- Prime number (Prime number)

by Wilson Yu04 Feb 2019 03:47 - Nambu-Goto action (Nambu-Goto action)

by Dr. Cannabia Seeds11 Jan 2019 19:42 - Lower and upper (Lower and upper)

by Dr. Wei Wang28 Dec 2018 02:32 - Electrical conductivity (Electrical conductivity)

by Dr. Farhad Daneshvar20 Nov 2018 19:00 - On Measurement Assessment and Division Matrices (On Measurement Assessment and Division Matrices)

by Prof. Hasan Keleş01 Aug 2018 11:58 - Benjamin-Ono equation (Benjamin-Ono equation)

by Prof. Alexander Abanov03 Nov 2009 21:51 - Gravitational lensing (Gravitational lensing)

by Prof. Koen Kuijken05 Dec 2010 22:11 - Quantum point contact (Quantum point contact)

by Prof. Carlo Beenakker08 Jan 2011 20:32 - Neutrino Minimal Standard Model (Neutrino Minimal Standard Model)

by Prof. Mikhail Shaposhnikov15 Nov 2016 16:20 - Leptogenesis (Leptogenesis)

by Dr. Sacha Davidson08 Dec 2010 13:32

- Classifying phases of matter is a central problem in physics. For quantum mechanical systems, this task can be daunting owing to the exponentially large Hilbert space. Thanks to the available computing power and access to ever larger data sets, classification problems are now routinely solved using machine learning techniques. Here, we propose to use a neural network based approach to find phase transitions depending on the performance of the neural network after training it with deliberately incorrectly labelled data. We demonstrate the success of this method on the topological phase transition in the Kitaev chain, the thermal phase transition in the classical Ising model, and the many-body-localization transition in a disordered quantum spin chain. Our method does not depend on order parameters, knowledge of the topological content of the phases, or any other specifics of the transition at hand. It therefore paves the way to a generic tool to identify unexplored phase transitions.Phase transitionsMachine learningNeural networkEntanglement spectrumIsing modelClassificationCritical pointWavefunctionEntanglementTopological order...
- Neural networks can be used to identify phases and phase transitions in condensed matter systems via supervised machine learning. Readily programmable through modern software libraries, we show that a standard feed-forward neural network can be trained to detect multiple types of order parameter directly from raw state configurations sampled with Monte Carlo. In addition, they can detect highly non-trivial states such as Coulomb phases, and if modified to a convolutional neural network, topological phases with no conventional order parameter. We show that this classification occurs within the neural network without knowledge of the Hamiltonian or even the general locality of interactions. These results demonstrate the power of machine learning as a basic research tool in the field of condensed matter and statistical physics.Neural networkConvolutional neural networkMachine learningClassificationMonte Carlo methodHamiltonianMagnetizationTopological orderHidden layerPhase transitions...
- Recently, it has been recognized that phase transitions play an important role in the probabilistic analysis of combinatorial optimization problems. However, there are in fact many other relations that lead to close ties between computer science and statistical physics. This review aims at presenting the tools and concepts designed by physicists to deal with optimization or decision problems in an accessible language for computer scientists and mathematicians, with no prerequisites in physics. We first introduce some elementary methods of statistical mechanics and then progressively cover the tools appropriate for disordered systems. In each case, we apply these methods to study the phase transitions or the statistical properties of the optimal solutions in various combinatorial problems. We cover in detail the Random Graph, the Satisfiability, and the Traveling Salesman problems. References to the physics literature on optimization are provided. We also give our perspective regarding the interdisciplinary contribution of physics to computer science.Partition functionGraphMagnetizationPhase transitionsStatistical mechanicsRandom graphOptimizationStatistical physicsEntropySaddle point...
- We study nonequilibrium work relations for a space-dependent field with stochastic dynamics (Model A). Jarzynski's equality is obtained through symmetries of the dynamical action in the path integral representation. We derive a set of exact identities that generalize the fluctuation-dissipation relations to non-stationary and far-from-equilibrium situations. These identities are prone to experimental verification. Furthermore, we show that a well-studied invariance of the Langevin equation under supersymmetry, which is known to be broken when the external potential is time-dependent, can be partially restored by adding to the action a term which is precisely Jarzynski's work. The work identities can then be retrieved as consequences of the associated Ward-Takahashi identities.Ward-Takahashi identityPath integralSupersymmetricSupersymmetryJarzynski equalityTime-reversal symmetryLangevin equationSuperfieldExpectation ValueFunctional derivative...
- In this report I discuss fluctuation theorems and transient violations of the second law of thermodynamics in small systems. Special emphasis is placed on free-energy recovery methods in the framework of non-equilibrium single-molecule pulling experiments. The treatment is done from a unified theoretical-experimental perspective and emphasizes how these experiments contribute to our understanding of the thermodynamic behavior of small systemsJarzynski equalityRibonucleic acidDNAFluctuation theoremOptical tweezersSecond law of thermodynamicsProteinDissipationSingle-molecule experimentMagnetic nanoparticles...
- Nanoscale machines are strongly influenced by thermal fluctuations, contrary to their macroscopic counterparts. As a consequence, even the efficiency of such microscopic machines becomes a fluctuating random variable. Using geometric properties and the fluctuation theorem for the total entropy production, a `universal theory of efficiency fluctuations' at long times, for machines with a finite state space, was developed in [Verley \textit{et al.}, Nat.~Commun.~\textbf{5}, 4721 (2014); Phys.~Rev.~E~\textbf{90}, 052145 (2014)]. We extend this theory to machines with an arbitrary state space. Thereby, we work out more detailed prerequisites for the `universal features' and explain under which circumstances deviations can occur. We also illustrate our findings with exact results for two non-trivial models of colloidal engines.Entropy productionFluctuation theoremThermal fluctuationsWhite noiseExact solutionNon-equilibrium steady statesPrincipal axesEntropyPath integralSteady state...
- Magnetic insulators in the regime of strong spin-orbit coupling exhibit intriguing behaviors in external magnetic fields, reflecting the frustrated nature of their effective interactions. We review the recent advances in understanding the field responses of materials that are described by models with strongly bond-dependent spin exchange interactions, such as Kitaev's celebrated honeycomb model and its extensions. We discuss the field-induced phases and the complex magnetization processes found in these theories and compare with experimental results in the layered Mott insulators $\alpha$-RuCl$_3$ and Na$_2$IrO$_3$, which are believed to realize this fascinating physics.Spin liquidMagnonAntiferromagneticSpin-orbit interactionMagnetizationMagnetismAnisotropyHoneycomb latticeDisorderHamiltonian...
