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- The observational evidence for the recent acceleration of the universe shows that canonical theories of cosmology and particle physics are incomplete and that new physics is out there, waiting to be discovered. A compelling task for astrophysical facilities is to search for, identify and ultimately characterize this new physics. I present very recent developments in tests of the stability of nature's fundamental constants, as well as their impact on physics paradigms beyond the standard model. Specifically I discuss new observational constraints at low redshifts and at the BBN epoch, and highlight their different implications for canonical quintessence-type models and for non-canonical string-theory inspired models. Finally I also present new forecasts, based on realistic simulated data, of the gains in sensitivity for these constraints expected from ELT-HIRES, on its own and in combination with Euclid.Dark energyESPRESSOBig bang nucleosynthesisCosmologyEuropean Extremely Large TelescopeLithium-7 problemEuclid missionFine structure constantScalar fieldHIRES spectrometer...
- The aim of this paper is to describe a novel non-parametric noise reduction technique from the point of view of Bayesian inference that may automatically improve the signal-to-noise ratio of one- and two-dimensional data, such as e.g. astronomical images and spectra. The algorithm iteratively evaluates possible smoothed versions of the data, the smooth models, obtaining an estimation of the underlying signal that is statistically compatible with the noisy measurements. Iterations stop based on the evidence and the $\chi^2$ statistic of the last smooth model, and we compute the expected value of the signal as a weighted average of the whole set of smooth models. In this paper, we explain the mathematical formalism and numerical implementation of the algorithm, and we evaluate its performance in terms of the peak signal to noise ratio, the structural similarity index, and the time payload, using a battery of real astronomical observations. Our Fully Adaptive Bayesian Algorithm for Data Analysis (FABADA) yields results that, without any parameter tuning, are comparable to standard image processing algorithms whose parameters have been optimized based on the true signal to be recovered, something that is impossible in a real application. State-of-the-art non-parametric methods, such as BM3D, offer slightly better performance at high signal-to-noise ratio, while our algorithm is significantly more accurate for extremely noisy data (higher than $20-40\%$ relative errors, a situation of particular interest in the field of astronomy). In this range, the standard deviation of the residuals obtained by our reconstruction may become more than an order of magnitude lower than that of the original measurements. The source code needed to reproduce all the results presented in this report, including the implementation of the method, is publicly available at https://github.com/PabloMSanAla/fabadaSignal to noise ratioMean squared errorWiener filterBayesianStatisticsOptimizationImage ProcessingAbsorption lineBayesian evidenceBayesian approach...
- The past 50 years has seen cosmology go from a field known for the errors being in the exponents to precision science. The transformation, powered by ideas, technology, a paradigm shift and culture change, has revolutionized our understanding of the Universe, with the $\Lambda$CDM paradigm as its crowning achievement. I chronicle the journey of precision cosmology and finish with my thoughts about what lies ahead.CosmologyInflationDark matterBig BangPrecision cosmologyGravitational waveGalaxyNeutralinoDark energyCMB temperature anisotropy...
- The morphology of haloes inform about both cosmological and galaxy formation models. We use the Minkowski Functionals (MFs) to characterize the actual morphology of haloes, only partially captured by smooth density profile, going beyond the spherical or ellipsoidal symmetry. We employ semi-analytical haloes with NFW and $\alpha\beta\gamma$-profile and spherical or ellipsoidal shape to obtain a clear interpretation of MFs as function of inner and outer slope, concentration and sphericity parameters. We use the same models to mimic the density profile of $N$-body haloes, showing that their MFs clearly differ as sensitive to internal substructures. This highlights the benefit of MFs at the halo scales as promising statistics to improve the spatial modeling of dark matter, crucial for future lensing, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich, and X-ray mass maps as well as dark matter detection based on high-accuracy data.Minkowski functionalNavarro-Frenk-White profileDark matter haloStatisticsCosmologyDark matterCluster of galaxiesDark matter subhaloStandard deviationInner slope...
