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  • We further develop perturbative methods used to calculate entanglement entropy (EE) away from an interacting CFT fixed point. At second order we find certain universal terms in the renormalized EE which were predicted previously from holography and which we find hold universally for relevant deformations of any CFT in any dimension. We use both replica methods and direct methods to calculate the EE and in both cases find a non-local integral expression involving the CFT two point function. We show that this integral expression can be written as a local integral over a higher dimensional \emph{bulk} modular hamiltonian in an emergent $AdS$ space-time. This bulk modular hamiltonian is associated to an emergent scalar field dual to the deforming operator. We generalize to arbitrary spatially dependent couplings where a linearized metric emerges naturally as a way of efficiently encoding the field theory entanglement: by demanding that Einstein's equations coupled to the bulk scalar field are satisfied, we show that EE can be calculated as the area of this metric. Not only does this show a direct emergence of a higher dimensional gravitational theory from any CFT, it allows for effective evaluation of the the integrals required to calculate EE perturbativly. Our results can also be interpreted as relating the non-locality of the modular hamiltonian for a spherical region in non-CFTs and the non-locality of the holographic bulk to boundary map.
    Perturbation theoryAnalytic continuationThermalisationAdS/CFT correspondenceEntropyRegularizationHorizonGreen's functionMetric perturbationQuenching...
  • [Abridged] We present a new deep 21-cm survey of the Andromeda galaxy, based on high resolution observations performed with the Synthesis Telescope and the 26-m antenna at DRAO. The HI distribution and kinematics of the disc are analyzed and basic dynamical properties are given. The rotation curve is measured out to 38 kpc, showing a nuclear peak, a dip around 4 kpc, two distinct flat parts and an increase in the outermost regions. Except for the innermost regions, the axisymmetry of the gas rotation is very good. A very strong warp of the HI disc is evidenced. The central regions appear less inclined than the average disc inclination, while the outer regions appear more inclined. Mass distribution models by LCDM NFW, Einasto or pseudo-isothermal dark matter halos with baryonic components are presented. They fail to reproduce the exact shape of the rotation curve. No significant differences are measured between the various shapes of halo. The dynamical mass of M31 enclosed within a radius of 38 kpc is (4.7 +/- 0.5) x 10^11 Msol. The dark matter component is almost 4 times more massive than the baryonic mass inside this radius. A total mass of 1.0 x 10^12 Msol is derived inside the virial radius. New HI structures are discovered in the datacube, like the detection of up to five HI components per spectrum, which is very rarely seen in other galaxies. The most remarkable new HI structures are thin HI spurs and an external arm in the disc outskirts. A relationship between these spurs and outer stellar clumps is evidenced. The external arm is 32 kpc long, lies on the far side of the galaxy and has no obvious counterpart on the other side of the galaxy. Its kinematics clearly differs from the outer adjacent disc. Both these HI perturbations could result from tidal interactions with galaxy companions.
    Mass to light ratioPosition angleMilky WayMajor axisVelocity dispersionRadial velocitySpiral armStellar massNavarro-Frenk-White profileIntensity...
  • The (3+1)D relativistic hydrodynamics with chiral anomaly is used to obtain a quantitative description of the chiral magnetic effect (CME) in heavy-ion collisions. We find that the charge-dependent hadron azimuthal correlations are sensitive to the CME, and that the experimental observations are consistent with the presence of the effect.
    Fluid dynamicsChiral magnetic effectRelativistic Heavy Ion ColliderQuarkEntropyQuantum anomalyMonte Carlo methodHydrodynamics with Anomalous currentsDegree of freedomChiral MagnetoHydroDynamics...
  • The dominant baryonic component of galaxy clusters is hot gas whose distribution is commonly probed through X-ray emission arising from thermal bremsstrahlung. The density profile thus obtained has been traditionally modeled with a beta-profile, a simple function with only three parameters. However, this model is known to be insufficient for characterizing the range of cluster gas distributions, and attempts to rectify this shortcoming typically introduce additional parameters to increase the fitting flexibility. We use cosmological and physical considerations to obtain a family of profiles for the gas with fewer parameters than the beta-model but which better accounts for observed gas profiles over wide radial intervals.
    Navarro-Frenk-White profileRelaxationDark matterDark Matter Density ProfileTemperature profileDark matter haloCosmological parametersAccretionStatisticsDark matter model...
  • We show that cold dark matter axions thermalize and form a Bose-Einstein condensate. We obtain the axion state in a homogeneous and isotropic universe, and derive the equations governing small axion perturbations. Because they form a BEC, axions differ from ordinary cold dark matter in the non-linear regime of structure formation and upon entering the horizon. Axion BEC provides a mechanism for the production of net overall rotation in dark matter halos, and for the alignment of cosmic microwave anisotropy multipoles.
    AxionBose-Einstein condensateCold dark matterHorizonGravitational interactionDark matterWave vectorRelaxationPhase space causticHomogenization...
  • Recently there has been significant interest in the claim that dark matter axions gravitationally thermalize and form a Bose-Einstein condensate with cosmologically long-range correlation. This has potential consequences for galactic scale observations. Here we critically examine this claim. We point out that there is an essential difference between the thermalization and formation of a condensate due to repulsive interactions, which can indeed drive long-range order, and that due to attractive interactions, which can lead to localized Bose clumps (stars or solitons) that only exhibit short range correlation. While the difference between repulsion and attraction is not present in the standard collisional Boltzmann equation, we argue that it is essential to the field theory dynamics, and we explain why the latter analysis is appropriate for a condensate. Since the axion is primarily governed by attractive interactions -- gravitation and scalar-scalar contact interactions -- we conclude that the claim of long-range correlation is unjustified.
    HomogenizationBose-Einstein condensateHamiltonianTwo-point correlation functionPhase transitionsAxionic dark matterDe Broglie wavelengthAttractorExpectation ValueQCD axion...
