- Corbino disk

by Kyrylo Snizhko25 Jul 2014 16:42 - Quantum-size electrostatic potential

by Prof. Michael V. Moskalets06 May 2014 17:44 - Dwyer-Fried invariant

by Prof. Alex Suciu15 Dec 2013 03:22 - General relativity

by Wilson Yu13 Dec 2013 04:40 - High angular resolution

by Prof. Hontas Farmer22 Nov 2013 11:14 - Leptogenesis

by Dr. Sacha Davidson08 Dec 2010 13:32 - Full counting statistics

by Dr. Dmitri Ivanov28 Nov 2011 09:44 - Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction

by Dr. George Jackeli28 Aug 2009 09:41 - RKKY interaction

by Dr. Vadim Cheianov31 Aug 2009 09:28 - Quantum point contact

by Prof. Carlo Beenakker08 Jan 2011 20:32

- We use a statistical approach to determine the relationship between the stellar masses of galaxies and the masses of the dark matter halos in which they reside. We obtain a parameterized stellar-to-halo mass (SHM) relation by populating halos and subhalos in an N-body simulation with galaxies and requiring that the observed stellar mass function be reproduced. We find good agreement with constraints from galaxy-galaxy lensing and predictions of semi-analytic models. Using this mapping, and the positions of the halos and subhalos obtained from the simulation, we find that our model predictions for the galaxy two-point correlation function (CF) as a function of stellar mass are in excellent agreement with the observed clustering properties in the SDSS at z=0. We show that the clustering data do not provide additional strong constraints on the SHM function and conclude that our model can therefore predict clustering as a function of stellar mass. We compute the conditional mass function, which yields the average number of galaxies with stellar masses in the range [m, m+dm] that reside in a halo of mass M. We study the redshift dependence of the SHM relation and show that, for low mass halos, the SHM ratio is lower at higher redshift. The derived SHM relation is used to predict the stellar mass dependent galaxy CF and bias at high redshift. Our model predicts that not only are massive galaxies more biased than low mass ones at all redshifts, but the bias increases more rapidly with increasing redshift for massive galaxies than for low mass ones. We present convenient fitting functions for the SHM relation as a function of redshift, the conditional mass function, and the bias as a function of stellar mass and redshift.GalaxyStellar massVirial massStellar mass functionStandard Halo modelCluster of galaxiesDark matter subhaloConditional mass functionSatellite galaxyMassive galaxies...
- We revisit the X-ray spectrum of the central 14' of the Andromeda galaxy, discussed in our previous work [1402.4119]. Recently in [1408.1699] it was claimed that if one limits the analysis of the data to the interval 3-4 keV, the significance of the detection of the line at 3.53 keV drops below 2 sigma. In this note we show that such a restriction is not justified, as the continuum is well-modeled as a power law up to 8 keV, and parameters of the background model are well constrained over this larger interval of energies. This allows for a detection of the line at 3.53 keV with a statistical significance greater than ~3 sigma and for the identification of several known atomic lines in the energy range 3-4 keV. Limiting the analysis to the 3-4 keV interval results in increased uncertainty, thus decreasing the significance of the detection. We also argue that, with the M31 data included, a consistent interpretation of the 3.53 keV line as an atomic line of K XVIII in all studied objects is problematic.Andromeda galaxyAbundanceGalactic CenterCluster of galaxiesKeV lineStatistical significanceX-ray spectrumDark matterDark matter decaySurface brightness profile...
- We perform a forecast analysis on how well a Euclid-like photometric galaxy cluster survey will constrain the total neutrino mass and effective number of neutrino species. We base our analysis on the Monte Carlo Markov Chains technique by combining information from cluster number counts and cluster power spectrum. We find that combining cluster data with CMB measurements from Planck improves by more than an order of magnitude the constraint on neutrino masses compared to each probe used independently. For the LCDM+m_nu model the 2 sigma upper limit on total neutrino mass shifts from M_nu < 0.35 eV using cluster data alone to M_nu < 0.031 eV when combined with CMB data. When a non-standard model with N_eff number of neutrino species is considered, we estimate N_eff<3.14 (95% CL), while the bounds on neutrino mass are relaxed to M_nu < 0.040 eV. This accuracy would be sufficient for a 2 sigma detection of neutrino mass even in the minimal normal hierarchy scenario. We also consider scenarios with a constant dark energy equation of state and a non-vanishing curvature. When these models are considered the error on M_nu is only slightly affected, while there is a larger impact of the order of ~ 15 % and ~ 20% respectively on the 2 sigma error bar of N_eff with respect to the standard case. We also treat the LCDM+m_nu+N_eff case with free nuisance parameters, which parameterize the uncertainties on the cluster mass determination. In this case, the upper bounds on M_nu are relaxed by a factor larger than two, M_nu < 0.083 eV (95% CL), hence compromising the possibility of detecting the total neutrino mass with good significance. We thus confirm the potential that a large optical/near-IR cluster survey, like that to be carried out by Euclid, could have in constraining neutrino properties [abridged].Matter power spectrumNeutrino massNeutrinoEuclid missionPlanck missionCluster of galaxiesNuisance parameterEffective number of neutrinosCosmic microwave backgroundMassive neutrino...
- We conduct a comprehensive search for X-ray emission lines from sterile neutrino dark matter, motivated by recent claims of unidentified emission lines in the stacked X-ray spectra of galaxy clusters and the centers of the Milky Way and M31. Since the claimed emission lines lie around 3.5 keV, we focus on galaxies and galaxy groups (masking the central regions), since these objects emit very little radiation above ~2 keV and offer a clean background against which to detect emission lines. We develop a formalism for maximizing the signal-to-noise of sterile neutrino emission lines by weighing each X-ray event according to the expected dark matter profile. In total, we examine 81 and 89 galaxies with Chandra and XMM-Newton respectively, totaling 15.0 and 14.6 Ms of integration time. We find no significant evidence of any emission lines, placing strong constraints on the mixing angle of sterile neutrinos with masses between 4.8-12.4 keV. In particular, if the 3.57 keV feature from Bulbul et al. (2014) were due to 7.1 keV sterile neutrino emission, we would have detected it at 4.4 sigma and 11.8 sigma in our two samples. Unlike previous constraints, our measurements do not depend on the model of the X-ray background or on the assumed logarithmic slope of the center of the dark matter profile.GalaxySterile neutrinoXMM-NewtonChandra X-ray ObservatoryCluster of galaxiesDark matterMixing angleX-ray spectrumPoint sourceAndromeda galaxy...