- Lunar laser ranging (LLR) data and Apollo seismic data analyses, revealed independent evidence for the presence of a fluid lunar core. However, the size of the lunar fluid core remained uncertain by $\pm 40$ km. Here we show that a new description of the lunar interior's dynamical model provides a determination of the radius and geometry of the lunar core-mantle boundary (CMB) from the LLR observations. We compare the present-day lunar core oblateness obtained from LLR analysis with the expected hydrostatic model values, over a range of previously expected CMB radii. The findings suggest a core oblateness ($f_c=(2.13 \pm 0.53) \times 10^{-4}$) that satisfies the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium over a tight range of lunar CMB radii ($\mathcal{R}_{CMB} \approx 384 \pm 12$ km). Our estimates of a presently-relaxed lunar CMB translates to a core mass fraction in the range of $1.63-2.06\%$ with a present-day Free Core Nutation (FCN) within $(374 \pm 93)$ years. In addition, a better constraint on the lunar CMB radii translates to an improvement on the precision tests of fundamental physics using LLR data. Our methods can also be applied to study the influence of the liquid core on the rotation of other planets, especially Mars, with the recent advent of the InSight mission.Core Mantle BoundaryMoonEllipticityHydrostaticsMantleCore mass fractionEarthPlanetGravitational fieldsLunar Laser Ranging experiment...
- For developing a better comprehension of the consequences of cyber-attacks, the paper examines the influence of system infections with self-replicating malware on the outcome of kinetic combat. The situation is represented as a system-dynamics model consisting of a SIR-like and a Lanchester component. The game-like context of kinetic combat illustrates the effects of malware in a concise way. Corresponding assessment criteria are derived and applied to scenario classes resulting from assumptions about the expected circumstances. Remaining uncertainties are taken into account by applying Monte-Carlo simulations, whereby the specific scenarios to be processed can be selected randomly by information-theoretic principles. The resulting framework allows a model-based calculation of e.g. the risk and the fraction of scenarios, in which malware attacks turn around the outcome of the kinetic combat. Some of our basic findings derived from computational calculations are: (1) Malware attacks affecting availability can turn around the outcome of kinetic combat in a significant fraction of scenarios. (2) Cyber capabilities tend to soften out kinetic superiority or inferiority. (3) Using the most aggressive malware is not necessarily the best decision for an aggressor. (4) Starting countermeasures against a malware attack at the earliest possible time is not always the best decision for a defender.Monte Carlo methodStatisticsEntropySecurityEarly stoppingOrdinary differential equationsNonnegativeSelection biasTrojan asteroidsUniform distribution...
- We deform two-dimensional quantum field theories by antisymmetric combinations of their conserved currents that generalize Smirnov and Zamolodchikov's $T\bar{T}$ deformation. We obtain that energy levels on a circle obey a transport equation analogous to the Burgers equation found in the $T\bar{T}$ case. This equation relates charges at any value of the deformation parameter to charges in the presence of a (generalized) Wilson line. We determine the initial data and solve the transport equations for antisymmetric combinations of flavor symmetry currents and the stress tensor starting from conformal field theories. Among the theories we solve is a conformal field theory deformed by $J\bar{T}$ and $T\bar{T}$ simultaneously. We check our answer against results from AdS/CFT.Conformal field theoryHamiltonianField theoryOperator product expansionPerturbation theoryKorteweg-de Vries equationEvolution equationNormal orderAdS/CFT correspondenceHigher spin...
- We study the expectation value of the $\mathrm{T}\overline{\mathrm{T}}$ operator in spacetimes with constant curvature. We define an diffeomorphism invariant biscalar whose coinciding limit gives the expectation value of the $\mathrm{T}\overline{\mathrm{T}}$ operator. We show that this biscalar is a constant in flat spacetime, which reproduces Zamolodchikov's result in 2004. For spacetimes with non-zero curvature, we show that this is no longer true and the expectation value of the $\mathrm{T}\overline{\mathrm{T}}$ operator depends on both the one-point and two-point functions of the stress-energy tensor.Expectation ValueCurvatureGeodesicPropagatorConstant curvatureConformal field theoryAnti de Sitter spaceDiffeomorphismPartition functionQuantum field theory...
- These notes contain some aspects of the holographic duality between the perturbative superstring on current-current deformations of $AdS_3\times S^1\times{\cal N}$ and single-trace $T\bar T$ and $J\bar T$ deformed $CFT_2$.String theorySuperstringWorldsheetTwisted sectorDualitySigma modelDilatonScaling dimensionVertex operatorField theory...
- The detailed velocity structure of the diffuse X-ray emitting intra-cluster medium (ICM) remains one of the last missing key ingredients in understanding the microphysical properties of these hot baryons and constraining our models of the growth and evolution of structure on the largest scales in the Universe. Direct measurements of the gas velocities from the widths and shifts of X-ray emission lines were recently provided for the central region of the Perseus Cluster of galaxies by $Hitomi$, and upcoming high-resolution X-ray microcalorimeters onboard $XRISM$ and $Athena$ are expected to extend these studies to many more systems. In the mean time, several other direct and indirect methods have been proposed for estimating the velocity structure in the ICM, ranging from resonant scattering to X-ray surface brightness fluctuation analysis, the kinematic Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, or using optical line emitting nebulae in the brightest cluster galaxies as tracers of the motions of the ambient plasma. Here, we review and compare the existing estimates of the velocities of the hot baryons, as well as the various overlapping physical processes that drive motions in the ICM, and discuss the implications of these measurements for constraining the viscosity and identifying the source of turbulence in clusters of galaxies.Intra-cluster mediumTurbulenceCluster of galaxiesVelocity dispersionAGN feedbackActive Galactic NucleiGalaxyViscosityPerseus galaxy clusterSurface brightness...