  • The complete 2-loop quantum electrodynamic corrections to the muon lifetime are calculated in the Fermi theory. The exact result for the effects of virtual and real photons, virtual electrons, muons as well as e+e- pair creation is Delta Gamma_QED = Gamma_0(alpha/pi)^2[(156815/5184)-(1036/27)zeta(2)-(895/36)zeta(3) +(67/8)zeta(4)+53zeta(2)ln(2)] = Gamma_0(alpha/pi)^2(6.743) where Gamma_0 is the tree-level width. The theoretical error in the value of the Fermi coupling constant, G_F, is now rendered negligible compared to the experimental uncertainty coming from the measurement of the muon lifetime. The overall error in G_F is then roughly halved giving G_F = (1.16637 +/- 0.00001) x 10^(-5) GeV^(-2).
    Quantum electrodynamicsRadiative correctionRenormalizationHadronizationCoupling constantRenormalization schemeDimensional regularizationQuantum chromodynamicsMuon decayFermion mass...
  • The corrections to muon decay due to electromagnetic interactions have been recalculated. Our results differ from those of Behrends, Finkelstein and Sirlin, because those authors used an inconsistent method for handling the infra-red divergences which arise separately in the real and virtual processes. The disagreement is especially significant near the end of the electron (positron) spectrum where our results indicate that the radiative correction to the Michel p parameter is approximately 1% larger than previously supposed, a result in the direction of increasing agreement between experiment and theory. With the radiative corrections to muon decay given here the predicted value of the muon lifetime using the universal theory is (2.27 +/- 0.04) x 10(-6). As a preliminary to studying the decay of particles with structure the [beta]-decay of the neutron is examined. This leads to an increase in the coulomb F factor independent of the nuclear charge and of amount approximately 2.6%. As a result the universal coupling constant obtained from the decay of O14 is decreased to G = (1.37 +/- 0.02) x 10(-49) erg cm.(3) and increases the value of the muon lifetime to (2.33 +/- 0.05) x 10(-6) sec.
    Muon decayNeutron decayRadiative correctionCoupling constantPositronMuonUniverseElectromagnetChargeParticles...
  • The production rate of right-handed neutrinos from a Standard Model plasma at a temperature above a hundred GeV has previously been evaluated up to NLO in Standard Model couplings (g ~ 2/3) in relativistic (M ~ pi T) and non-relativistic regimes (M >> pi T), and up to LO in an ultrarelativistic regime (M < gT). The last result necessitates an all-orders resummation of the loop expansion, accounting for multiple soft scatterings of the nearly light-like particles participating in 1 <-> 2 reactions. In this paper we suggest how the regimes can be interpolated into a result applicable for any right-handed neutrino mass and at all temperatures above 160 GeV. The results can also be used for determining the lepton number washout rate in models containing right-handed neutrinos. Numerical results are given in a tabulated form permitting for their incorporation into leptogenesis codes. We note that due to effects from soft Higgs bosons there is a narrow intermediate regime around M ~ g^{1/2} T in which our interpolation is phenomenological and a more precise study would be welcome.
    Hard thermal loopThermal massThermalisationLandau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal resummationNext-to-leading order computationRenormalizationHiggs boson massSelf-energyKinematicsTop quark...
  • We test cosmological models of structure formation using the rotation curve of the nearest spiral galaxy, M31, determined using a recent deep, full-disk 21-cm imaging survey smoothed to 466 pc resolution. We fit a tilted ring model to the HI data from 8 to 37 kpc. The disk of M31 warps from 25 kpc outwards and becomes more inclined with respect to our line of sight. Newtonian dynamics without a dark matter halo provide a very poor fit to the rotation curve derived using the warp model. In the framework of modified Newtonian dynamic however the 21-cm rotation curve is well fitted by the gravitational potential traced by the baryonic matter density alone. The inclusion of a dark matter halo with a density profile as predicted by structure formation in a hierarchical clustering LambdaCDM cosmology makes the mass model in newtonian dynamic compatible with the rotation curve data. The dark halo concentration for the best fit is C=12 and its total mass is 1.2 10^{12} Msun. If a dark halo model with a constant density core is considered, the core radius has to be larger than 20 kpc in order for the model to fit to the data. We extrapolate the best-fit LambdaCDM and constant-density core mass models to very large galactocentric radii, comparable to the size of the dark matter halo. A comparison of the predicted mass with the M31 mass determined at such large radii using other dynamical tracers, confirms the validity of our results. In particular the LambdaCDM dark halo model which best fits the 21-cm data well reproduces the M31 mass traced out to 560 kpc. Our estimated total mass of M31 is 1.3 10^{12} Msun, with 12% baryonic fraction and only 6% of the baryons in neutral gas.
    Rotation CurveAndromeda galaxyMass to light ratioDark matter haloGalaxyInclinationDark matterHydrogen 21 cm lineMajor axisPosition angle...
  • We study flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) models with a perfect fluid matter source and a scalar field non minimally coupled to matter having a double exponential potential. It is shown that the scalar field almost always diverges to infinity. Under conditions on the parameter space, we show that the model is able to give an acceptable cosmological history of our universe, that is, a transient matter era followed by an accelerating future attractor. It is found that only a very weak coupling can lead to viable cosmology. We study in the Einstein frame, the cosmological viability of the asymptotic form of a class of f(R) theories predicting acceleration. The role of the coupling constant is briefly discussed.
    Scalar fieldCosmologyAttractorNon-minimal couplingEinstein frameCoupling constantFriedmann Robertson WalkerPerfect fluidPhase spaceQuintessence...