- We present a derivation of the time evolution equations for the energy content of non-helical magnetic fields and the accompanying turbulent flows from first principles of magnetohydrodynamics in the general framework of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence. This is then applied to the Early Universe, i.e. the evolution of primordial magnetic fields. Numerically integrating the equations we find that most of the energy is concentrated at an integral wave number scale k_I where the turbulence turn over time equals the Hubble time. At larger length scales L, or smaller wavenumbers q = 2 \pi / L << k_I, independent of the assumed turbulent flow power spectrum, mode-mode coupling tends to develop a small q magnetic field tail from zero with a violet noise slope proportional to the fourth inverse power of L and therefore a scaling for the magnetic field of B ~ L^(-5/2).TurbulenceCosmological magnetic fieldThe early UniverseHomogenizationMagnetohydrodynamicsEvolution equationTurbulent flowWave vectorMidpoint methodStellar magnitude...
- Although recent Higgs data from ATLAS and CMS are compatible with a Standard Model (SM) signal at $2\sigma$ level, both experiments see indications for an excess in the diphoton decay channel, which points to new physics beyond the SM. Given such a low Higgs mass $m_H \sim 125 {\rm GeV}$, another sign indicating the existence of new physics beyond the SM is the vacuum stability problem, i.e., the SM Higgs quartic coupling may run to negative values at a scale below the Planck scale. In this paper, we study the vacuum stability and enhanced Higgs diphoton decay rate in the Zee-Babu model, which was used to generate tiny Majorana neutrino masses at two-loop level. We find that it is rather difficult to find overlapping regions allowed by the vacuum stability and diphoton enhancement constraints. As a consequence, it is almost inevitable to introduce new ingredients into the model, in order to resolve these two issues simultaneously.Standard ModelCMS experimentTop quarkCharged leptonPlanck scaleRenormalisation group equationsNeutrino massNeutrinoDegree of freedomPair production...
- In the context of a conformal Supergravity (SUGRA) model in the Einstein frame, in which the (next to) minimal supersymmetric standard model can embedded naturally to produce chaotic inflation scenarios, we study properties of gravitino in the cases where it is stable or unstable. In the latter case, we demonstrate that for large dilaton scale factors there is an enhanced magnitude of the gravitino width, when it decays to neutralino dark matter, as compared with the standard SUGRA case. In this context, we discuss the associated consequences as far as Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints and avoidance of gravitino overproduction are concerned.GravitinoSupergravityDilatonNeutralinoConformal supergravityBig bang nucleosynthesisNext-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard ModelSupersymmetryDark matterVacuum expectation value...
- We report the theoretical discovery of a systematic scheme to produce topological flat bands (TFBs) with arbitrary Chern numbers. We find that generically a high Chern number TFB model can be constructed by considering multi-layer Chern number C=1 TFB models with enhanced translational symmetry. A series of models are presented as examples, including a two-band model on a triangular lattice with a Chern number C=3 and an $N$-band square lattice model with $C=N$ for an arbitrary integer $N$. In all these models, the flatness ratio for the TFBs is larger than 30 and increases with increasing Chern number. In the presence of appropriate inter-particle interactions, these models are likely to lead to the formation of novel Abelian and Non-Abelian fractional Chern insulators.Chern numberFractional Quantum Hall EffectFractional quantum Hall stateFlat bandUnit cellLattice modelTriangular latticeHamiltonianQuantum Hall EffectLandau level...
- In this note we consider non-relativistic rotating fermi liquid in the presence of Berry curvature. The behavior of the system is then almost the same as in external magnetic field. We argue that there appears an analogue of chiral vortical effect in the liquid if Berry curvature has a non-vanishing flux through sheets of Fermi surfaces and chemical potentials are different. We also claim that quantum anomalies in condensed matter context provide a theoretical and experimental testing ground for the origin of chiral effects, their carriers etc.Chiral vorticity effectBerry phaseFermi surfaceChiral magnetic effectLiquidsFermi liquidChiral anomalyEffective massField theoryQuantum anomaly...
- We explore extensions to the standard LCDM cosmological model using new measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) from the South Pole Telescope (SPT). Adding SPT measurements to WMAP7 significantly improves constraints on possible extensions to the LCDM model; the addition of low-redshift measurements of H0 and BAO leads to further improvements. Before combining these datasets, we check for consistency in the LCDM model between measurements of the CMB (SPT+WMAP7), H0 and BAO, and find evidence for some tension between the datasets. Within the CMB data alone, we find only weak support for physics beyond the LCDM model due to a slight trend of decreasing power at smaller angular scales, relative to the prediction of the LCDM model. This trend could be due to a logarithmic scale dependence of the power-law index of the primordial power spectrum, nrun. Alternatively, the trend could arise either from adjustments at small or large scales. The power at small scales is sensitive to the damping scale which is influenced by both the helium abundance, Yp and the effective number of neutrino species, Neff. The power at large scales is affected by the ISW effect which is sensitive to the sum of neutrino masses, mnu. These extensions have similar observational consequences and are partially degenerate when considered simultaneously. These degeneracies can weaken or enhance the apparent deviation of any single extension from the LCDM model. Of the 6 one-parameter model extensions considered, we find the CMB data to have the largest statistical preference for running within [-0.046, -0.003] at 95% confidence...[abridged]Cosmic microwave backgroundBaryon acoustic oscillationsSouth Pole TelescopeNeutrino massNeutrinoBig bang nucleosynthesisAbundanceIntegrated Sachs-Wolfe effectCMB acoustic peakMassive neutrino...
- The non-Abelian geometric phases of the degenerate ground states was proposed as a physically measurable defining properties of topological order in 1990. In this paper we discuss in detail such a quantitative characterization of topological order, using generic Abelian fractional quantum Hall states as examples. We show that the non-Abelian geometric phases not only contain information about the quasi-particle statistics, they also contain information about the Hall viscosity and the chiral central charge of the edge states. The chiral central charge appears as the universal 1/A correction to the Hall viscosity (where A is the area of the space). Thus, the non-Abelian geometric phases (both the Abelian part and the non-Abelian part) may provide a way to completely characterize 2D topological order. Also the non-Abelian part of the geometric phases gives rise to a projective representation of the modular group (or SL(2,Z)).Fractional quantum Hall stateTopological orderBerry phaseTorusHamiltonianLiquidsModular transformationHolomorphic functionFilling fractionStatistics...
- It is well known that the mass lens systems have the invariance in the singed magnification sums. In this paper, we discuss the signed magnification sums of the general spherical lens models including the singular isothermal sphere, the Schwarzschild black hole and the Ellis wormhole which is an example of the transversable wormholes of the Morris-Thorne class. We show that the signed magnification sum is a very useful tool to distinguish the exotic lens objects. For an example, we show that we can distinguish the Schwarzschild black hole with the Ellis wormhole by the signed magnification sum.Ellis wormholeLens equationWormholeGravitational lensingDeflection angleEinstein ringSingular isothermal sphere profileLight curveBlack holeTopological invariant...