- Galaxy clusters grow by gas accretion, mostly from mergers of substructures, which release powerful shock waves into cosmic plasmas and convert a fraction of kinetic energy into thermal energy, amplification of magnetic fields and into the acceleration of energetic particles. The modeling of the radio signature of cosmic shocks, combined with the lack of detected gamma-rays from cosmic ray (CR) protons, poses challenges to our understanding of how cosmic rays get accelerated and stored in the intracluster medium. Here we review the injection of CRs by cosmic shocks of different strengths, combining the detailed "microscopic" view of collisionless processes governing the creation of non-thermal distributions of electrons and protons in cluster shocks (based on analytic theory and particle-in-cell simulations), with the "macroscopic" view of the large-scale distribution of cosmic rays, suggested by modern cosmological simulations. We discuss time dependent non-linear kinetic models of particle acceleration by multiple internal shocks with large scale compressible motions of plasma. The models produce soft CR spectra containing a noticeable energy density in the super-thermal protons of energies below a few GeV which are difficult to constrain by Fermi observations. We consider the effect of plasma composition on CR injection and super-thermal particle population in the hot intracluster matter which can be constrained by fine high resolution X-ray spectroscopy of Fe ions.Cosmic rayIntra-cluster mediumCluster of galaxiesParticle-in-cellSimulations of structure formationDiffusive shock accelerationTurbulenceMach numberRadio relicsAccretion...
- We introduce the Simba simulations, the next generation of the Mufasa cosmological galaxy formation simulations run with Gizmo's meshless finite mass hydrodynamics. Simba includes updates to Mufasa's sub-resolution star formation and feedback prescriptions, and introduces black hole growth via the torque-limited accretion model of Angl\'es-Alc\'azar et al. (2017) from cold gas and Bondi accretion from hot gas, along with black hole feedback via kinetic bipolar outflows and X-ray energy. Ejection velocities are taken to be ~10^3 km/s at high Eddington ratios, increasing to ~8000 km/s at Eddington ratios below 2%, with a constant momentum input of 20L/c. Simba further includes an on-the-fly dust production, growth, and destruction model. Our Simba run with (100 Mpc/h)^3 and 1024^3 gas elements reproduces numerous observables, including galaxy stellar mass functions at z=0-6, the stellar mass--star formation rate main sequence, HI and H2 fractions, the mass-metallicity relation at z=0 and z=2, star-forming galaxy sizes, hot gas fractions in massive halos, and z=0 galaxy dust properties. However, Simba also yields an insufficiently sharp truncation of the z=0 mass function, and too-large sizes for low-mass quenched galaxies. We show that Simba's jet feedback is primarily responsible for quenching massive galaxies.GalaxyBlack holeQuenchingAGN feedbackStar formationMassive galaxiesAccretionStellar massHot gasGalactic stellar mass function...
- We present a class of efficient models called MobileNets for mobile and embedded vision applications. MobileNets are based on a streamlined architecture that uses depth-wise separable convolutions to build light weight deep neural networks. We introduce two simple global hyper-parameters that efficiently trade off between latency and accuracy. These hyper-parameters allow the model builder to choose the right sized model for their application based on the constraints of the problem. We present extensive experiments on resource and accuracy tradeoffs and show strong performance compared to other popular models on ImageNet classification. We then demonstrate the effectiveness of MobileNets across a wide range of applications and use cases including object detection, finegrain classification, face attributes and large scale geo-localization.ArchitectureClassificationConvolutional neural networkObject detectionDistillationCOCO simulationDeep Neural NetworksSmall-scale dynamoRegularizationCrossed product...
- Understanding the relationship between long-period giant planets and multiple smaller short-period planets is critical for formulating a complete picture of planet formation. This work characterizes three such systems. We present Kepler-65, a system with an eccentric (e=0.28+/-0.07) giant planet companion discovered via radial velocities (RVs) exterior to a compact, multiply-transiting system of sub-Neptune planets. We also use precision RVs to improve mass and radius constraints on two other systems with similar architectures, Kepler-25 and Kepler-68. In Kepler-68 we propose a second exterior giant planet candidate. Finally, we consider the implications of these systems for planet formation models, particularly that the moderate eccentricity in Kepler-65's exterior giant planet did not disrupt its inner system.PlanetEccentricityGiant planetCompanionHIRES spectrometerJupiterTerrestrial planetInclinationRadial velocityStellar activity...
- The snow line in a protoplanetary disk demarcates regions with H$_2$O ice from regions with H$_2$O vapor. Where a planet forms relative to this location determines how much water and other volatiles it forms with. Giant planet formation may be triggered at the water snow line if vapor diffuses outward and is cold-trapped beyond the snow line faster than icy particles can drift inward. In this study we investigate the distribution of water across the snow line, considering three different radial profiles of the turbulence parameter $\alpha(r)$, corresponding to three different angular momentum transport mechanisms. We consider the radial transport of water vapor and icy particles by diffusion, advection, and drift. We show that even for similar values of $\alpha$, the gradient of $\alpha$(r) across the snow line significantly changes the snow line location, the sharpness of the volatile gradient across the snow line, and the final water/rock ratio in planetary bodies. A profile of radially decreasing $\alpha$, consistent with transport by hydrodynamic instabilities plus magnetic disk winds, appears consistent with the distribution of water in the solar nebula, with monotonically-increasing radial water content and a diverse population of asteroids with different water content. We argue that $\Sigma(r)$ and water abundance $N_{\rm H_2O}(r)/N_{\rm H_2}(r)$ are likely diagnostic of $\alpha(r)$ and thus the mechanism for angular momentum transport in inner disks.ChondrulesAstronomical UnitAsteroidsWater vaporAbundanceVolatilesProtoplanetary diskTurbulenceStarDiffusion coefficient...