  • We use phase space methods to investigate closed, flat, and open Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmologies with a scalar potential given by the sum of two exponential terms. The form of the potential is motivated by the dimensional reduction of M-theory with non-trivial four-form flux on a maximally symmetric internal space. To describe the asymptotic features of run-away solutions we introduce the concept of a `quasi fixed point.' We give the complete classification of solutions according to their late-time behavior (accelerating, decelerating, crunch) and the number of periods of accelerated expansion.
    CompactificationOpen universeSaddle pointScalar fieldAttractorManifoldClosed universeEigenvalueFlux compactificationFriedmann equations...
  • Using the EPIC and RGS data from a deep (~200 ks) XMM-Newton observation, we investigate the temperature structure (kT and sigma_T ) and the abundances of 9 elements (O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ar, Ca, Fe and Ni) of the intra-cluster medium (ICM) in the nearby (z=0.046) cool-core galaxy cluster Abell 4059. Next to a deep analysis of the cluster core, a careful modelling of the EPIC background allows us to build radial profiles up to 12' (~650 kpc) from the core. Probably because of projection effects, the temperature ICM is found not to be in single phase, even in the outer parts of the cluster. The abundances of Ne, Si, S, Ar, Ca and Fe, but also O are peaked towards the core. Fe and O are still significantly detected in the outermost annuli; suggesting that the enrichment by both type Ia and core-collapse SNe started in the early stages of the cluster formation. However, the particularly high Ca/Fe ratio that we find in the core is not well reproduced by the standard SNe yield models. Finally, 2-D maps of temperature and Fe abundance are presented and confirm the existence of a denser, colder, and Fe-rich ridge southwest of the core, previously observed by Chandra. The origin of this asymmetry in the hot gas of the cluster core is still unclear, but might be explained by a past intense ram-pressure stripping event near the central cD galaxy.
    XMM-Newton MOS cameraSystematic errorField of viewGalaxySupernova Type IaCool core galaxy clusterScience analysis systemPoint spread functionPoint sourceCore-collapse supernova...
  • The current effort to test General Relativity employs multiple disparate formalisms for different observables, obscuring the relations between laboratory, astrophysical and cosmological constraints. To remedy this situation, we develop a parameter space for comparing tests of gravity on all scales in the universe. In particular, we present new methods for linking cosmological large-scale structure, the Cosmic Microwave Background and gravitational waves with classic PPN tests of gravity. Diagrams of this gravitational parameter space reveal a noticeable untested regime. The untested window, which separates small-scale systems from the troubled cosmological regime, could potentially hide the onset of corrections to General Relativity.
    CurvatureGravitational fieldsGeneral relativityGalaxyCosmic microwave backgroundBlack holeSolar systemMilky WaySupermassive black holeDark matter...
  • This article provides an introduction to the principles of particle physics event generators that are based on the Monte Carlo method. Following some preliminaries, instructions on how to built a basic parton-level Monte Carlo event generator are given through exercises.
    HadronizationPartonPhase spaceQuarkFactorisationParton distribution functionFlavourBosonizationDifferential cross sectionPerturbation theory...
  • I derive analytically the spectrum of the CMB fluctuations. The final result for C_l is presented in terms of elementary functions with an explicit dependence on the basic cosmological parameters. This result is in a rather good agreement with CMBFAST for a wide range of parameters around concordance model. This allows us to understand the physical reasons for dependence of the particular features of the CMB spectrum on the basic cosmological parameters and to estimate the possible accuracy of their determination. I also analyse the degeneracy of the spectrum with respect to certain combinations of the cosmological parameters.
    RecombinationCosmological parametersDissipationHorizonLambda-CDM modelTransfer functionCMB acoustic peakScale invarianceHubble constantIonization...
  • This paper presents a systematic treatment of the linear theory of scalar gravitational perturbations in the synchronous gauge and the conformal Newtonian (or longitudinal) gauge. It differs from others in the literature in that we give, in both gauges, a complete discussion of all particle species that are relevant to any flat cold dark matter (CDM), hot dark matter (HDM), or CDM+HDM models (including a possible cosmological constant). The particles considered include CDM, baryons, photons, massless neutrinos, and massive neutrinos (an HDM candidate), where the CDM and baryons are treated as fluids while a detailed phase-space description is given to the photons and neutrinos. Particular care is applied to the massive neutrino component, which has been either ignored or approximated crudely in previous works. Isentropic initial conditions on super-horizon scales are derived. The coupled, linearized Boltzmann, Einstein and fluid equations that govern the evolution of the metric and density perturbations are then solved numerically in both gauges for the standard CDM model and two CDM+HDM models with neutrino mass densities $\onu=0.2$ and 0.3, assuming a scale-invariant, adiabatic spectrum of primordial fluctuations. We also give the full details of the cosmic microwave background anisotropy, and present the first accurate calculations of the angular power spectra in the two CDM+HDM models including photon polarization, higher neutrino multipole moments, and helium recombination. The numerical programs for both gauges are available at http://arcturus.mit.edu/cosmics/ .
    HorizonMetric perturbationBoltzmann transport equationPhase space densityThomson scatteringIonizationEinstein field equationsRadiation-dominated epochEvolution equationScalar mode fluctuation...
  • We present a self-contained summary of the theory of linear cosmological perturbations. We emphasize the effect of the six parameters of the minimal cosmological model, first, on the spectrum of Cosmic Microwave Background temperature anisotropies, and second, on the linear matter power spectrum. We briefly review at the end the possible impact of a few non-minimal dark matter and dark energy models.
    Matter power spectrumCosmic microwave backgroundCold dark matterDark energyRecombinationDark matterCosmologyReionizationSound horizonMetric perturbation...