- Ongoing and planned weak lensing (WL) surveys are becoming deep enough to contain information on angular scales down to a few arcmin. To fully extract information from these small scales, we must capture non-Gaussian features in the cosmological WL signal while accurately accounting for baryonic effects. In this work, we account for baryonic physics via a baryonic correction model that modifies the matter distribution in dark matter-only $N$-body simulations, mimicking the effects of galaxy formation and feedback. We implement this model in a large suite of ray-tracing simulations, spanning a grid of cosmological models in $\Omega_\mathrm{m}-\sigma_8$ space. We then develop a convolutional neural network (CNN) architecture to learn and constrain cosmological and baryonic parameters simultaneously from the simulated WL convergence maps. We find that in a Hyper-Suprime Cam (HSC)-like survey, our CNN achieves a 1.7$\times$ tighter constraint in $\Omega_\mathrm{m}-\sigma_8$ space ($1\sigma$ area) than the power spectrum and 2.1$\times$ tighter than the peak counts, showing that the CNN can efficiently extract non-Gaussian cosmological information even while marginalizing over baryonic effects. When we combine our CNN with the power spectrum, the baryonic effects degrade the constraint in $\Omega_\mathrm{m}-\sigma_8$ space by a factor of 2.4, compared to the much worse degradation by a factor of 4.7 or 3.7 from either method alone.Convolution Neural NetworkWeak lensingCosmologyStatisticsHyper Suprime-CamArchitectureCosmological parametersRay tracingSigma8Dark matter...
- We investigate a cosmological scenario in which the dark matter particles can be created during the evolution of the Universe. By regarding the Universe as an open thermodynamic system and using non-equilibrium thermodynamics, we examine the mechanism of gravitational particle production. In this setup, we study the large-scale structure (LSS) formation of the Universe in the Newtonian regime of perturbations and derive the equations governing the evolution of the dark matter overdensities. Then, we implement the cosmological data from Planck 2018 CMB measurements, SNe Ia and BAO observations, as well as the SH0ES local measurement for $H_0$ to provide some cosmological constraints for the parameters of our model. We see that the best case of our scenario ($\chi_{{\rm tot}}^{2}=3834.40$) fits the observational data better than the baseline $\Lambda$CDM model ($\chi_{{\rm tot}}^{2} = 3838.00$) at the background level. We also see that this case results in the Hubble constant as $H_0 = 68.79\pm 0.59\,{\rm km\,s^{-1}\,Mpc^{-1}}$ which is greater than $H_0 = 68.20^{+0.42}_{-0.38}\,{\rm km\,s^{-1}\,Mpc^{-1}}$ given by the $\Lambda$CDM model, and hence we can alleviate the $H_0$ tension to some extent in our framework. Furthermore, the best case of our scenario gives a lower value for the best-fit of the $S_8$ parameter than the $\Lambda$CDM result, and therefore it also reduces the LSS tension slightly. We moreover estimate the growth factor of linear perturbations and show that the best case of our model ($\chi_{f\sigma_{8}}^{2}=40.84$) fits the LSS data significantly better than the $\Lambda$CDM model ($\chi_{f\sigma_{8}}^{2}=44.29$). Consequently, our model also makes a better performance at the level of the linear perturbations compared to the standard cosmological model.Large scale structureLambda-CDM modelSupernovae H0 for the Equation of StateBaryon acoustic oscillationsCosmologyDark matter particleHubble parameterPlanck missionDensity contrastDark matter...