- The field of exoplanetary science is making rapid progress both in statistical studies of exoplanet properties as well as in individual characterization. As space missions provide an emerging picture of formation and evolution of exoplanetary systems, the search for habitable worlds becomes one of the fundamental issues to address. To tackle such a complex challenge, we need to specify the conditions favorable for the origin, development and sustainment of life as we know it. This requires the understanding of global (astrospheric) and local (atmospheric, surface and internal) environments of exoplanets in the framework of the physical processes of the interaction between evolving planet-hosting stars along with exoplanetary evolution over geological timescales, and the resulting impact on climate and habitability of exoplanets. Feedbacks between astrophysical, physico-chemical atmospheric and geological processes can only be understood through interdisciplinary studies with the incorporation of progress in heliophysics, astrophysics, planetary, Earth sciences, astrobiology, and the origin of life communities. The assessment of the impacts of host stars on the climate and habitability of terrestrial (exo)planets and potential exomoons around them may significantly modify the extent and the location of the habitable zone and provide new directions for searching for signatures of life. Thus, characterization of stellar ionizing outputs becomes an important task for further understanding the extent of habitability in the universe. The goal of this white paper is to identify and describe promising key research goals to aid the theoretical characterization and observational detection of ionizing radiation from quiescent and flaring upper atmospheres of planet hosts as well as properties of stellar coronal mass ejections and stellar energetic particle events.PlanetHost starExtrasolar planetClimateIonizing radiationXenobiologyUpper atmosphereEarthHabitable zoneCoronal mass ejection...
- We highlight how guaranteed time observations (GTOs) and early release science (ERS) will advance understanding of exoplanet atmospheres and provide a glimpse into what transiting exoplanet science will be done with JWST during its first year of operations. These observations of 27 transiting planets will deliver significant insights into the compositions, chemistry, clouds, and thermal profiles of warm-to-hot gas-dominated planets well beyond what we have learned from HST, Spitzer, and other observatories to date. These data and insights will in turn inform our understanding of planet formation, atmospheric transport and climate, and relationships between various properties. Some insight will likely be gained into rocky planet atmospheres as well. JWST will be the most important mission for characterizing exoplanet atmospheres in the 2020s, and this should be considered in assessing exoplanet science for the 2020s and 2030s and future facilities.Extrasolar planetJames Webb Space TelescopePlanetRocky planetsClimateHot gasPlanet formationObservatoriesSpitzer Space TelescopeHubble Space Telescope...
- Surveys reveal that terrestrial- to Neptune-sized planets (1 $< R <$ 4 R$_{\rm{Earth}}$) are the most common type of planets in our galaxy. Detecting and characterizing such small planets around nearby stars holds the key to understanding the diversity of exoplanets and will ultimately address the ubiquitousness of life in the universe. The following fundamental questions will drive research in the next decade and beyond: (1) how common are terrestrial to Neptune-sized planets within a few AU of their host star, as a function of stellar mass? (2) How does planet composition depend on planet mass, orbital radius, and host star properties? (3) What are the energy budgets, atmospheric dynamics, and climates of the nearest worlds? Addressing these questions requires: a) diffraction-limited spatial resolution; b) stability and achievable contrast delivered by adaptive optics; and c) the light-gathering power of extremely large telescopes (ELTs), as well as multi-wavelength observations and all-sky coverage enabled by a comprehensive US ELT Program. Here we provide an overview of the challenge, and promise of success, in detecting and comprehensively characterizing small worlds around the very nearest stars to the Sun with ELTs. This white paper extends and complements the material presented in the findings and recommendations published in the National Academy reports on Exoplanet Science Strategy and Astrobiology Strategy for the Search for Life in the Universe.PlanetExtrasolar planetNeptuneStarTelescopesHost starEarthClimateHabitable zoneAdaptive optics...
- As the closest example of a galactic nucleus, the Galactic center (GC) presents an exquisite laboratory for learning about supermassive black holes (SMBH) and their environment. We describe several exciting new research directions that, over the next 10 years, hold the potential to answer some of the biggest scientific questions raised in recent decades: Is General Relativity (GR) the correct description for supermassive black holes? What is the nature of star formation in extreme environments? How do stars and compact objects dynamically interact with the supermassive black hole? What physical processes drive gas accretion in low-luminosity black holes? We describe how the high sensitivity, angular resolution, and astrometric precision offered by the next generation of large ground-based telescopes with adaptive optics will help us answer these questions. First, it will be possible to obtain precision measurements of stellar orbits in the Galaxy's central potential, providing both tests of GR in the unexplored regime near a SMBH and measurements of the extended dark matter distribution that is predicted to exist at the GC. Second, we will probe stellar populations at the GC to significantly lower masses than are possible today, down to brown dwarfs. Their structure and dynamics will provide an unprecedented view of the stellar cusp around the SMBH and will distinguish between models of star formation in this extreme environment. This increase in depth will also allow us to measure the currently unknown population of compact remnants at the GC by observing their effects on luminous sources. Third, uncertainties on the mass of and distance to the SMBH can be improved by a factor of $\sim$10. Finally, we can also study the near-infrared accretion onto the black hole at unprecedented sensitivity and time resolution, which can reveal the underlying physics of black hole accretion.Supermassive black holeGalactic CenterStarBlack holeGeneral relativityOf starsStar formationCompact starPrecisionAccretion...
- Our uncertainties about binary star systems (and triples and so on) limit our capabilities in literally every single one of the Thematic Areas identified for Astro2020. We need to understand the population statistics of stellar multiplicity and their variations with stellar type, chemistry, and dynamical environment: Correct interpretation of any exoplanet experiment depends on proper treatment of resolved and unresolved binaries; stellar multiplicity is a direct outcome of star and companion formation; the most precise constraints on stellar structure come from well-characterized binary systems; stellar populations heavily rely on stellar and binary evolution modeling; high-redshift galaxy radiation and reionization is controlled by binary-dependent stellar physics; compact objects are the outcomes of binary evolution; the interpretation of multi-messenger astronomy from gravitational waves, light, and neutrinos relies on understanding the products of binary star evolution; near-Universe constraints on the Hubble constant with Type Ia supernovae and gravitational-wave mergers are subject to systematics related to their binary star progenitors; local measures of dark-matter substructure masses are distorted by binary populations. In order to realize the scientific goals in each of these themes over the next decade, we therefore need to understand how binary stars and stellar multiplets are formed and distributed in the space of masses, composition, age, and orbital properties, and how the distribution evolves with time. This white paper emphasizes the interdisciplinary importance of binary-star science and advocates that coordinated investment from all astrophysical communities will benefit almost all branches of astrophysics.Binary starStarCompact starStellar populationsGravitational waveStellar evolutionOf starsExtrasolar planetNeutron starPlanet...