  • We present the cross-correlation between the far-infrared background fluctuations as measured with the Herschel Space Observatory at 250, 350, and 500 {\mu}m and the near-infrared background fluctuations with Spitzer Space Telescope at 3.6 {\mu}m. The cross-correlation between far and near-IR background anisotropies are detected such that the correlation coefficient at a few to ten arcminute angular scales decreases from 0.3 to 0.1 when the far-IR wavelength increases from 250 {\mu}m to 500 {\mu}m. We model the cross-correlation using a halo model with three components: (a) far-IR bright or dusty star-forming galaxies below the masking depth in Herschel maps, (b) near-IR faint galaxies below the masking depth at 3.6 {\mu}m, and (c) intra-halo light, or diffuse stars in dark matter halos, that likely dominates fluctuations at 3.6 {\mu}m. The model is able to reasonably reproduce the auto correlations at each of the far-IR wavelengths and at 3.6 {\mu}m and their corresponding cross-correlations. While the far and near-IR auto-correlations are dominated by faint dusty, star-forming galaxies and intra-halo light, respectively, we find that roughly half of the cross-correlation between near and far-IR backgrounds is due to the same galaxies that remain unmasked at 3.6 {\mu}m. The remaining signal in the cross-correlation is due to intra-halo light present in the same dark matter halos as those hosting the same faint and unmasked galaxies. In this model, the decrease in the cross-correlation signal from 250 {\mu}m to 500 {\mu}m comes from the fact that the galaxies that are primarily contributing to 500 {\mu}m fluctuations peak at a higher redshift than those at 250 {\mu}m.
    Cosmic infrared backgroundIntensityGalaxyReionizationAngular power spectrumCross-correlationAutocorrelationStar-forming galaxySpitzer Space TelescopeSpace observatory...
  • The cosmic gamma-ray background radiation is one of the most fundamental observables in the gamma-ray band. Although the origin of the cosmic gamma-ray background radiation has been a mystery for a long time, the Fermi gamma-ray space telescope has recently measured it at 0.1-820 GeV and revealed that the cosmic GeV gamma-ray background is composed of blazars, radio galaxies, and star-forming galaxies. However, Fermi still leaves the following questions. Those are dark matter contribution, origins of the cosmic MeV gamma-ray background, and the connection to the IceCube TeV-PeV neutrino events. In this proceeding, I will review the current understandings of the cosmic gamma-ray background and discuss future prospects of cosmic gamma-ray background radiation studies. I also briefly review the current status of cosmic infrared/optical background radiation studies.
    Cosmic Gamma-Ray BackgroundFlat spectrum radio quasarEGRETActive Galactic NucleiAngular power spectrumDark matter annihilationCosmic X-ray backgroundGamma ray burstCoronaDark matter particle...
  • Magnetic fields appear everywhere in the universe. From stars and galaxies, all the way to galaxy clusters and remote protogalactic clouds magnetic fields of considerable strength and size have been repeatedly observed. Despite their widespread presence, however, the origin of cosmic magnetic fields is still a mystery. The galactic dynamo is believed capable of amplifying weak magnetic seeds to strengths like those measured in ours and other galaxies, but the question is where do these seed fields come from? Are they a product of late, post-recombination, physics or are they truly cosmological in origin? The idea of primordial magnetism is attractive because it makes the large-scale magnetic fields, especially those found in early protogalactic systems, easier to explain. As a result, a host of different scenarios have appeared in the literature. Nevertheless, early magnetogenesis is not problem free, with a number of issues remaining open and a matter of debate. We review the question of primordial magnetic fields and consider the limits set on their strength by the current observational data. The various mechanisms of pre-recombination magnetogenesis are presented and their advantages and shortcomings are debated. We consider both classical and quantum scenarios, that operate within as well as outside the standard model, and also discuss how future observations could be used to decide whether the large-scale magnetic fields we see in the universe today are truly primordial or not.
    Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker metricElectrodynamicsCurvatureHorizonReheatingExtra dimensionsScalar fieldIntensityMagnetic energyCosmic microwave background...
  • We consider the thermal production of dileptons and photons at temperatures above the critical temperature in QCD. We use a model where color excitations are suppressed by a small value of the Polyakov loop, the semi Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). Comparing the semi-QGP to the perturbative QGP, we find a mild enhancement of thermal dileptons. In contrast, to leading logarithmic order in weak coupling there are far fewer hard photons from the semi-QGP than the usual QGP. To illustrate the possible effects on photon and dileptons production in heavy ion collisions, we integrate the rate with a realistic hydrodynamic simulation. Dileptons uniformly exhibit a small flow, but the strong suppression of photons in the semi-QGP tends to bias the elliptical flow of photons to that generated in the hadronic phase.
    QuarkQuark-gluon plasmaPartonRelativistic Heavy Ion ColliderDeconfinementPerturbation theoryLarge Hadron ColliderThermalisationHydrodynamical simulationsStatistics...
  • In this paper we analyze a simple scenario in which Dark Matter (DM) consists of free fermions with mass $m_f$. We assume that on galactic scales these fermions are capable of forming a degenerate Fermi gas, in which stability against gravitational collapse is ensured by the Pauli exclusion principle. The mass density of the resulting configuration is governed by a non-relativistic Lane-Emden equation, thus leading to a universal cored profile that depends only on one free parameter in addition to $m_f$. After reviewing the basic formalism, we test this scenario against experimental data describing the velocity dispersion of the eight classical dwarf spheroidal galaxies of the Milky Way. We find that, despite its extreme simplicity, the model exhibits a good fit to the data and realistic predictions for the size of DM halos providing that $m_f\simeq 200$ eV. Furthermore, we show that in this setup larger galaxies correspond to the non-degenerate limit of the gas. We propose a concrete realization of this model in which DM is produced non-thermally via inflaton decay. We show that imposing the correct relic abundance and the bound on the free-streaming length constrains the inflation model in terms of inflaton mass, its branching ratio into DM and the reheating temperature.
    Dark matter particleDwarf galaxyBosonizationFermi gasDM massGalactic structureWarm dark matterGravitational forceBose-Einstein condensateCold dark matter...