- Measurements of the cosmological parameter $S_8$ provided by cosmic microwave background and large scale structure data reveal some tension between them, suggesting that the clustering features of matter in these early and late cosmological tracers could be different. In this work, we use a supervised learning method designed to solve Bayesian approach to regression, known as Gaussian Processes regression, to quantify the cosmic evolution of $S_8$ up to $z \sim 1.5$. For this, we propose a novel approach to find firstly the evolution of the function $\sigma_8(z)$, then we find the function $S_8(z)$. As a sub-product we obtain a minimal cosmological model-dependent $\sigma_8(z=0)$ and $S_8(z=0)$ estimates. We select independent data measurements of the growth rate $f(z)$ and of $[f\sigma_8](z)$ according to criteria of non-correlated data, then we perform the Gaussian reconstruction of these data sets to obtain the cosmic evolution of $\sigma_8(z)$, $S_8(z)$, and the growth index $\gamma(z)$. Our statistical analyses show that $S_8(z)$ is compatible with Planck $\Lambda$CDM cosmology; when evaluated at the present time we find $\sigma_8(z=0) = 0.766 \pm 0.116$ and $S_8(z=0) = 0.732 \pm 0.115$. Applying our methodology to the growth index, we find $\gamma(z=0) = 0.465 \pm 0.140$. Moreover, we compare our results with others recently obtained in the literature. In none of these functions, i.e. $\sigma_8(z)$, $S_8(z)$, and $\gamma(z)$, do we find significant deviations from the standard cosmology predictions.CosmologySigma8Planck missionCosmic microwave backgroundGeneral relativityLambda-CDM modelCosmological parametersLarge scale structureMachine learningData sampling...
- We present a full forward-modeled $w$CDM analysis of the KiDS-1000 weak lensing maps using graph-convolutional neural networks (GCNN). Utilizing the $\texttt{CosmoGrid}$, a novel massive simulation suite spanning six different cosmological parameters, we generate almost one million tomographic mock surveys on the sphere. Due to the large data set size and survey area, we perform a spherical analysis while limiting our map resolution to $\texttt{HEALPix}$ $n_\mathrm{side}=512$. We marginalize over systematics such as photometric redshift errors, multiplicative calibration and additive shear bias. Furthermore, we use a map-level implementation of the non-linear intrinsic alignment model along with a novel treatment of baryonic feedback to incorporate additional astrophysical nuisance parameters. We also perform a spherical power spectrum analysis for comparison. The constraints of the cosmological parameters are generated using a likelihood free inference method called Gaussian Process Approximate Bayesian Computation (GPABC). Finally, we check that our pipeline is robust against choices of the simulation parameters. We find constraints on the degeneracy parameter of $S_8 \equiv \sigma_8\sqrt{\Omega_M/0.3} = 0.78^{+0.06}_{-0.06}$ for our power spectrum analysis and $S_8 = 0.79^{+0.05}_{-0.05}$ for our GCNN analysis, improving the former by 16%. This is consistent with earlier analyses of the 2-point function, albeit slightly higher. Baryonic corrections generally broaden the constraints on the degeneracy parameter by about 10%. These results offer great prospects for full machine learning based analyses of on-going and future weak lensing surveys.KiDS surveyShearedWeak lensingIntrinsic alignmentCosmological parametersSpectrum analysisInferenceBaryonic feedbackCosmologyPhotometric redshift...
- 21cm tomography opens a window to directly study astrophysics and fundamental physics of early epochs in our Universe's history, the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR) and Cosmic Dawn (CD). Summary statistics such as the power spectrum omit information encoded in this signal due to its highly non-Gaussian nature. Here we adopt a network-based approach for direct inference of CD and EoR astrophysics jointly with fundamental physics from 21cm tomography. We showcase a warm dark matter (WDM) universe, where dark matter density parameter $\Omega_\mathrm{m}$ and WDM mass $m_\mathrm{WDM}$ strongly influence both CD and EoR. Reflecting the three-dimensional nature of 21cm light-cones, we present a new, albeit simple, 3D convolutional neural network for efficient parameter recovery at moderate training cost. On simulations we observe high-fidelity parameter recovery for CD and EoR astrophysics ($R^2>0.78-0.99$), together with DM density $\Omega_\mathrm{m}$ ($R^2>0.97$) and WDM mass ($R^2>0.61$, significantly better for $m_\mathrm{WDM}<3-4\,$keV). For realistic mock observed light-cones that include noise and foreground levels expected for the Square Kilometre Array, we note that in an optimistic foreground scenario parameter recovery is unaffected, while for moderate, less optimistic foreground levels (occupying the so-called wedge) the recovery of the WDM mass deteriorates, while other parameters remain robust against increased foreground levels at $R^2>0.9$. We further test the robustness of our network-based inference against modelling uncertainties and systematics by transfer learning between bare simulations and mock observations; we find robust recovery of specific X-ray luminosity and ionising efficiency, while DM density and WDM mass come with increased bias and scatter.Light conesConvolution Neural NetworkInferenceArchitectureWarm dark matterEpoch of reionizationCosmic DawnWDM particle massReionizationLong short term memory...
