagationQuadratureBand gapDegree of freedomSolid-state physicsLegendre polynomialsUnit cellSpectral method...