  • X-ray astronomy is an important tool in the astrophysicist's toolkit to investigate high-energy astrophysical phenomena. Theoretical numerical simulations of astrophysical sources are fully three-dimensional representations of physical quantities such as density, temperature, and pressure, whereas astronomical observations are two-dimensional projections of the emission generated via mechanisms dependent on these quantities. To bridge the gap between simulations and observations, algorithms for generating synthetic observations of simulated data have been developed. We present an implementation of such an algorithm in the yt analysis software package. We describe the underlying model for generating the X-ray photons, the important role that yt and other Python packages play in its implementation, and present a detailed workable example of the creation of simulated X-ray observations.
    Line of sightMonte Carlo methodAbsorptivityCluster of galaxiesFlexible Image Transport SystemThermalisationTelescopesCosmological redshiftX-ray spectrumSmoothed-particle hydrodynamics...
  • The recent paper by Jeltema & Profumo(2014) claims that contributions from \ion{K}{18} and \ion{Cl}{17} lines can explain the unidentified emission line found by Bulbul et al 2014 and also by Boyarsky et al, 2014a, 2014b. We show that their analysis relies upon incorrect atomic data and inconsistent spectroscopic modeling. We address these points and summarize in the appendix the correct values for the relevant atomic data from AtomDB.
    Cluster of galaxiesAbundanceCoolingXMM-Newton MOS cameraCollisional ionization equilibriumChemical abundanceGalactic CenterCool core galaxy clusterK-linePerseus galaxy cluster...
  • Gauge fields are central in our modern understanding of physics at all scales. At the highest energy scales known, the microscopic universe is governed by particles interacting with each other through the exchange of gauge bosons. At the largest length scales, our universe is ruled by gravity, whose gauge structure suggests the existence of a particle - the graviton - that mediates the gravitational force. At the mesoscopic scale, solid-state systems are subjected to gauge fields of different nature: materials can be immersed in external electromagnetic fields, but they can also feature emerging gauge fields in their low-energy description. In this review, we focus on another kind of gauge field: those engineered in systems of ultracold neutral atoms. In these setups, atoms are suitably coupled to laser fields that generate effective gauge potentials in their description. Neutral atoms "feeling" laser-induced gauge potentials can potentially mimic the behavior of an electron gas subjected to a magnetic field, but also, the interaction of elementary particles with non-Abelian gauge fields. Here, we review different realized and proposed techniques for creating gauge potentials - both Abelian and non-Abelian - in atomic systems and discuss their implication in the context of quantum simulation. While most of these setups concern the realization of background and classical gauge potentials, we conclude with more exotic proposals where these synthetic fields might be made dynamical, in view of simulating interacting gauge theories with cold atoms.
    Spin-orbit interactionOptical latticeHamiltonianCondensationBose-Einstein condensateEdge excitationsStandard ModelSuperfluidAnyonQuantum computer...
  • In recent years, it has become possible to detect individual dark matter subhalos near images of strongly lensed extended background galaxies. Typically, only the most massive subhalos in the strong lensing region may be detected this way. In this work, we show that strong lenses may also be used to constrain the much more numerous population of lower mass subhalos that are too small to be detected individually. In particular, we show that the power spectrum of projected density fluctuations in galaxy halos can be measured using strong gravitational lensing. We develop the mathematical framework of power spectrum estimation, and test our method on mock observations. We use our results to determine the types of observations required to measure the substructure power spectrum with high significance. We predict that deep observations ($\sim10$ hours on a single target) with current facilities can measure this power spectrum at the $3\sigma$ level, with no apparent degeneracy with unknown clumpiness in the background source structure or fluctuations from detector noise. Upcoming ALMA measurements of strong lenses are capable of placing strong constraints on the abundance of dark matter subhalos and the underlying particle nature of dark matter.
    Covariance matrixNon-GaussianityRegularizationDark matter subhaloSubhalo mass functionDark matter haloStrong gravitational lensingVia Lactea 2 simulationHalo modelDeflection angle...
  • I review the connection between dynamics and the baryonic mass distribution in rotationally supported galaxies. The enclosed dynamical mass-to-light ratio increases with decreasing galaxy luminosity and surface brightness. The correlation with surface brightness appears to be the more fundamental, with the dependence on luminosity following simply from the weaker correlation between luminosity and surface brightness. In addition to this global relation, there is also a local relation between the amplitude of the mass discrepancy and the acceleration predicted by the observed distribution of baryons. I provide an empirical calibration of this mass discrepancy-acceleration relation. The data are consistent with the operation of a singe effective force law in disk galaxies, making this relation tantamount to a natural law. I further provide formulae by which the radial dark matter distribution can be estimated from surface photometry. The form of the dark matter halo depends uniquely on the distribution of baryons in each galaxy, and in general is neither a cusp nor a core. It remains difficult to see how galaxy formation models can reproduce the observed behavior, which is uniquely predicted by MOND.
    Rotation CurveStarBaryonic Tully-Fisher relationLow surface brightness galaxyHigh Surface Brightness galaxyStellar massMass to light ratioIntrinsic scatterStellar distributionStatistics...
  • We present a new method to remove the impact of random and small-scale non-circular motions from HI velocity fields in galaxies in order to better constrain the dark matter properties for these objects. This method extracts the circularly rotating velocity components from the HI data cube and condenses them into a so-called bulk velocity field. We derive high-resolution rotation curves of IC 2574 and NGC 2366 based on bulk velocity fields derived from The HI Nearby Galaxy Survey (THINGS) obtained at the VLA. The bulk velocity field rotation curves are significantly less affected by non-circular motions and constrain the dark matter distribution in our galaxies, allowing us to address the discrepancy between the inferred and predicted dark matter distribution in galaxies (the "cusp/core" problem). Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) 3.6 micron data as well as ancillary optical information, are used to separate the baryons from the total matter content. Using stellar population synthesis models, assuming various sets of metallicity and star formation histories, we compute stellar mass-to-light ratios for the 3.6 and 4.5 micron bands. Using our predicted value for the 3.6 micron stellar mass-to-light ratio, we find that the observed dark matter distributions of IC 2574 and NGC 2366 are inconsistent with the cuspy dark matter halo predicted by LCDM models, even after corrections for non-circular motions. This result also holds for other assumptions about the stellar mass-to-light ratio. The distribution of dark matter within our sample galaxies is best described by models with a kpc-sized constant-density core.