- The detection of the accelerated expansion of the Universe has been one of the major breakthroughs in modern cosmology. Several cosmological probes (CMB, SNe Ia, BAO) have been studied in depth to better understand the nature of the mechanism driving this acceleration, and they are being currently pushed to their limits, obtaining remarkable constraints that allowed us to shape the standard cosmological model. In parallel to that, however, the percent precision achieved has recently revealed apparent tensions between measurements obtained from different methods. These are either indicating some unaccounted systematic effects, or are pointing toward new physics. Following the development of CMB, SNe, and BAO cosmology, it is critical to extend our selection of cosmological probes. Novel probes can be exploited to validate results, control or mitigate systematic effects, and, most importantly, to increase the accuracy and robustness of our results. This review is meant to provide a state-of-art benchmark of the latest advances in emerging beyond-standard cosmological probes. We present how several different methods can become a key resource for observational cosmology. In particular, we review cosmic chronometers, quasars, gamma-ray bursts, standard sirens, lensing time-delay with galaxies and clusters, cosmic voids, neutral hydrogen intensity mapping, surface brightness fluctuations, secular redshift drift, and clustering of standard candles. The review describes the method, systematics, and results of each probe in a homogeneous way, giving the reader a clear picture of the available innovative methods that have been introduced in recent years and how to apply them. The review also discusses the potential synergies and complementarities between the various probes, exploring how they will contribute to the future of modern cosmology.GalaxyCosmic voidGamma ray burstQuasarGravitational waveCalibrationCosmologyTime delayCosmological parametersGlobular cluster...
- In machine learning, a question of great interest is understanding what examples are challenging for a model to classify. Identifying atypical examples ensures the safe deployment of models, isolates samples that require further human inspection and provides interpretability into model behavior. In this work, we propose Variance of Gradients (VoG) as a valuable and efficient metric to rank data by difficulty and to surface a tractable subset of the most challenging examples for human-in-the-loop auditing. We show that data points with high VoG scores are far more difficult for the model to learn and over-index on corrupted or memorized examples. Further, restricting the evaluation to the test set instances with the lowest VoG improves the model's generalization performance. Finally, we show that VoG is a valuable and efficient ranking for out-of-distribution detection.RankingRankDeep Neural NetworksArchitectureStatisticsTraining setMachine learningStandard deviationNull hypothesisStochastic gradient descent...
- Transfer-learning methods aim to improve performance in a data-scarce target domain using a model pretrained on a data-rich source domain. A cost-efficient strategy, linear probing, involves freezing the source model and training a new classification head for the target domain. This strategy is outperformed by a more costly but state-of-the-art method -- fine-tuning all parameters of the source model to the target domain -- possibly because fine-tuning allows the model to leverage useful information from intermediate layers which is otherwise discarded by the later pretrained layers. We explore the hypothesis that these intermediate layers might be directly exploited. We propose a method, Head-to-Toe probing (Head2Toe), that selects features from all layers of the source model to train a classification head for the target-domain. In evaluations on the VTAB-1k, Head2Toe matches performance obtained with fine-tuning on average while reducing training and storage cost hundred folds or more, but critically, for out-of-distribution transfer, Head2Toe outperforms fine-tuning.RegularizationIntermediate representationEmbeddingFeature selectionClassifierAttentionHyperparameterTraining setArchitectureActivation function...