- The presence of a dark matter core in the central kiloparsec of many dwarf galaxies has been a long standing problem in galaxy formation theories based on the standard cold dark matter paradigm. Recent cosmological simulations, based on Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics and rather strong feedback recipes have shown that it was indeed possible to form extended dark matter cores using baryonic processes related to a more realistic treatment of the interstellar medium. Using adaptive mesh refinement, together with a new, stronger supernovae feedback scheme that we have recently implemented in the RAMSES code, we show that it is also possible to form a prominent dark matter core within the well-controlled framework of an isolated, initially cuspy, 10 billion solar masses dark matter halo. Although our numerical experiment is idealized, it allows a clean and unambiguous identification of the dark matter core formation process. Our dark matter inner profile is well fitted by a pseudo-isothermal profile with a core radius of 800 pc. The core formation mechanism is consistent with the one proposed by Pontzen & Governato (2012). We highlight two key observational predictions of all simulations that find cusp-core transformations: (i) a bursty star formation history with peak to trough ratio of 5 to 10 and a duty cycle comparable to the local dynamical time; and (ii) a stellar distribution that is hot with v/sigma=1. We compare the observational properties of our model galaxy with recent measurements of the isolated dwarf WLM. We show that the spatial and kinematical distribution of stars and HI gas are in striking agreement with observations, supporting the fundamental role played by stellar feedback in shaping both the stellar and dark matter distribution.Star formationDark matterStellar feedbackDwarf galaxyStarGalaxyStellar distributionWolf-Lundmark-MelotteStellar massGas cooling...
- Quite recently it was shown that torsion induces interactions among leptons that are identical to the weak interactions of leptons of the Weinberg standard model, if it is in terms of leptonic bound states that the bosonic sector is built: here we obtain the partially conserved axial currents showing that they are the same of the standard model, if the composite mediator have specific mass relationships: we show that their masses are indeed the measured ones, if reasonable approximations are taken.Standard ModelTorsion tensorHiggs bosonWeak interactionBound stateScalar fieldGauge fieldExtended GravityFermi coupling constantDirac field...
- A large number of recent work points to the emergence of intriguing analogues of fractional quantum Hall states in lattice models due to effective interactions in nearly flat bands with Chern number C=1. Here, we provide an intuitive and efficient construction of almost dispersionless bands with higher Chern numbers. Inspired by the physics of quantum Hall multilayers and pyrochlore based transition metal oxides, we study a tight-binding model describing spin-orbit coupled electrons in N parallel kagome layers connected by apical sites forming N-1 intermediate triangular layers (as in the pyrochlore lattice). For each N, we find finite regions in parameter space giving a virtually flat band with C=N. We analytically express the states within these topological bands in terms of single layer states and thereby explicitly demonstrate that the C=N wave functions have an appealing structure in which layer index and translations in reciprocal space are intricately entangled. This provides a promising arena for new collective states of matter.Flat bandChern numberPyrochloreSpin orbitOxideSpin-orbit interactionQuantum Hall EffectTight-binding modelFractional quantum Hall stateIridates...
- At very high densities, electrons react with protons to form neutron rich matter. This material is central to many fundamental questions in nuclear physics and astrophysics. Moreover, neutron rich matter is being studied with an extraordinary variety of new tools such as the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) and the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO). We describe the Lead Radius Experiment (PREX) that uses parity violating electron scattering to measure the neutron radius of 208Pb. This has important implications for neutron stars and their crusts. We discuss X-ray observations of neutron star radii. These also have important implications for neutron rich matter. Gravitational waves (GW) open a new window on neutron rich matter. They come from sources such as neutron star mergers, rotating neutron star mountains, and collective r-mode oscillations. Using large scale molecular dynamics simulations, we find neutron star crust to be very strong. It can support mountains on rotating neutron stars large enough to generate detectable gravitational waves. Finally, neutrinos from core collapse supernovae (SN) provide another, qualitatively different probe of neutron rich matter. Neutrinos escape from the surface of last scattering known as the neutrino-sphere. This is a low density warm gas of neutron rich matter. Neutrino-sphere conditions can be simulated in the laboratory with heavy ion collisions. Observations of neutrinos can probe nucleosyntheses in SN. We believe that combing astronomical observations using photons, GW, and neutrinos, with laboratory experiments on nuclei, heavy ion collisions, and radioactive beams will fundamentally advance our knowledge of compact objects in the heavens, the dense phases of QCD, the origin of the elements, and of neutron rich matter.Neutron starGravitational waveNeutrinoStarParity violationR-processNeutron star crustLaser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave ObservatoryShear viscosityElectron scattering...
- In past, the future asymptotic behavior (with respect to initial data on null hypersurface) of Robinson-Trautman spacetime was examined and its past horizon characterized. Therefore, only the investigation of conformal infinity is missing from the picture. We would like to present some initial results concerning conformal infinity when negative cosmological constant is present motivated by the AdS/CFT correspondence.HorizonCosmological constantAdS/CFT correspondenceFoliationBlack holeField theoryUnitarityExpectation ValueExtrinsic curvatureApparent horizon...
- We study the origin of absorption features on the blue side of the C IV broad emission line of the large-separation lensed quasar SDSS J1029+2623 at z_em ~ 2.197. The quasar images, produced by a foreground cluster of galaxies, have a maximum separation angle of ~ 22".5. The large angular separation suggests that the sight-lines to the quasar central source can go through different regions of outflowing winds from the accretion disk of the quasar, providing a unique opportunity to study the structure of outflows from the accretion disk, a key ingredient for the evolution of quasars as well as for galaxy formation and evolution. Based on medium- and high-resolution spectroscopy of the two brightest images conducted at the Subaru telescope, we find that each image has different intrinsic levels of absorptions, which can be attributed either to variability of absorption features over the time delay between the lensed images, ~ 774 days, or to the fine structure of quasar outflows probed by the multiple sight-lines toward the quasar. While both these scenarios are consistent with the current data, we argue that they can be distinguished with additional spectroscopic monitoring observations.AbsorptivityAbsorbanceQuasarIonizationSloan Digital Sky SurveyIntergalactic mediumElectronic densityAccretion diskBlack holeVoigt profile...
- In a systematic search over 11 cluster fields from Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) we identify ten passively evolving massive galaxies at redshift z~2.We derive the stellar properties of these galaxies using HST WFC3/ACS multiband data, together with Spitzer IRAC observations. We also deduce the optical rest-frame effective radius of these high redshift objects. The derived stellar masses and measured effective radii have been corrected by the lensing magnification factors, which are estimated by simply adopting the spherical NFW model for the foreground cluster lens. The observed near-IR images, obtained by HST WFC3 camera with high spatial resolution and lensed by the foreground clusters, enable us to study the structures of such systems. Nine out of ten galaxies have on average three times smaller effective radius than local ETGs of similar stellar masses, in agreement with previous works at redshift 1.5 < z < 2.5. Combined with literature data for z~2, we find that the mass-normalized effective radius scales with redshift as re/M^0.56 \propto (1 + z)^{-1.13}. We confirm that their size distribution shows a large scatter: from normal size to ~5 times smaller compared to local ETGs with similar stellar masses. The 1-{\sigma} scatter {\sigma}_{logre} of the size distribution is 0.22 and 0.34 at z~1.6 and z~2.1,respectively.The observed large size scatter has to be carefully taken into account in galaxy evolution model predictions.GalaxyStellar massEarly-type galaxyCluster Lensing And Supernova survey with HubbleAGN feedbackGalactic evolutionMassive galaxiesWide Field Camera 3PhotometryStar formation rate...