    NGC 2366GalaxyRotation CurveDark matterNavarro-Frenk-White profileTHINGS surveyDark matter haloStar formationNearby galaxiesSun...
  • To support complex data-intensive applications such as personalized recommendations, targeted advertising, and intelligent services, the data management community has focused heavily on the design of systems to support training complex models on large datasets. Unfortunately, the design of these systems largely ignores a critical component of the overall analytics process: the deployment and serving of models at scale. In this work, we present Velox, a new component of the Berkeley Data Analytics Stack. Velox is a data management system for facilitating the next steps in real-world, large-scale analytics pipelines: online model management, maintenance, and serving. Velox provides end-user applications and services with a low-latency, intuitive interface to models, transforming the raw statistical models currently trained using existing offline large-scale compute frameworks into full-blown, end-to-end data products capable of recommending products, targeting advertisements, and personalizing web content. To provide up-to-date results for these complex models, Velox also facilitates lightweight online model maintenance and selection (i.e., dynamic weighting). In this paper, we describe the challenges and architectural considerations required to achieve this functionality, including the abilities to span online and offline systems, to adaptively adjust model materialization strategies, and to exploit inherent statistical properties such as model error tolerance, all while operating at "Big Data" scale.
    StatisticsModel managementMachine learningArchitectureTachyonSupport vector machineDeep Neural NetworksRecommendation systemCollaborative filteringBig data...
  • We propose an explanation of features of spiral galaxies: spiral arms and observed flat rotation curves, without the presence of an exotic form of matter. The formalism is based on Boltzmanns transport equation for the collisional matter and the very-low-velocity post-Newtonian approximation of the general relativity equations expressed in the Maxwell-like form. The Maxwell-like formulation provides the base for the explanation of the above phenomena in the language of dynamically created gravitoelectromagnetic fields by the movement of mass streams in the plane of the galaxy disc. In the model we use radical simplifications expressed as neglect of the gravitational interaction between neighbors and approximation of the incompressible mass flow. In this frame we show that if the galaxy disc is fuelled constantly by collisional mass carriers, then the amplification of the gravitomagnetic field can be large enough to create the rotational velocity pattern and spiral arms. In this framework the collisional part of the mass gas in the galaxy disc plane, i.e. molecules and atoms, is responsible for the creation of the gravitomagnetic field. According to the model the spiral pattern of arms is static and determined by a direction of the mass flow. The model reproduces qualitatively the observed spiral arms and reproduces well the shape of the rotational velocity pattern. As an example of the usability of the proposed mechanism, we reproduce qualitatively the above features for the IC 342 and NGC 4321 galaxies.
    Galaxy filamentOhm's lawStarDark matterGravitational fieldsRadial velocityElastic collisionRelaxation timeRelaxation Time ApproximationIncompressible fluid...
  • Vectorial analysis relating to derivation of deflection of light is presented. Curvilinear acceleration is distinguished from the Newtonian polar conic acceleration. The difference between the two is due to the curvature term. Lorentz invariant expression for acceleration is derived. A physical theory of rotation curves of galaxies based on second solution to Einstein's field equation is presented. Theory is applied to Milky Way, M31, NGC3198 and Solar system. Modified Kepler's third law yields correct orbital periods of stars in a galaxy. Deviation factor in the line element of the theory happens to be the ratio of the Newtonian gravitational acceleration to the measured acceleration of the star in the galaxy. Therefore this deviation factor can replace the MOND function.
    General relativityQuantum gravitySunCosmologyCircular orbitStellar massGalaxyQuantum mechanicsCircular velocityStellar motion...
  • We solve the Boltzmann equation for cosmological neutrinos around the epoch of the electron-positron annihilation in order to verify the freeze-out approximation and to compute accurately the cosmological neutrino distribution function. We find the radiation energy density to be about 0.3% higher than the one predicted by the freeze-out approximation. As a result, the spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropies changes by 0.3-05%, depending on the angular scale, and the amplitude of the mass fluctuations on scales below about 100 h^{-1} Mpc decreases by about 0.2-0.3%.
    NeutrinoActive neutrinoCMB temperature anisotropyNeutrino decouplingTau neutrinoCosmic microwave backgroundMuonHelium abundanceNeutrino interactionsHigh energy neutrinos...
  • We present harmonic decompositions of the velocity fields of 19 galaxies from THINGS (The \HI Nearby Galaxy Survey) which quantify the magnitude of the non-circular motions in these galaxies and yield observational estimates of the elongations of the dark matter halo potentials. Additionally, we present accurate dynamical center positions for these galaxies. We show that the positions of the kinematic and photometric centers of the large majority of the galaxies in our sample are in good agreement. The median absolute amplitude of the non-circular motions, averaged over our sample, is $6.7 \kms$, with $\sim 90$ percent of the galaxies having median non-circular motions of less than $\sim 9\kms$. As a fraction of the total rotation velocity this translates into 4.5 percent on average. The mean elongation of the gravitational potential, after a statistical correction for an unknown viewing angle, is $0.017\pm 0.020$, i.e., consistent with a round potential. Our derived non-circular motions and elongations are smaller than what is needed to bring Cold Dark Matter (CDM) simulations in agreement with the observations. In particular, the amplitudes of the non-circular motions are not high enough to hide the steep central mass-density profiles predicted by CDM simulations. We show that the amplitudes of the non-circular motions decrease towards lower luminosities and later Hubble types.