- We prove that for every $n$, there is a graph $G$ with $\chi(G) \geq n$ and $\omega(G) \leq 3$ such that every induced subgraph $H$ of $G$ with $\omega(H) \leq 2$ satisfies $\chi(H) \leq 4$. This disproves a well-known conjecture. Our construction is a digraph with bounded clique number, large dichromatic number, and no induced directed cycles of odd length at least 5.GraphChromatic numberClique numberUndirected graphCompletenessChordal graphDirected graphContradictionSymmetry...
- The origin of the cold gas in central galaxies in groups is still a matter of debate. We present Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) observations of 18 optically selected local Brightest Group Galaxies (BGGs) to study the kinematics and distribution of the optical emission-line gas. MUSE observations reveal a distribution of gas morphologies including ten complex networks of filaments extending up to 10 kpc to two compact (<3 kpc) and five extended (>5 kpc) disk-dominated structures. Some rotating disks show rings and elongated structures arising from the central disk. The kinematics of the stellar component is mainly rotation-dominated, which is very different from the disturbed kinematics and distribution found in the filamentary sources. The ionized gas is kinematically decoupled from the stellar component for most systems, suggesting an external origin for the gas. We also find that the Halpha luminosity correlates with the cold molecular mass. By exploring the thermodynamical properties of the hot atmospheres, we find that the filamentary sources and compact disks are found in systems with small central entropy values and tcool/teddy ratios. This suggests that, like for Brightest Cluster Galaxies in cool core clusters, the ionized gas are likely formed from hot halo gas condensations, consistently with the Chaotic Cold Accretion simulations (as shown via the C-ratio, Tat, and k-plot). We note that gaseous rotating disks are more frequent than in BCGs. An explanation for the origin of the gas in those objects is a contribution to gas fueling by mergers or group satellites, as qualitatively hinted by some sources of the present sample. Nonetheless, we discuss the possibility that some extended disks could also be a transition stage in an evolutionary sequence including filaments, extended disks and compact disks, as described by hot gas condensation models of cooling flows.GalaxyKinematicsCondensationMulti Unit Spectroscopic ExplorerMilky WayVelocity dispersionCoolingStarHot gasGroup of galaxies...
- We present a framework for solving a coupled set of momentum-dependent Boltzmann equations for the phase space distribution of cosmic relic particles, without resorting to approximations of assuming kinetic equilibrium or neglecting back scattering or elastic interactions. Our framework is amendable to precision numerical computations. To test it, we consider two benchmark models where the momentum-dependence of dark matter distribution function is potentially important: a real singlet scalar extension near the Higgs resonance, and a sterile neutrino dark matter model with a singlet scalar mediator. The singlet scalar example shows that even near sharp resonances the kinetic equilibrium holds well enough to justify the use of integrated momentum-independent Boltzmann equation in preliminary parameter scans. However, the integrated method may underestimate the relic density by up to 40% in extreme cases. In the sterile neutrino dark matter model we studied how the inclusion of previously ignored elastic interactions and processes with initial state sterile neutrinos could affect the non-thermal nature of their resulting distributions. Here the effects turned out to be negligible, proving the robustness of the earlier predictions.Boltzmann transport equationStandard ModelCollision integralHiggs bosonVacuum expectation valueGeneralized Relaxation ApproximationZeldovish-Okun-Pikelner-Lee-WeinbergFreeze-outDark matter modelPhase space...