- The crossing equations of a conformal field theory can be systematically truncated to a finite, closed system of polynomial equations. In certain cases, solutions of the truncated equations place strict bounds on the space of all unitary CFTs. We describe the conditions under which this holds, and use the results to develop a fast algorithm for modular bootstrap in 2d CFT. We then apply it to compute spectral gaps to very high precision, find scaling dimensions for over a thousand operators, and extend the numerical bootstrap to the regime of large central charge, relevant to holography. This leads to new bounds on the spectrum of black holes in three-dimensional gravity. We provide numerical evidence that the asymptotic bound on the spectral gap from spinless modular bootstrap, at large central charge $c$, is $\Delta_1 \lesssim c/9.1$.Conformal field theoryThree dimensional gravityConformal BootstrapPrecisionOptimizationCentral chargeBlack holeSemidefinite programmingLinear optimizationPattern of zeros...
- Water is fundamental to our understanding of the evolution of planetary systems and the delivery of volatiles to the surfaces of potentially habitable planets. Yet, we currently have essentially no facilities capable of observing this key species comprehensively. With this white paper, we argue that we need a relatively large, cold space-based observatory equipped with a high-resolution spectrometer, in the mid- through far-infrared wavelength range (25-600~$\mu$m) in order to answer basic questions about planet formation, such as where the Earth got its water, how giant planets and planetesimals grow, and whether water is generally available to planets forming in the habitable zone of their host stars.PlanetVolatilesProtoplanetary diskPlanet formationGiant planetJames Webb Space TelescopeObservatoriesWater vaporPlanetesimalAtacama Large Millimeter Array...
- The search for technosignatures from the Galaxy or the nearby universe raises two main questions: What are the possible characteristics of technosignatures? and How can future searches be optimized to enhance the probability of detection? Addressing these questions requires an interdisciplinary approach, combining i) the study of Anthropocene as a planetary transition and thus a possible proxy also for other planets, ii) the active search for technosignatures in the radio/optical and infrared range, and iii) the statistical modelling of technosignatures and Bayesian inference methods to learn from both detection and non-detection. This strategy (combining modelling and observations) offers the best scientific opportunity in the next decade to discover the possible existence of technological civilizations beyond Earth.Bayesian approachPlanetEarthMilky WayUniverseProbability...
- Our knowledge of the population of young (age <=750 Myr) stars that lie within ~120 pc of the Sun is rapidly accelerating. The vast majority of these nearby, young stars can be placed in kinematically coherent groups (nearby, young moving groups; NYMGs). NYMGs and their member stars afford unmatched opportunities to explore a wide variety of aspects of the early evolution of stars and exoplanet systems, including stellar initial mass functions and age determination methods; the magnetic activities and high-energy radiation environments of young, late-type stars; the dynamics of young binary and hierarchical multiple systems; the late evolutionary stages of circumstellar disks; and, especially, direct-imaging discovery and characterization of massive young exoplanets. In this Astro2020 Science White Paper, we describe how our understanding of these and many other aspects of the early lives of stars and planetary systems is ripe for progress over the next decade via the identification and study of NYMG members with present and next-generation facilities and instruments.Extrasolar planetStarYoung stellar objectStellar evolutionPlanetPrecisionOf starsSunInitial mass functionLate-type star...
- In order to understand the atmospheres as well as the formation mechanism of giant planets formed outside our solar system, the next decade will require an investment in studies of isolated young brown dwarfs. In this white paper we summarize the opportunity for discovery space in the coming decade of isolated brown dwarfs with planetary masses in young stellar associations within 150 pc. We suggest that next generation telescopes and beyond need to invest in characterizing young brown dwarfs in order to fully understand the atmospheres of sibling directly imaged exoplanets as well as the tail end of the star formation process.Brown dwarfExtrasolar planetWide-field Infrared Survey ExplorerStar formationSunPrecisionGiant planetTelescopesStellar associationsKinematics...
- The increasing use of fossil fuels to produce energy is leading to environmental problems. Hence, it has led the human society to move towards the use of renewable energies, including solar energy. In recent years, one of the most popular methods to gain energy is using photovoltaic arrays to produce solar energy. Skyscrapers and different weather conditions cause shadings on these PV arrays, which leads to less power generation. Various methods such as TCT and Sudoku patterns have been proposed to improve power generation for partial shading PV arrays, but these methods have some problems such as not generating maximum power and being designed for a specific dimension of PV arrays. Therefore, we proposed a metaheuristic algorithm-based approach to extract maximum possible power in the shortest possible time. In this paper, five algorithms which have proper results in most of the searching problems are chosen from different groups of metaheuristic algorithms. Also, four different standard shading patterns are used for more realistic analysis. Results show that the proposed method achieves better results in maximum power generation compared to TCT arrangement (18.53%) and Sudoku arrangement (4.93%). Also, the results show that GWO is the fastest metaheuristic algorithm to reach maximum output power in PV arrays under partial shading condition. Thus, the authors believe that by using metaheuristic algorithms, an efficient, reliable, and fast solution is reached to solve partial shading PV arrays problemMultidimensional ArrayAlgorithmsEnergyDimensions...
- The finite sensitivity of instruments or detection methods means that data sets in many areas of astronomy, for example cosmological or exoplanet surveys, are necessarily systematically incomplete. Such data sets, where the population being investigated is of unknown size and only partially represented in the data, are called "truncated" in the statistical literature. Truncation can be accounted for through a relatively straightforward modification to the model being fitted in many circumstances, provided that the model can be extended to describe the population of undetected sources. Here I examine the problem of regression using truncated data in general terms, and use a simple example to show the impact of selecting a subset of potential data on the dependent variable, on the independent variable, and on a second dependent variable that is correlated with the variable of interest. Special circumstances in which selection effects are ignorable are noted. I also comment on computational strategies for performing regression with truncated data, as an extension of methods that have become popular for the non-truncated case, and provide some general recommendations.RegressionScaling lawObservational errorIntrinsic scatterGibbs samplingCluster of galaxiesGamma distributionMass functionExtrasolar planetLuminosity...