    InclinationRotation CurveRadio continuum emissionDark matterSpiral armNGC catalogAbsolute magnitudeDark matter dominated galaxyStar formationPosition angle...
  • In this Letter we show that an interaction between dark matter and dark energy is favored by the most recent large scale structure observations. The result presented by the BOSS-SDSS collaboration measuring the baryon acoustic oscillations of the Ly-$\alpha$ forest from high redshift quasars indicates a $2.5\sigma$ departure from the standard $\Lambda$CDM model. This is the first time that the evolution of dark energy at high redshifts has been measured and the current results cannot be explained by simple generalizations of the cosmological constant. We show here that a simple phenomenological interaction in the dark sector provides a good explanation for this deviation, naturally accommodating the Hubble parameter obtained by BOSS, $H(z=2.34)=222 \pm 7 ~\mathrm{km~s^{-1}~Mpc^{-1}}$, for two of the proposed models with a positive coupling constant and rejecting the null interaction at more than $2\sigma$. For this we used the adjusted values of the cosmological parameters for the interacting models from the current observational data sets. This small and positive value of the coupling constant also helps alleviate the coincidence problem.
    Baryon acoustic oscillationsSupernova Type IaCold dark matterLambda-CDM modelQuasarCosmologyField theoryAngular distanceCurvature perturbationCosmological constant problem...
  • The next generation X-ray observatory ASTRO-H will open up a new dimension in the study of galaxy clusters by achieving for the first time the spectral resolution required to measure velocities of the intracluster plasma, and extending at the same time the spectral coverage to energies well beyond 10 keV. This white paper provides an overview of the capabilities of ASTRO-H for exploring gas motions in galaxy clusters including their cosmological implications, the physics of AGN feedback, dynamics of cluster mergers as well as associated high-energy processes, chemical enrichment of the intracluster medium, and the nature of missing baryons and unidentified dark matter.
    TurbulenceIntra-cluster mediumAbundancePerseus galaxy clusterGalaxy filamentCoolingThermalisationActive Galactic NucleiGalaxyCluster core...
  • Via the AdS/CFT correspondence, fundamental constraints on the entanglement structure of quantum systems translate to constraints on spacetime geometries that must be satisfied in any consistent theory of quantum gravity. In this paper, we investigate such constraints arising from strong subadditivity and from the positivity and monotonicity of relative entropy in examples with highly-symmetric spacetimes. Our results may be interpreted as a set of energy conditions restricting the possible form of the stress-energy tensor in consistent theories of Einstein gravity coupled to matter.
    Entanglement entropyConformal field theoryThermalisationHamiltonianField theoryModularityVacuum stateExpectation ValueEinstein field equationsGeodesic...
  • At large scales and for sufficiently early times, dark matter is described as a pressureless perfect fluid---dust---non-interacting with Standard Model fields. These features are captured by a simple model with two scalars: a Lagrange multiplier and an other playing the role of the velocity potential. We consider a simple version of this scenario with high derivative terms, such that the dust solutions are preserved at the background level, but there is a non-zero sound speed at the linear level. We associate this {\it Modified Dust} with dark matter, and study the linear evolution of cosmological perturbations in that picture. The most prominent effect is the suppression of the power spectrum at sufficiently small wavelengths. This can be relevant in view of the missing satellites problem. For even shorter cosmological modes, however, perturbations of Modified Dust are enhanced compared to the predictions of more common particle dark matter scenarios. This is a peculiarity of their evolution in radiation dominated background. We also briefly discuss clustering of Modified Dust. We write the system of equations in the Newtonian limit, and sketch the possible mechanism which could prevent the appearance of caustic singularities. The same mechanism may be relevant in light of the core-cusp problem.
    Dark matterRadiation-dominated epochWarm dark matterEinstein-de Sitter universeEinstein field equationsPerfect fluidEuler equationsDwarf galaxyFree streamingNumerical simulation...
  • We perform a set of cosmological simulations of structure formation in a mixed dark matter (MDM) model. Our model is motivated by the recently identified $3.5\,{\rm keV}$ X-ray line that can be explained by the decay of non-resonantly produced sterile neutrinos, if they account for $10$-$60\%$ of the dark matter in the Universe. The non-resonantly produced sterile neutrino has sizable free-streaming length and hence behaves effectively as warm dark matter (WDM). Assuming the rest of dark matter is composed of some stable and cold particles, i.e. cold dark matter (CDM), we follow the coevolution of the CDM and WDM density perturbations. Specifically, we consider the models with the warm component fraction of $r_{\rm warm}=0.25$ and $0.5$. Our MDM model predicts that the comoving Jeans length at the matter-radiation equality is close to that of the thermally produced warm dark matter model with particle mass $m_{\rm WDM}=2.4\,{\rm keV}$ but that the suppression in the fluctuation power spectrum is weaker. We perform large $N$-body simulations to study the structure of nonlinear dark halos in the MDM model. The abundance of substructure is significantly reduced in the MDM model, and hence the so-called small scale crisis is mitigated. The cumulative maximum circular velocity function (CVF) of at least one halo in the MDM models is in good agreement with the CVFs of the observed satellites in the Milky Way and Andromeda. We argue that the MDM models open an interesting possibility to reconcile the reported $3.5\,{\rm keV}$ line and the internal structure of galaxies.
    Dark matter subhaloDark matterWDM particlesNon-resonant production of sterile neutrinoMixing angleLambda-CDM modelMilky WayStandard ModelWeakly interacting massive particleSatellite galaxy...