- X-ray polarimetric missions planned for this decade will significantly enhance our knowledge of compact accreting sources. Observations of the X-ray polarization signal from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) or X-ray binary systems (XRBs) will bring new means to study inner accretion flow in these objects that, together with currently used spectroscopic and timing techniques, will help us to determine better their properties, such as their inclination, orientation, shape, and size of their corona as well as the black hole spin. In this work, we present a yet missing piece in the global polarization models of black hole accretion discs. We compute the reflected X-ray emission from the disc in a local co-moving frame using (1) the radiative transfer code TITAN to obtain the ionization structure of the disc and (2) the Monte Carlo code STOKES that incorporates the physics of absorption, re-emission, and Compton scattering to produce a complete spectropolarimetric output. We present the final Stokes parameters I, Q, and U for a set of photon-indices of the incident primary power-law radiation, the disc ionization parameters, incident and emission angles, for three independent polarization states of the incident coronal X-ray photons with a sufficient resolution in energy to allow for sharp discussion of spectral and polarization properties. We show that the spectral component matches well literature predictions. The polarization degree and angle are in agreement with analytical approximations previously appearing in reflection models and we demonstrate that the polarized reflected X-ray emission can be, locally, quite large in the 2-12 keV band.IonizationActive Galactic NucleiAccretion diskX-ray spectrumX-ray binarySpectral lineStokes parametersFlexible Image Transport SystemMonte Carlo methodSoft X-ray...
- These notes introduce and review some of the physical principles underlying the theory of astrophysical accretion, emphasizing the central roles of angular momentum transport, angular momentum loss, and radiative cooling in determining the structure and evolution of accretion flows. Additional topics covered include the effective viscous theory of thin disks, classical instabilities of disk structure, the evolution of warped or eccentric disks, and the basic properties of waves within disks.InstabilityViscosityBlack holeMass accretion rateThin stellar diskMagnetorotational instabilityAccretionShearedAccretion diskOpacity...
- We compute the production of cosmic rays in the dynamical superbubble produced by a cluster of massive stars. Stellar winds, supernova remnants and turbulence are found to accelerate particles so efficiently that the nonlinear feedback of the particles must be taken into account in order to ensure that the energy balance is not violated. High energy particles do not scatter efficiently on the turbulence and escape quickly after each supernova explosion, which makes both their intensity inside the bubble and injection in the interstellar medium intermittent. On the other hand, the stochastic acceleration of low energy particles hardens the spectra at GeV energies. Because cosmic rays damp the turbulence cascade, this hardening is less pronounced when nonlinearities are taken into account. Nevertheless, spectra with hard components extending up to 1 to 10 GeV and normalised to an energy density of 1 to 100 eV cm$^{-3}$ are found to be typical signatures of cosmic rays produced in superbubbles. Efficient shock reacceleration within compact clusters is further shown to produce hard, slightly concave spectra, while the presence of a magnetised shell is shown to enhance the confinement of cosmic rays in the bubble and therefore the collective plasma effects acting on them. We eventually estimate the overall contribution of superbubbles to the galactic cosmic ray content and show typical gamma-ray spectra expected from hadronic interactions in superbuble shells. In both cases, a qualitative agreement with observations is obtained.Cosmic rayTurbulenceSupernova remnantStarMassive starsSupernovaSuperbubbleSupernova explosionDiffusion coefficientCosmic ray spectrum...
- We use the COMPLETE data to derive new calibrations of the X-factor and the 13CO abundance within Perseus. We divide Perseus into six sub-regions. The standard X factor, X=N(H2)/W(12CO), is derived both for the whole Perseus Complex and for each of the six sub-regions with values consistent with previous estimates. The X factor is heavily affected by the saturation of the emission above AV~4 mag, and variations are found between regions. We derive linear fits to relate W(12CO) and AV using only points below 4 mag of extinction, this yields a better estimation of the AV than the X-factor. We derive linear relations of W(13CO), N(13CO) and W(C18O) with AV . The extinction threshold above which 13CO(1-0) and C18O(1-0) are detected is about 1 mag larger than previous estimates. 12CO(1-0) and 13CO(1-0) lines saturate above 4 and 5 mag, respectively, whereas C18O(1-0) never saturates (up to 10 mag). Approximately 60% of the positions with 12CO emission have sub-thermally excited lines, and almost all positions have 12CO excitation temperatures below the dust temperature. Using the Meudon PDR code we find that 12CO and 13CO emission can be explained by uniform slab models with densities ranging between about 10^3 and 10^4 cm-3. Local variations in the volume density and non-thermal motions (linked to different star formation activity) can explain the observations. Higher densities are needed to reproduce CO data toward active star forming sites, where the larger internal motions driven by the young protostars allow more photons from the embedded high density cores to escape the cloud. In the most quiescent region, the 12CO and 13CO emission appears to arise from an almost uniform thin layer of molecular material at densities around 10^4 cm-3.ExtinctionIntensityMolecular cloudDust temperatureNGC 1333IC 348Line of sightStar countsStar formation activityActive stars...