- In this data paper we present and characterise the multi-component radio sources identified in the VLA-COSMOS Large Project at 3 GHz (0.75 arcsec resolution, 2.3 {\mu}Jy/beam rms), i.e. the radio sources which are composed of two or more radio blobs.The classification of objects into multi-components was done by visual inspection of 351 of the brightest and most extended blobs from a sample of 10,899 blobs identified by the automatic code blobcat. For that purpose we used multi-wavelength information of the field, such as the 1.4-GHz VLA-COSMOS data and the UltraVISTA stacked mosaic available for COSMOS. We have identified 67 multi-component radio sources at 3 GHz: 58 sources with AGN powered radio emission and 9 star-forming galaxies. We report 8 new detections that were not observed by the VLA-COSMOS Large Project at 1.4 GHz, due to the slightly larger area coverage at 3 GHz. The increased spatial resolution of 0.75 arcsec has allowed us to resolve (and isolate) multiple emission peaks of 28 extended radio sources not identified in the 1.4-GHz VLA-COSMOS map. We report the multi-frequency flux densities (324 MHz, 325 MHz, 1.4 GHz & 3 GHz), star-formation-rates, and stellar masses of these objects. Multi-component objects at 3-GHz VLA-COSMOS inhabit mainly massive galaxies (>10^10.5 Msun). The majority of the multi-component AGN lie below the main-sequence of star-forming galaxies (SFGs), in the green valley and the quiescent region. We provide detailed description of the objects: amongst the AGN there are 2 head-tail, 10 core-lobe, 9 wide-angle-tail (WAT), 8 double-double or Z-/X-shaped, 3 bent-tail radio sources, and 26 symmetric sources, while amongst the SFGs we find the only star-forming ring seen in radio emission in COSMOS. We report a large number (32/58) of disturbed/bent multi-component AGN, 18 of which do not lie within X-ray groups in COSMOS (0.08 < z < 1.53). [abridged]Active Galactic NucleiCOSMOS surveyRadio sourcesVery Large ArrayRadio structuresStar formationClassificationMain sequence starMilky WayGalaxy...
- We identified 15,658 NVSS radio sources among the 55,288 2MASX galaxies brighter than $k_\mathrm{20fe} = 12.25$ at $\lambda = 2.16\,\mu\mathrm{m}$ and covering the $\Omega =7.016$ sr of sky defined by J2000 $\delta > -40^\circ$ and $\vert b \vert > 20^\circ$. The complete sample of 15,043 galaxies with 1.4 GHz flux densities $S \geq 2.45 \mathrm{~mJy}$ contains a 99.9% spectroscopically complete subsample of 9,517 galaxies with $k_\mathrm{20fe} \leq 11.75$. We used only radio and infrared data to quantitatively distinguish radio sources powered primarily by recent star formation from those powered by active galactic nuclei. The radio sources with $\log[L(\mathrm{W~Hz}^{-1})] > 19.3$ that we used to derive the local spectral luminosity and power-density functions account for $>99$% of the total 1.4~GHz spectral power densities $U_\mathrm{SF} = (1.54 \pm 0.20) \times 10^{19} \mathrm{~W~Hz}^{-1} \mathrm{~Mpc}^{-3}$ and $U_\mathrm{AGN} = (4.23 \pm 0.78) \times 10^{19} \mathrm{~W~Hz}^{-1} \mathrm{~Mpc}^{-3}$ in the universe today, and the spectroscopic subsample is large enough that the quoted errors are dominated cosmic variance. The recent comoving star-formation rate density indicated by $U_\mathrm{SF}$ is $\psi \approx 0.015~ M_\odot \mathrm{~yr}^{-1} \mathrm{~Mpc}^{-3}$.GalaxyLuminosityActive Galactic NucleiNational Radio Astronomy Observatory VLA Sky SurveyRadio sourcesStar-forming galaxyLuminosity functionCosmic varianceStar formationStar formation rate...
- The battle of Kursk between Soviet and German is known to be the biggest tank battle in the history. The present paper uses the tank and artillery data from the Kursk database for fitting both forms of homogeneous and heterogeneous Lanchester model. Under homogeneous form the Soviet (or German) tank casualty is attributed to only the German(or Soviet) tank engagement. For heterogeneous form the tank casualty is attributed to both tank and artillery engagements. A set of differential equations using both forms have been developed, and the commonly used least square estimation is compared with maximum likelihood estimation for attrition rates and exponent coefficients. For validating the models, different goodness-of-fit measures like R2, sum-of-square-residuals (SSR), root-mean-square error (RMSE), Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) and chi-square statistics are used for comparison. Numerical results suggest the model is statistically more accurate when each day of the battle is considered as a mini-battle. The distribution patterns of the SSR and likelihood values with varying parameters are represented using contour plots and 3D surfaces.Maximum likelihood estimationGoodness of fitLeast squaresMean squared errorChi-squared statisticLikelihoodDifferential equations...
- Resolved ALMA and VLA observations indicate the existence of two dust traps in the protoplanetary disc MWC 758. By means of 2D gas+dust hydrodynamical simulations post-processed with 3D dust radiative transfer calculations, we show that the spirals in scattered light, the eccentric, asymmetric ring and the crescent-shaped structure in the (sub)millimetre can all be caused by two giant planets: a 1.5-Jupiter mass planet at 35 au (inside the spirals) and a 5-Jupiter mass planet at 140 au (outside the spirals). The outer planet forms a dust-trapping vortex at the inner edge of its gap (at ~85 au), and the continuum emission of this dust trap reproduces the ALMA and VLA observations well. The outer planet triggers several spiral arms which are similar to those observed in polarised scattered light. The inner planet also forms a vortex at the outer edge of its gap (at ~50 au), but it decays faster than the vortex induced by the outer planet, as a result of the disc's turbulent viscosity. The vortex decay can explain the eccentric inner ring seen with ALMA as well as the low signal and larger azimuthal spread of this dust trap in VLA observations. Finding the thermal and kinematic signatures of both giant planets could verify the proposed scenario.PlanetAtacama Large Millimeter ArrayIntensityOuter planetsVery Large ArrayHydrodynamical simulationsContinuum emissionViscosityTerrestrial planetRadiative transfer...