  • We present the results from deep Suzaku observations of the central region of the Perseus cluster. Bulbul et al. (2014) reported the detection by XMM-Newton instruments of an unidentified X-ray emission line at an energy around 3.5keV in spectra for the Perseus and other clusters. They argued for a possibility of the decay of sterile neutrino, a dark matter candidate. We examine Suzaku X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (XIS) spectra of the Perseus cluster for evidence in the 3.5keV line and other possible dark matter features in the 2-6keV energy band. In order to search for and constrain a weak line feature with the XIS, observations of the Crab nebula are used to evaluate the system's effective area. We found no line feature at the claimed position with a systematic line flux upper limit at a half (1.5eV in line equivalent width) of the claimed best-fit value by Bulbul et al. We discuss this inconsistency in terms of instrumental calibration errors and modeling of continuum emission. Future prospects for high-energy resolution spectroscopy with ASTRO-H are presented.
    Systematic errorCharge coupled deviceStatisticsXMM-Newton MOS cameraLine emissionKeV lineField of viewAbsorptivityInstrumental backgroundAPEC plasma model...
  • The most characteristic high-energy phenomena in the Galactic center (GC) region is the presence of strong K-shell emission lines from highly ionized Si, S, Ar, Ca, Fe and Ni, which form the Galactic Center X-ray Emission (GCXE). These multiple lines suggest that the GCXE is composed of at least two plasmas with temperatures of ~1 and ~7 keV. The GCXE also exhibits the K-shell lines from neutral Si, S, Ar, Ca, Fe and Ni atoms. A debatable issue is the origin of the GCXE plasma; whether it is a diffuse plasma or integrated emission of many unresolved point sources such as cataclysmic variables and active binaries. Detailed spectroscopy for these lines may provide a reliable picture of the GCXE plasma. The origin of the K-shell lines from neutral atoms is most likely the fluorescence by X-rays from a putative past flare of Sgr A*. Therefore ASTRO-H may provide unprecedented data for the past light curve of Sgr A*. All these lines may provide key information for the dynamics of the GCXE, using possible Doppler shift and/or line broadening. This paper overviews these line features and the previous interpretation of their origin. We propose extended or revised science with the ASTRO-H observations of some select objects in the GC region.
    Galactic Ridge X-ray EmissionKeV lineSupernova remnantCollisional ionization equilibriumSterile neutrinoSupermassive black holeMolecular cloudGalactic rotationRotation CurveGalactic plane...
  • We model the NFW potential to determine if, and under what conditions, the NFW halo appears consistent with the observed velocity fields of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. We present mock DensePak IFU velocity fields and rotation curves of axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric potentials that are well-matched to the spatial resolution and velocity range of our sample galaxies. We find that the DensePak IFU can accurately reconstruct the velocity field produced by an axisymmetric NFW potential and that a tilted-ring fitting program can successfully recover the corresponding NFW rotation curve. We also find that non-axisymmetric potentials with fixed axis ratios change only the normalization of the mock velocity fields and rotation curves and not their shape. The shape of the modeled NFW rotation curves does not reproduce the data: these potentials are unable to simultaneously bring the mock data at both small and large radii into agreement with observations. Indeed, to match the slow rise of LSB galaxy rotation curves, a specific viewing angle of the non-axisymmetric potential is required. For each of the simulated LSB galaxies, the observer's line-of-sight must be along the minor axis of the potential, an arrangement which is inconsistent with a random distribution of halo orientations on the sky.
    Cold dark matterRotation CurveCosmologyVelocity dispersionDark matter haloMultidimensional ArrayCircular orbitPinchDark matterMass excess...
  • We describe methods for evaluating one-loop integrals in $4-2\e$ dimensions. We give a recursion relation that expresses the scalar $n$-point integral as a cyclicly symmetric combination of $(n-1)$-point integrals. The computation of such integrals thus reduces to the calculation of box diagrams ($n=4$). The tensor integrals required in gauge theory may be obtained by differentiating the scalar integral with respect to certain combinations of the kinematic variables. Such relations also lead to differential equations for scalar integrals. For box integrals with massless internal lines these differential equations are easy to solve.
    KinematicsLoop momentumFeynman parametrizationInfrared divergenceRadiative correctionRankingLevi-Civita symbolHomogenizationUltraviolet divergenceMandelstam variables...
  • While the baryon asymmetry of the Universe is nowadays well measured by cosmological observations, the bounds on the lepton asymmetry in the form of neutrinos are still significantly weaker. We place limits on the relic neutrino asymmetries using some of the latest cosmological data, taking into account the effect of flavor oscillations. We present our results for two different values of the neutrino mixing angle \theta_{13}, and show that for large \theta_{13} the limits on the total neutrino asymmetry become more stringent, diluting even large initial flavor asymmetries. In particular, we find that the present bounds are still dominated by the limits coming from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, while the limits on the total neutrino mass from cosmological data are essentially independent of \theta_{13}. Finally, we perform a forecast for COrE, taken as an example of a future CMB experiment, and find that it could improve the limits on the total lepton asymmetry approximately by up to a factor 5.
    Big bang nucleosynthesisWilkinson Microwave Anisotropy ProbeCosmic microwave backgroundCosmological parametersAbundanceEffective number of neutrinosElectron neutrinoThe early UniverseCode for Anisotropies in the Microwave BackgroundReactor Experiment for Neutrino Oscillation...
  • The role of neutrinos in stars is introduced for students with little prior astrophysical exposure. We begin with neutrinos as an energy-loss channel in ordinary stars and conversely, how stars provide information on neutrinos and possible other low-mass particles. Next we turn to the Sun as a measurable source of neutrinos and other particles. Finally we discuss supernova (SN) neutrinos, the SN 1987A measurements, and the quest for a high-statistics neutrino measurement from the next nearby SN. We also touch on the subject of neutrino oscillations in the high-density SN context.
    AxionCoolingSolar neutrinoCore collapseWhite dwarfSupernovaShock waveSupernova neutrinosThermalisationMixing angle...