- We study diffuse gamma-ray emission at intermediate Galactic latitudes measured by the Fermi Large Area Telescope with the aim of searching for a signal from dark matter annihilation or decay. In the absence of a robust dark matter signal, we set conservative dark matter limits requiring that the dark matter signal does not exceed the observed diffuse gamma-ray emission. A second set of more stringent limits is derived based on modeling the foreground astrophysical diffuse emission. Uncertainties in the height of the diffusive cosmic-ray halo, the distribution of the cosmic-ray sources in the Galaxy, the cosmic-ray electron index of the injection spectrum and the column density of the interstellar gas are taken into account using a profile likelihood formalism, while the parameters governing the cosmic-ray propagation have been derived from fits to local cosmic-ray data. The resulting limits impact the range of particle masses over which dark matter thermal production in the early Universe is possible, and challenge the interpretation of the PAMELA/Fermi-LAT cosmic ray anomalies as annihilation of dark matter.Dark matterCosmic rayDiffuse emissionGalaxyGalactic latitudeDark matter modelFERMI telescopeDark matter annihilationDark matter haloPositron...
- We present an exhaustive analysis on the classical solutions of the Chromo-natural model. We showed that starting from an arbitrary axion field value $\chi_0\in(0,f\pi)$, it is possible to have successful slow-roll inflation and working out the analytical solution of the number of e-folding, we determine the allowed region of the parameters corresponding to each $\chi_0$ value. Having the allowed parameter region, then we study the behavior of the solutions respect to the initial value of the axion field.AxionSlow-roll inflationSlow rollGauge fieldAxion potentialAxion decay constantHubble parameterCosmologyChern-Simons termEffective potential...
- We propose and analyze a mesoscopic device producing on-demand entangled pairs of electrons. The system consists of two capacitively coupled Mach-Zehnder interferometers implemented in a quantum Hall structure. A pair of electron wave-packets is injected into the chiral edge states of two (of the four) incoming arms; scattering on the incoming interferometers splits the wave-packets into four components of which two interact. The resulting interaction phase associated with this component leads to the entanglement of the state; the latter is scattered at the outgoing beam splitter and analyzed in a Bell violation test measuring the presence of particles in the four outgoing leads. We study the two-particle case and determine the conditions to reach and observe full entanglement. We extend our two-particle analysis to include the underlying Fermi seas in the quantum Hall device; the change in shape of the wave-function, the generation of electron-hole pairs in the interaction regime, and a time delay between the pulses all reduce the degree of visible entanglement and the violation of the Bell inequality, effects which we analyze quantitatively. We determine the device settings optimizing the entanglement and the Bell test and find that violation is still possible in the presence of the Fermi seas, with a maximal Bell parameter reaching ${\cal B} = 2.18 > 2$ in our setup.EntanglementInterferometersWave packetBell's inequalityFermi seaElectronic Mach-Zehnder interferometerDensity matrixQuantum Hall EffectCooper pairHamiltonian...
- Jet related observables have been some of the most powerful and exciting probes for understanding the matter produced in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. Full jet reconstruction was begun at RHIC, and the LHC experiments have shown the power and kinematic reach of these observables. Here we discuss the sPHENIX detector and physics program which aims to bring full calorimetric based jet reconstruction to RHIC in order to explore the temperature dependence of the strongly interacting Quark Gluon Plasma.Relativistic Heavy Ion ColliderQuark-gluon plasmaHeavy quarkKinematicsHeavy ion collisionPYTHIAQuenchingSolenoidPartonShear viscosity...
- We discuss the implementation of a beam splitter for electron waves in a quantum Hall bilayer. Our architecture exploits inter-layer tunneling to mix edge states belonging to di?erent layers. We discuss the basic working principle of the proposed coherent edge mixer, possible interferometric implementations based on existing semiconductor-heterojunction technologies, and advantages with respect to canonical quantum Hall interferometers based on quantum point contacts.Quantum Hall EffectEdge excitationsInterferometersWavefunction2D electron gasHamiltonianEigenfunctionLandau levelQuantum point contactForm factor...
- In this letter we show that the Universe is already strongly magnetised at very early epochs during cosmic evolution. Our calculations are based on the efficient amplification of weak magnetic seed fields, which are unavoidably present in the early Universe, by the turbulent small-scale dynamo (SSD). We identify at least one epoch during the radiation dominated regime where all the necessities for the SSD to work are fulfilled. Hence, at scales of $l_c\sim0.3$ pc, the comoving field strength due to this mechanism will be $B_0\sim0.35\varepsilon^{1/2}$ nG at the present time, where $\varepsilon$ is the saturation efficiency.TurbulenceSmall-scale dynamoReynolds numberPrimordial density perturbationFirst-order phase transitionsRadiation-dominated epochThe early UniversePhase transitionsPrandtl numberNeutrino...
- Structures in Warm Dark Matter (WDM) models are exponentially suppressed below a certain scale, characterized by the dark matter particle mass, $m_{\rm x}$. Since structures form hierarchically, the presence of collapsed objects at high-redshifts can set strong lower limits on $m_{\rm x}$. We place robust constraints on $m_{\rm x}$ using recent results from the {\it Swift} database of high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We parameterize the redshift evolution of the ratio between the cosmic GRB rate and star formation rate (SFR) as $\propto (1+z)^\alpha$, thereby allowing astrophysical uncertainties to partially mimic the cosmological suppression of structures in WDM models. Using a maximum likelihood estimator on two different $z>4$ GRB subsamples (including two bursts at $z>8$), we constrain $m_{\rm x} \gtrsim 1.6$-1.8 keV at 95% C.L., when marginalized over a flat prior in $\alpha$. We further estimate that 5 years of a SVOM-like mission would tighten these constraints to $m_{\rm x} \gtrsim 2.3 $ keV. Our results show that GRBs are a powerful probe of high-redshift structures, providing robust and competitive constraints on $m_{\rm x}$.Gamma ray burstWarm dark matterCold dark matterStar formation rateCumulative distribution functionsLuminosity functionCosmologyDark matterLuminosityMaximum likelihood...