- Spectroscopic transit detection of constituents in winds from "evaporating" planets on close-in transiting orbits could provide desperately needed information on the composition, formation, and orbital evolution of such objects. We obtained high-resolution optical spectra of the host stars during a single transit of Kepler-1520b and two transits of K2-22b to search for transient, Doppler-shifted absorption in the D lines of neutral sodium. Sodium should be released in the same silicate vapor wind that lofts the dust responsible for the periodic "dips" in the light curve. We do not detect any absorption lines with depths >30% at the predicted Doppler-shifted wavelengths during any of the transits. Detection sensitivity is limited by instrumental resolution that dilutes the saturated lines, and blurring of the lines by Doppler acceleration due to the short orbital period of the planet and long integration times for these faint stars. A model of neutral sodium production, escape, and ionization by UV radiation suggests that clouds of partially ionized sodium that are comparable in size to the host stars and optically thick in the D lines could accompany the planets. We consider the prospects for future detections brought about by the TESS all-sky survey of brighter stars and the advent of high-resolution spectrographs on Extremely Large Telescopes.PlanetNatriumStarEvaporationSilicateDoppler effectVolatilesMantleHost starTelescopes...
- We present the discovery of 3 transiting planets from the WASP survey, two hot-Jupiters: WASP-177b (~0.5 M_Jup, ~1.6 R_Jup) in a 3.07-d orbit of a V = 12.6 K2 star, WASP-183b (~0.5 M_Jup, ~1.5 R_Jup) in a 4.11-d orbit of a V = 12.8 G9/K0 star; and one hot-Saturn planet WASP-181b (~0.3 M_Jup, ~1.2 R_Jup) in a 4.52-d orbit of a V = 12.9 G2 star. Each planet is close to the upper bound of mass-radius space and has a scaled semi-major axis, a/R_star, between 9.6 and 12.1. These lie in the transition between systems that tend to be in orbits that are well aligned with their host-star's spin and those that show a higher dispersion.PlanetStarHot JupiterMonte Carlo Markov chainCoolingObservatoriesG2SaturnExtrasolar planetHost star...
- The study of accurate methods to estimate the distribution of stellar rotational velocities is important for understanding many aspects of stellar evolution. From such observations we obtain the projected rotational speed v sin(i) in order to recover the true distribution of the rotational velocity. To that end, we need to solve a difficult inverse problem that can be posed as a Fredholm integral of the first kind. n this work we have used a novel approach based on Maximum likelihood (ML) estimation to obtain an approximation of the true rotational velocity probability density function expressed as a sum of known distribution families. In our proposal, the measurements have been treated as random variables drawn from the projected rotational velocity probability density function. We analyzed the case of Maxwellian sum approximation, where we estimated the parameters that define the sum of distributions. The performance of the proposed method is analyzed using Monte Carlo simulations considering two theoretical cases for the probability density function of the true rotational stellar velocities: i) an unimodal Maxwellian probability density distribution and ii) a bimodal Maxwellian probability density distribution. The results show that the proposed method yielded more accurate estimates in comparison with the Tikhonov regularization method, especially for small sample length N=50. Our proposal was evaluated using real data from three sets of measurements, and our findings were validated using three statistical tests. The ML approach with Maxwellian sum approximation is a accurate method to deconvolve the rotational velocity probability density function, even when the sample length is small (N= 50)Monte Carlo methodMaximum likelihoodComa BerenicesVelocity probability density functionOptimizationNull hypothesisInverse problemsCumulative distribution functionsOf starsTikhonov regularization...
- Substellar multiplicity is a key outcome of the formation process. The biggest challenge for the next decade will be to distinguish between the formation history, environmental conditions, and dynamical evolution leading to the least massive brown dwarfs and the most massive planets at the tail ends of their mass functions. In this white paper, we advocate for a comprehensive characterization of both the statistical distributions of the population of ultracool dwarf multiple systems and the fundamental properties of their individual components as a function of age. A space-based precision astrometry mission in near-infrared wavelengths would provide the necessary measurements to identify and characterize age-calibrated populations of multiple systems.Brown dwarfCompanionAstronomical UnitStarPlanetMass ratioAstrometryNear-infraredTwo Micron All Sky SurveyBinary star...
- Purpose-Optimal use of established and imaging methods, such as multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging(mpMRI) can simultaneously identify key functional parameters and provide unique imaging phenotypes of breast cancer. Therefore, we have developed and implemented a new machine-learning informatic system that integrates clinical variables, derived from imaging and clinical health records, to compare with the 21-gene array assay, OncotypeDX. Materials and methods-We tested our informatics modeling in a subset of patients (n=81) who had ER+ disease and underwent OncotypeDX gene expression and breast mpMRI testing. The machine-learning informatic method is termed Integrated Radiomic Informatic System-IRIS was applied to the mpMRI, clinical and pathologic descriptors, as well as a gene array analysis. The IRIS method using an advanced graph theoretic model and quantitative metrics. Summary statistics (mean and standard deviations) for the quantitative imaging parameters were obtained. Sensitivity and specificity and Area Under the Curve were calculated for the classification of the patients. Results-The OncotypeDX classification by IRIS model had sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 89% with AUC of 0.92. The breast lesion size was larger for the high-risk groups and lower for both low risk and intermediate risk groups. There were significant differences in PK-DCE and ADC map values in each group. The ADC map values for high- and intermediate-risk groups were significantly lower than the low-risk group. Conclusion-These initial studies provide deeper understandings of imaging features and molecular gene array OncotypeDX score. This insight provides the foundation to relate these imaging features to the assessment of treatment response for improved personalized medicine.Multidimensional ArrayGeneMachine learningClassificationGene expressionStatisticsGraphMagnetic resonance imagingMaterials...
- While most previous work has focused on different pretraining objectives and architectures for transfer learning, we ask how to best adapt the pretrained model to a given target task. We focus on the two most common forms of adaptation, feature extraction (where the pretrained weights are frozen), and directly fine-tuning the pretrained model. Our empirical results across diverse NLP tasks with two state-of-the-art models show that the relative performance of fine-tuning vs. feature extraction depends on the similarity of the pretraining and target tasks. We explore possible explanations for this finding and provide a set of adaptation guidelines for the NLP practitioner.Computational linguisticsFeature extractionClassificationLong short term memoryAttentionArchitectureCosmic rest frameSentence representationsNatural language inferenceInductive transfer...