- We consider effects of the Non-Standard Interactions (NSI) on oscillations of the high energy atmospheric neutrinos. The \nu_\mu-oscillograms are constructed and their dependence on the NSI strength parameters \epsilon_{\alpha \beta} studied. We computed zenith angle distributions of the \nu_\mu-events in the presence of NSI in different energy regions. The distributions are confronted with the IceCube-79 (high energy sample) and the DeepCore (low energy sample) data and constraints on the strength parameters |\epsilon_{\mu \tau}| < 6x10^-3 and |\epsilon_{\mu\mu}-\epsilon_{\tau\tau}| < 3x10^-2 (90% C.L.) have been obtained. Future measurements of the zenith angle distributions by DeepCore in smaller energy bins will allow to improve the bounds by factor 2 - 3. We discuss the signatures of NSI in zenith angle and energy distributions of events which allow to discriminate them from the effects of sterile neutrinos.NeutrinoZenithIceCube Neutrino ObservatoryAtmospheric neutrinoAntineutrinoEarthSterile neutrinoHamiltonianSuper-KamiokandeEffective area...
- [abridged] With their long mean free paths and efficient heating of the intergalactic medium (IGM), X-rays could have a dramatic impact on the thermal and ionization history of the Universe. We explore this in various signals: (i) Reionization history: including X-rays results in an earlier, more extended reionization. Efficient thermal feedback from X-ray heating could yield an extended, ~10% ionized epoch. (ii) Reionization morphology: a sizable (~10%) contribution of X-rays to reionization results in a more uniform morphology, though the impact is modest when compared at the same global neutral fraction, xH. However, changes in morphology cannot be countered by increasing the bias of the ionizing sources, making them a robust signature. (iii) The kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) effect: at a fixed reionization history, X-rays decrease the kSZ power at l=3000 by ~0.5 microK^2. Our extreme model in which X-rays dominate reionization is the only one that is marginally consistent with upper limits from the South Pole Telescope, assuming no thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) - dusty galaxy correlation. Since this extreme model is unlikely, we conclude that there should be a sizable tSZ-dusty galaxy signal. (iv) The cosmic 21cm signal: the impact of X-rays on the 21cm power spectrum during the advanced stages of reionization (xH<0.8) is modest, except in extreme, X-ray dominated models. The largest impact of X-rays is to govern IGM heating. In fact, unless thermal feedback is efficient, the epoch of X-ray heating likely overlaps with the beginning of reionization (xH>0.9). This results in a 21cm power spectrum which is ~ 10-100 times higher than obtained from naive estimates ignoring this overlap. However, if thermal feedback is efficient, the resulting extended epoch between X-ray heating and reionization could provide a clean probe of the matter power spectrum in emission.ReionizationIonizationHydrogen 21 cm lineIntergalactic mediumGalaxyCosmic X-ray backgroundMean free pathH II regionSouth Pole TelescopeThe early Universe...
- The high-energy sources known as anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) and soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) are well explained as magnetars: isolated neutron stars powered by their own magnetic energy. After explaining why it is generally believed that the traditional energy sources at work in other neutron stars (accretion, rotation, residual heat) cannot power the emission of AXPs/SGRs, I review the observational properties of the twenty AXPs/SGRs currently known and describe the main features of the magnetar model. In the last part of this review I discuss the recent discovery of magnetars with low external dipole field and some of the relations between AXPs/SGRs and other classes of isolated neutron stars.Anomalous X-ray pulsarSoft gamma repeaterMagnetarNeutron starAccretionPulsarEnergyFieldMagneticsDipole...
- We analyse the sensitivity of IceCube-DeepCore to annihilation of neutralino dark matter in the solar core, generated within a 25 parameter version of the minimally supersymmetric standard model (MSSM-25). We explore the 25-dimensional parameter space using scanning methods based on importance sampling and using DarkSUSY 5.0.6 to calculate observables. Our scans produced a database of 6.02 million parameter space points with neutralino dark matter consistent with the relic density implied by WMAP 7-year data, as well as with accelerator searches. We performed a model exclusion analysis upon these points using the expected capabilities of the IceCube-DeepCore Neutrino Telescope. We show that IceCube-DeepCore will be sensitive to a number of models that are not accessible to direct detection experiments such as SIMPLE, COUPP and XENON-100, nor to current LHC searches.NeutralinoIceCube Neutrino ObservatorySunNeutrinoMuonMinimal supersymmetric Standard ModelEffective areaGluinoStandard ModelDark matter...
- In this work we systematically study the linear and nonlinear structure formation in chameleon theories of modified gravity, using a generic parameterisation which describes a large class of models using only 4 parameters. For this we have modified the N-body simulation code ECOSMOG to perform a total of 65 simulations for different models and parameter values, including the default LCDM. These simulations enable us to explore a significant portion of the parameter space. We have studied the effects of modified gravity on the matter power spectrum and mass function, and found a rich and interesting phenomenology where the difference with the LCDM paradigm cannot be reproduced by a linear analysis even on scales as large as k~0.05h/Mpc. Our results show that the chameleon screening mechanism is significantly more efficient than other mechanisms such as the dilaton and symmetron, especially in high-density regions and at early times, and can serve as a guidance to determine the parts of the chameleon parameter space which are cosmologically interesting and thus merit further studies in the future.ChameleonScalar fieldFifth forceModified gravityCosmologyDilatonGeneral relativityMass functionStructure formationPerturbation theory...
- We report on the long term X-ray monitoring of the outburst decay of the low magnetic field magnetar SGR 0418+5729, using all the available X-ray data obtained with RXTE, SWIFT, Chandra, and XMM-Newton observations, from the discovery of the source in June 2009, up to August 2012. The timing analysis allowed us to obtain the first measurement of the period derivative of SGR 0418+5729: \dot{P}=4(1)x10^{-15} s/s, significant at ~3.5 sigma confidence level. This leads to a surface dipolar magnetic field of B_dip ~6x 10^{12} G. This measurement confirms SGR 0418+5729 as the lowest magnetic field magnetar. Following the flux and spectral evolution from the beginning of the outburst up to ~1200 days, we observe a gradual cooling of the tiny hot spot responsible for the X-ray emission, from a temperature of ~0.9 to 0.3 keV. Simultaneously, the X-ray flux decreased by about 3 orders of magnitude: from about 1.4x10^{-11} to 1.2x10^{-14} erg/s/cm^2 . Deep radio, millimeter, optical and gamma-ray observations did not detect the source counterpart, implying stringent limits on its multi-band emission, as well as constraints on the presence of a fossil disk. By modeling the magneto-thermal secular evolution of SGR 0418+5729, we infer a realistic age of ~550 kyr, and a dipolar magnetic field at birth of ~10^{14} G. The outburst characteristics suggest the presence of a thin twisted bundle with a small heated spot at its base. The bundle untwisted in the first few months following the outburst, while the hot spot decreases in temperature and size. We estimate the outburst rate of low magnetic field magnetars to be about one per year per galaxy, and we briefly discuss the consequences of such result in several other astrophysical contexts.Optical burstsMagnetarPulsarNeutron starLuminosityMagnetosphere of a starBundleAbsorbanceSoft gamma repeaterX-ray luminosity...
- We present a catalog of 59 ultra-compact high velocity clouds (UCHVCs) extracted from the 40% complete ALFALFA HI-line survey. The ALFALFA UCHVCs have median flux densities of 1.34 Jy km/s, median angular diameters of 10', and median velocity widths of 23 km/s. We show that the full UCHVC population cannot easily be associated with known populations of high velocity clouds. Of the 59 clouds presented here, only 11 are also present in the compact cloud catalog extracted from the commensal GALFA-HI survey, demonstrating the utility of this separate dataset and analysis. Based on their sky distribution and observed properties, we infer that the ALFALFA UCHVCs are consistent with the hypothesis that they may be very low mass galaxies within the Local Volume. In that case, most of their baryons would be in the form of gas, and because of their low stellar content, they remain unidentified by extant optical surveys. At distances of ~1 Mpc, the UCHVCs have neutral hydrogen (HI) masses of ~10^5 -10^6 M_sun, HI diameters of ~2-3 kpc, and indicative dynamical masses within the HI extent of ~10^7 - 10^8 M_sun, similar to the Local Group ultra-faint dwarf Leo T. The recent ALFALFA discovery of the star-forming, metal-poor, low mass galaxy Leo P demonstrates that this hypothesis is true in at least one case. In the case of the individual UCHVCs presented here, confirmation of their extragalactic nature will require further work, such as the identification of an optical counterpart to constrain their distance.Ultra-compact high velocity cloudGas cloudsGalaxyInterstellar cloudALFALFA surveyLocal groupMilky WayLeo T dwarf galaxyDark matter haloUltra-faint dwarf spheroidal galaxy...
- After the recent discovery of a 125 GeV Higgs-like particle at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), it is crucial to examine its role in unitarizing high energy W_LW_L scattering, which may reveal its possible deviation from a Standard Model Higgs. We perform an updated study on WW scattering in the semileptonic channel at the LHC, improved by the recently developed W jet tagging method. The resultant statistical significance of a Strongly-Interacting Light Higgs (SILH) model is about 20% larger than that based on the conventionally "gold-plated" dileptonic channel, while 200% more signal events are retained. This allows the discovery of an SILH model if the signal strength is 100% (10%) of a pure Higgsless model, using about 40 (3000) fb^{-1} data at the 14 TeV LHC. Meanwhile, the excellent sensitivity to the anomalous Higgs-W boson coupling makes semileptonic WW scattering an important complement to precision measurements at the Higgs resonance.Standard ModelLarge Hadron ColliderHiggsless modelsUnitarityPartonHadronizationQCD jetSystematic errorInvariant massStatistical significance...
- Weak lensing provides an important route toward collecting samples of clusters of galaxies selected by mass. Subtle systematic errors in image reduction can compromise the power of this technique. We use the B-mode signal to quantify this systematic error and to test methods for reducing this error. We show that two procedures are efficient in suppressing systematic error in the B-mode: (1) refinement of the mosaic CCD warping procedure to conform to absolute celestial coordinates and (2) truncation of the smoothing procedure on a scale of 10$^{\prime}$. Application of these procedures reduces the systematic error to 20% of its original amplitude. We provide an analytic expression for the distribution of the highest peaks in noise maps that can be used to estimate the fraction of false peaks in the weak lensing $\kappa$-S/N maps as a function of the detection threshold. Based on this analysis we select a threshold S/N = 4.56 for identifying an uncontaminated set of weak lensing peaks in two test fields covering a total area of $\sim 3$deg$^2$. Taken together these fields contain seven peaks above the threshold. Among these, six are probable systems of galaxies and one is a superposition. We confirm the reliability of these peaks with dense redshift surveys, x-ray and imaging observations. The systematic error reduction procedures we apply are general and can be applied to future large-area weak lensing surveys. Our high peak analysis suggests that with a S/N threshold of 4.5, there should be only 2.7 spurious weak lensing peaks even in an area of 1000 deg$^2$ where we expect $\sim$ 2000 peaks based on our Subaru fields.B-modesWeak lensingGalaxyDeep Lens SurveySystematic errorStarSuprime-CamSubaru telescopeEquatorial coordinate systemRedshift survey...
- In this work, we discuss the relativistic Landau-He-McKellar-Wilkens quantization and relativistic bound states solutions for a Dirac neutral particle under the influence of a Coulomb-like potential induced by the Lorentz symmetry breaking effects. We present new possible scenarios of studying Lorentz symmetry breaking effects by fixing the space-like vector field background in special configurations. It is worth mentioning that we use the criterion for studying the violation of Lorentz symmetry is that the gauge symmetry should be preserved.QuantizationBound stateSpin-1 fieldElectric dipole momentLorentz violationElectrostaticsEffective potentialGauge symmetryStandard ModelTopological defect...
- We explore what can be said on the effective temperature and sound speed of a statistical ensemble of fluid phonons present at the onset of a conventional inflationary phase. The phonons are the actual normal modes of the gravitating and irrotational fluid that dominates the protoinflationary dynamics. The bounds on the tensor to scalar ratio result in a class of novel constraints involving the slow roll parameter, the sound speed of the phonons and the temperature of the plasma prior to the onset of inflation. If the current size of the Hubble radius coincides with the inflationary event horizon redshifted down to the present epoch, the sound speed of the phonons can be assessed from independent measurements of the tensor to scalar ratio and of the tensor spectral index.PhononGravitonHubble radiusNormal modeCurvature perturbationEffective temperatureSlow rollEvent horizonInflatonStatistical ensemble...
- Polar ring galaxies are ideal objects with which to study the three-dimensional shapes of galactic gravitational potentials since two rotation curves can be measured in two perpendicular planes. Observational studies have uncovered systematically larger rotation velocities in the extended polar rings than in the associated host galaxies. In the dark matter context, this can only be explained through dark halos that are systematically flattened along the polar rings. Here, we point out that these objects can also be used as very effective tests of gravity theories, such as those based on Milgromian dynamics (MOND). We run a set of polar ring models using both Milgromian and Newtonian dynamics to predict the expected shapes of the rotation curves in both planes, varying the total mass of the system, the mass of the ring with respect to the host, as well as the size of the hole at the center of the ring. We find that Milgromian dynamics not only naturally leads to rotation velocities being typically higher in the extended polar rings than in the hosts, as would be the case in Newtonian dynamics without dark matter, but that it also gets the shape and amplitude of velocities correct. Milgromian dynamics thus adequately explains this particular property of polar ring galaxies.Rotation CurvePolar-ring galaxyHost galaxyDark matterGalaxyNaturalnessNewtonian dynamicsEccentricityEllipticityModified Newtonian Dynamics...