- Gravitational waves from binary black hole pairs have emerged as an important observational tool in current times. The energy of the BH - BH binary pair is radiated in the form of gravitational waves and to compensate for that energy, kinetic energy of the system decreases gradually. Consequently the mutual separation of the objects decreases with time and tends to merge. The whole process may require a very long time comparable or longer than the age of the universe, specially in the case of low mass mergers. We have examined the case in which a massive object compared to the individual masses comprising the binary pair is present nearby such a system. We have found that in this case the merging process takes place much rapidly than that of the conventional BH-BH merging process. Scenarios with both an Intermediate Mass Black Hole (IBMH) ($10^{5}\:M_{\odot}$) as well as a Super Massive Black Hole (SMBH) have been studied and the latter has been found to provide a much higher overall rate for the BH-BH merger process.Gravitational waveStarBinary starBlack holeOf starsIntermediate-mass black holeLuminosityMassive objectsPlanetStar systems...
- The gravitational waves (GWs) has been a topic of interest for its versatile capabilities of probing several aspects of cosmology and early Universe. Gravitational lensing enhances further the extent of this sort of waves and upgrade our understanding to a next level. Besides several similarities with optical waves, GWs are capable of passing through optically opaque celestial objects like stars, exoplanets unlike light waves and manifest a different kind of lensing effect. In this work we have explored the lensing action of compact objects on gravitational waves using numerical means. After modeling the internal mass distribution of the compact objects by TOV equations and tracing wavefronts using geodesic equations, we have found that the GWs are indeed lensed in a manner analogous to the optical lensing of light in presence of a thick optical lens by producing spherical aberration in the focused waves. The distance to the best focused point shows significant dependence with the mass and radius of the lensing star and unlike gravitational lensing, the region inside and outside compact objects responds differently to the incoming waves.Gravitational waveStarCompact starIntensityGravitational lensingTolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equationAstronomical objectsCosmologyExtrasolar planetMass distribution...
- While recently discovered exotic new planet-types have both challenged our imaginations and broadened our knowledge of planetary system workings, perhaps the most compelling objective of exoplanet science is to detect and characterize habitable and possibly inhabited worlds orbiting in other star systems. For the foreseeable future, characterizations of extrasolar planets will be made via remote sensing of planetary spectroscopic and temporal signals, along with careful fitting of this data to advanced models of planets and their atmospheres. Terrestrial planets are small and significantly more challenging to observe compared to their larger gaseous brethren; however observatories coming on-line in the coming decade will begin to allow their characterization. Still, it is not enough to invest only in observational endeavors. Comprehensive modeling of planetary atmospheres is required in order to fully understand what it is that our grand telescopes see in the night-sky. In our quest to characterize habitable, and possibly inhabited worlds, 3D general circulation models (GCMs) should be used to evaluate potential climate states and their associated temporal and spatial dependent observable signals. 3D models allow for coupled, self-consistent, multi-dimensional simulations, which can realistically simulate the climates of terrestrial extrasolar planets. A complete theoretical understanding of terrestrial exoplanetary atmospheres, gained through comprehensive 3D modeling, is critical for interpreting spectra of exoplanets taken from current and planned instruments, and is critical for designing future missions that aim to measure spectra of potentially habitable exoplanets as one of their key science goals. We recommend continued institutional support for 3D GCM modeling teams that focus on planetary and exoplanetary applications.Extrasolar planetGeneral circulation modelsClimatePlanetRemote sensingTelescopesStar systemsPlanetary atmospheresObservatoriesPlanned experiment...
- The processes that transform gas and dust in circumstellar disks into diverse exoplanets remain poorly understood. One key pathway is to study exoplanets as they form in their young ($\sim$few~Myr) natal disks. Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) such as GMT, TMT, or ELT, can be used to establish the initial chemical conditions, locations, and timescales of planet formation, via (1)~measuring the physical and chemical conditions in protoplanetary disks using infrared spectroscopy and (2)~studying planet-disk interactions using imaging and spectro-astrometry. Our current knowledge is based on a limited sample of targets, representing the brightest, most extreme cases, and thus almost certainly represents an incomplete understanding. ELTs will play a transformational role in this arena, thanks to the high spatial and spectral resolution data they will deliver. We recommend a key science program to conduct a volume-limited survey of high-resolution spectroscopy and high-contrast imaging of the nearest protoplanetary disks that would result in an unbiased, holistic picture of planet formation as it occurs.Protoplanetary diskTelescopesPlanet formationExtrasolar planetGiant Magellan TelescopeAstrometryCircumstellar diskPlanetInfrared spectroscopySpectral resolution...
- We have now accumulated a wealth of observations of the planet-formation environment and of mature planetary systems. These data allow us to test and refine theories of gas-giant planet formation by placing constraints on the conditions and timescale of this process. Yet a number of fundamental questions remain unanswered about how protoplanets accumulate material, their photospheric properties and compositions, and how they interact with protoplanetary disks. While we have begun to detect protoplanet candidates during the last several years, we are presently only sensitive to the widest separation, highest mass / accretion rate cases. Current observing facilities lack the angular resolution and inner working angle to probe the few-AU orbital separations where giant planet formation is thought to be most efficient. They also lack the contrast to detect accretion rates that would form lower mass gas giants and ice giants. Instruments and telescopes coming online over the next decade will provide high contrast in the inner giant-planet-forming regions around young stars, allowing us to build a protoplanet census and to characterize planet formation in detail for the first time.ProtoplanetPlanetPlanet formationAccretionProtoplanetary diskAstronomical UnitGiant planetMass accretion rateGas giantLuminosity...
- Ground-based telescopes coupled with adaptive optics (AO) have been playing a leading role in exoplanet direct imaging science and technological development for the past two decades and will continue to have an indispensable role for the next decade and beyond. Over the next decade, extreme AO systems on 8-10m telescopes will 1) mitigate risk for WFIRST-CGI by identifying numerous planets the mission can spectrally characterize, 2) validate performance requirements and motivate improvements to atmosphere models needed to unambiguously characterize solar system-analogues from space, and 3) mature novel technological innovations useful for space. Extremely Large Telescopes can deliver the first thermal infrared (10 $\mu m$) images of rocky planets around Sun-like stars and identify biomarkers. These data provide a future NASA direct imaging flagship mission (i.e. HabEx, LUVOIR) with numerous exo-Earth candidates and critical ancillary information to help clarify whether these planets are habitable.Adaptive opticsPlanetExtrasolar planetWide Field Infrared Survey TelescopeStarEarthGround telescopesTelescopesSunRocky planets...