- VERITAS is a major ground-based detector of very high energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) gamma rays and cosmic rays. VERITAS consists of an ar- ray of four 12m-diameter atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes that has been fully operational since September 2007. VERITAS has detected many as- trophysical sources of VHE gamma rays, including at least 17 VHE sources that are likely Galactic in origin. This paper describes some of the Galactic source highlights from VERITAS with an emphasis on those aspects that relate to the origin of cosmic rays. Specifically, topics include the VERITAS discovery of VHE emission from the Tycho and CTA 1 supernova remnants, the identification of HESS J0632+057 as a new VHE binary, a substantially improved view of the gamma-ray emission in the Cygnus OB1 region, and the recent remarkable discovery of VHE emission from the Crab pulsar. In 2009, VERITAS was upgraded by relocation of one of the telescopes, leading to a significant improvement in sensitivity. A program to further improve the performance of VERITAS, involving the upgrade of the telescope trigger systems and the telescope cameras, was completed in summer 2012. The upgrade will lead to an improved sensitivity and a lower energy threshold for VERITAS, allowing it to perform deeper observations of known Galactic and extragalactic sources and to detect fainter and more distant sources.VERITASVery high energy gamma-rayPulsarTelescopesSupernova remnantBinary starCosmic rayHESS telescopeFERMI telescopeCrab pulsar...
- In stark contrast to their laboratory and terrestrial counterparts, the cosmic jets appear to be very stable. The are able to penetrate vast spaces, which exceed by up to a billion times the size of their central engines. We propose that the reason behind this remarkable property is the loss of causal connectivity across these jets, caused by their rapid expansion in response to fast decline of external pressure with the distance from the "jet engine". In atmospheres with power-law pressure distribution, the total loss of causal connectivity occurs, when the power index k>2 - the steepness which is expected to be quite common for many astrophysical environments. This conclusion does not seem to depend on the physical nature of jets - it applies both to relativistic and non-relativistic flows, both magnetically-dominated and unmagnetized jets. In order to verify it, we have carried out numerical simulations of moderately magnetized and moderately relativistic jets. Their results give strong support to our hypothesis and provide with valuable insights. In particular, we find that the z-pinched inner cores of magnetic jets expand slower than their envelopes and become susceptible to instabilities even when the whole jet is stable. This may result in local dissipation and emission without global disintegration of the flow. Cosmic jets may become globally unstable when they enter flat sections of external atmospheres. We propose that the Fanaroff-Riley morphological division of extragalactic radio sources into two classes is related to this issue. In particular, we argue that the low power FR-I jets become re-confined, causally connected and globally unstable on the scale of galactic X-ray coronas, whereas more powerful FR-II jets re-confine much further out, already on the scale of radio lobes, and remain largely intact until they terminate at hot spots.Astrophysical jetInstabilitySimulationsDissipationCausalityActive Galactic NucleiAzimuthRadio lobesSteady stateThermalisation...
- We present a framework for general relativistic N-body simulations in the regime of weak gravitational fields. In this approach, Einstein's equations are expanded in terms of metric perturbations about a Friedmann-Lema\^itre background, which are assumed to remain small. The metric perturbations themselves are only kept to linear order, but we keep their first spatial derivatives to second order and treat their second spatial derivatives as well as sources of stress-energy fully non-perturbatively. The evolution of matter is modelled by an N-body ensemble which can consist of free-streaming nonrelativistic (e.g. cold dark matter) or relativistic particle species (e.g. cosmic neutrinos), but the framework is fully general and also allows for other sources of stress-energy, in particular additional relativistic sources like modified-gravity models or topological defects. We compare our method with the traditional Newtonian approach and argue that relativistic methods are conceptually more robust and flexible, at the cost of a moderate increase of numerical difficulty. However, for a LambdaCDM cosmology, where nonrelativistic matter is the only source of perturbations, the relativistic corrections are expected to be small. We quantify this statement by extracting post-Newtonian estimates from Newtonian N-body simulations.SimulationsMetric perturbationCold dark matterCosmologyPerturbation theoryEinstein field equationsHomogenizationAnisotropic stressAmplitudeHorizon...
- We perform a detailed forecast on how well a Euclid-like survey will be able to constrain dark energy and neutrino parameters from a combination of its cosmic shear power spectrum, galaxy power spectrum, and cluster mass function measurements. We find that the combination of these three probes vastly improves the survey's potential to measure the time evolution of dark energy. In terms of a dark energy figure-of-merit defined as (sigma(w_0) sigma(w_a))^-1, we find a value of 454 for Euclid-like data combined with Planck-like measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies in a fiducial LambdaCDM cosmology, a number that is quite conservative compared with existing estimates because of our choice of model parameter space and analysis method, but still represents a factor of 3 to 8 improvement over using either CMB+galaxy clustering+cosmic shear data, or CMB+cluster mass function alone. We consider also the survey's potential to measure dark energy perturbations in models wherein the dark energy is parameterised as a fluid with a nonstandard non-adiabatic sound speed, and find that in an optimistic scenario in which w_0 deviates by as much as is currently observationally allowed from -1, models with c_s^2 = 10^-6 and c_s^2 = 1 can be distinguished at more than 2sigma significance. Under the same optimistic assumptions, if the Jeans mass associated with dark energy clustering falls within the cluster mass range observed by the survey, then the order of magnitude of the dark energy sound speed can potentially be pinned down. Finally, we find that the sum of neutrino masses can be measured with a 1sigma precision of 0.01eV, even in complex cosmological models in which the dark energy equation of state varies with time. (abridged)Cluster of galaxiesDark energyVirial cluster massCosmic microwave backgroundGalaxyCosmological parametersCosmologyNeutrino massCosmic shearNeutrino...
- We present the results of the "Cosmogrid" cosmological N-body simulation suites based on the concordance LCDM model. The Cosmogrid simulation was performed in a 30Mpc box with 2048^3 particles. The mass of each particle is 1.28x10^5 Msun which is sufficient to resolve ultra-faint dwarfs. We found that the halo mass function shows good agreement with the Sheth and Tormen (1999) fitting function down to ~10^7 Msun. We have analyzed the spherically averaged density profiles of the three most massive halos which are of galaxy group size and contain at least 170 million particles. The slopes of these density profiles become shallower than -1 at the inner most radius. We also find a clear correlation of halo concentration with mass. The mass dependence of the concentration parameter cannot be expressed by a single power law, however a simple model based on the Press-Schechter theory gives reasonable agreement with this dependence. The spin parameter does not show a correlation with the halo mass. The probability distribution functions for both concentration and spin are well fitted by the log-normal distribution for halos with the masses larger than ~10^8 Msun.Dark matter subhaloVirial massStatisticsMass functionCosmologyDark matter haloNavarro-Frenk-White profileLog-normal distributionDark matterGalactic halo...
- Cosmological surveys aim to use the evolution of the abundance of galaxy clusters to accurately constrain the cosmological model. In the context of LCDM, we show that it is possible to achieve the required percent level accuracy in the halo mass function with gravity-only cosmological simulations, and we provide simulation start and run parameter guidelines for doing so. Some previous works have had sufficient statistical precision, but lacked robust verification of absolute accuracy. Convergence tests of the mass function with, for example, simulation start redshift can exhibit false convergence of the mass function due to counteracting errors, potentially misleading one to infer overly optimistic estimations of simulation accuracy. Percent level accuracy is possible if initial condition particle mapping uses second order Lagrangian Perturbation Theory, and if the start epoch is between 10 and 50 expansion factors before the epoch of halo formation of interest. The mass function for halos with fewer than ~1000 particles is highly sensitive to simulation parameters and start redshift, implying a practical minimum mass resolution limit due to mass discreteness. The narrow range in converged start redshift suggests that it is not presently possible for a single simulation to capture accurately the cluster mass function while also starting early enough to model accurately the numbers of reionisation era galaxies, whose baryon feedback processes may affect later cluster properties. Ultimately, to fully exploit current and future cosmological surveys will require accurate modeling of baryon physics and observable properties, a formidable challenge for which accurate gravity-only simulations are just an initial step.Mass functionStatisticsHalo mass functionCosmologyFriends of friends algorithmVirial massSystematic errorMatter power spectrumDark matter haloSimulations of structure formation...
- We study classically scale invariant models in which the Standard Model Higgs mass term is replaced in the Lagrangian by a Higgs portal coupling to a complex scalar field of a dark sector. We focus on models that are weakly coupled with the quartic scalar couplings nearly vanishing at the Planck scale. The dark sector contains fermions and scalars charged under dark SU(2) x U(1) gauge interactions. Radiative breaking of the dark gauge group triggers electroweak symmetry breaking through the Higgs portal coupling. Requiring both a Higgs boson mass of 125.5 GeV and stability of the Higgs potential up to the Planck scale implies that the radiative breaking of the dark gauge group occurs at the TeV scale. We present a particular model which features a long-range abelian dark force. The dominant dark matter component is neutral dark fermions, with the correct thermal relic abundance, and in reach of future direct detection experiments. The model also has lighter stable dark fermions charged under the dark force, with observable effects on galactic-scale structure. Collider signatures include a dark sector scalar boson with mass < 250 GeV that decays through mixing with the Higgs boson, and can be detected at the LHC. The Higgs boson, as well as the new scalar, may have significant invisible decays into dark sector particles.Standard ModelDark fermionsDark matterPlanck scaleHiggs boson massDark sectorVacuum expectation valueEuler beta functionGauge coupling constantHiggs boson...
- We measure the large-scale cross-correlation of quasars with the Lyman alpha forest absorption, using over 164,000 quasars from Data Release 11 of the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We extend the previous study of roughly 60,000 quasars from Data Release 9 to larger separations, allowing a measurement of the Baryonic Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) scale along the line of sight $c/(H(z=2.36) ~ r_s) = 9.0 \pm 0.3$ and across the line of sight $D_A(z=2.36)~ / ~ r_s = 10.8 \pm 0.4$, consistent with CMB and other BAO data. Using the best fit value of the sound horizon from Planck data ($r_s=147.49 Mpc$), we can translate these results to a measurement of the Hubble parameter of $H(z=2.36) = 226 \pm 8 km/s$ and of the angular diameter distance of $D_A(z=2.36) = 1590 \pm 60 Mpc$. The measured cross-correlation function and an update of the code to fit the BAO scale (baofit) are made publicly available.Baryon acoustic oscillationsQuasarCross-correlationLine of sightAutocorrelationBaryon Oscillation Spectroscopic SurveyAbsorptivityCovariance matrixCosmologyMatter power spectrum...
- Using SDSS-DR7, we construct a sample of 42382 galaxies with redshifts in the region of 20 galaxy clusters. Using two successive iterative methods, the adaptive kernel method and the spherical infall model, we obtained 3396 galaxies as members belonging to the studied sample. The 2D projected map for the distribution of the clusters members is introduced using the 2D adaptive kernel method to get the clusters centers. The cumulative surface number density profile for each cluster is fitted well with the generalized King model. The core radii of the clusters' sample are found to vary from 0.18 Mpc $\mbox{h}^{-1}$ (A1459) to 0.47 Mpc $\mbox{h}^{-1}$ (A2670) with mean value of 0.295 Mpc $\mbox{h}^{-1}$. The infall velocity profile is determined using two different models, Yahil approximation and Praton model. Yahil approximation is matched with the distribution of galaxies only in the outskirts (infall regions) of many clusters of the sample, while it is not matched with the distribution within the inner core of the clusters. Both Yahil approximation and Praton model are matched together in the infall region for about 9 clusters in the sample but they are completely unmatched for the clusters characterized by high central density. For these cluster, Yahil approximation is not matched with the distribution of galaxies, while Praton model can describe well the infall pattern of such clusters.GalaxyCluster of galaxiesVirial massInfall modelMass profileNavarro-Frenk-White profileVelocity dispersion profileRedshift spaceTurnaround radiusVelocity dispersion...
- Several recent works have reported the detection of an unidentified X-ray line at 3.55 keV, which could possibly be attributed to the decay of dark matter (DM) particles in the halos of galaxy clusters and in the M31 galaxy. We analyze all publicly-available XMM-Newton data of dwarf spheroidal galaxies to test the possible DM origin of the line. Dwarf spheroidal galaxies have high mass-to-light ratios and their interstellar medium is not a source of diffuse X-ray emission, thus they are expected to provide the cleanest DM decay line signal. Our analysis shows no evidence for the presence of the line in the stacked spectra of the dwarf galaxies. It excludes the sterile neutrino DM decay origin of the 3.5 keV line reported by Bulbul et al. (2014) at the level of 4.6 sigma under standard assumptions about the Galactic DM column density in the direction of selected dwarf galaxies and at the level of 3.3 sigma assuming minimal Galactic DM column density. As a by-product of our analysis, we provide updated upper limits to the mixing angle of sterile neutrino DM in the mass range between 2 and 20 keV.Dwarf spheroidal galaxyDark matter decayDark matterMilky WayCluster of galaxiesDM decay lineSterile neutrino DMDark matter column densityMixing angleField of view...
- I find the three-loop contribution to the effective potential for the Standard Model Higgs field, in the approximation that the strong and top Yukawa couplings are large compared to all other couplings, using dimensional regularization with modified minimal subtraction. Checks follow from gauge invariance and renormalization group invariance. I also briefly comment on the special problems posed by Goldstone boson contributions to the effective potential, and on the numerical impact of the result on the relations between the Higgs vacuum expectation value, mass, and self-interaction coupling.Effective potentialRenormalizationGoldstone bosonVacuum expectation valueStandard ModelYukawa couplingTop quarkRenormalization groupQuantum chromodynamicsAnomalous dimension...