- We study constraints from causality and unitarity on $2\to2$ graviton scattering in four-dimensional weakly-coupled effective field theories. Together, causality and unitarity imply dispersion relations that connect low-energy observables to high-energy data. Using such dispersion relations, we derive two-sided bounds on gravitational Wilson coefficients in terms of the mass $M$ of new higher-spin states. Our bounds imply that gravitational interactions must shut off uniformly in the limit $G \to 0$, and prove the scaling with $M$ expected from dimensional analysis (up to an infrared logarithm). We speculate that causality, together with the non-observation of gravitationally-coupled higher spin states at colliders, severely restricts modifications to Einstein gravity that could be probed by experiments in the near future.GravitonCausalityEffective field theoryHigher spinImpact parameterGeneral relativityColliderUnitarityHelicityInfrared limit...
- The extraordinary success of the Standard Model asks for a more rigorous control beyond the perturbative approach, which is affected by mathematical problems (interaction picture and canonical quantization, non-convergence of the perturbative series, trivialy results for the $\ph^4$ model and related models etc.). We shall briefly discuss sone non-perturbative results concerning the crucial role and realization of symmetry breakings in the Standard Model.Symmetry breakingStandard ModelUnitary operatorGauge fixingGoldstone bosonGoldstone theoremMean fieldInfinitesimal transformationCanonical quantizationWinding number...
- The Cosmology and Astrophysics with MachinE Learning Simulations (CAMELS) project was developed to combine cosmology with astrophysics through thousands of cosmological hydrodynamic simulations and machine learning. CAMELS contains 4,233 cosmological simulations, 2,049 N-body and 2,184 state-of-the-art hydrodynamic simulations that sample a vast volume in parameter space. In this paper we present the CAMELS public data release, describing the characteristics of the CAMELS simulations and a variety of data products generated from them, including halo, subhalo, galaxy, and void catalogues, power spectra, bispectra, Lyman-$\alpha$ spectra, probability distribution functions, halo radial profiles, and X-rays photon lists. We also release over one thousand catalogues that contain billions of galaxies from CAMELS-SAM: a large collection of N-body simulations that have been combined with the Santa Cruz Semi-Analytic Model. We release all the data, comprising more than 350 terabytes and containing 143,922 snapshots, millions of halos, galaxies and summary statistics. We provide further technical details on how to access, download, read, and process the data at \url{https://camels.readthedocs.io}.Cosmology and Astrophysics with MachinE Learning SimulationsIllustrisTNG simulationGalaxyCosmological hydrodynamical simulationsCosmologyDark matter subhaloN-body simulationCosmic voidStatisticsMachine learning...
- We present forecasted cosmological constraints from combined measurements of galaxy cluster abundances from the Simons Observatory and galaxy clustering from a DESI-like experiment on two well-studied modified gravity models, the chameleon-screened $f(R)$ Hu-Sawicki model and the nDGP braneworld Vainshtein model. A Fisher analysis is conducted using $\sigma_8$ constraints derived from thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) selected galaxy clusters, as well as linear and mildly non-linear redshift-space 2-point galaxy correlation functions. We find that the cluster abundances drive the constraints on the nDGP model while $f(R)$ constraints are led by galaxy clustering. The two tracers of the cosmological gravitational field are found to be complementary, and their combination significantly improves constraints on the $f(R)$ in particular in comparison to each individual tracer alone. For a fiducial model of $f(R)$ with $\text{log}_{10}(f_{R0})=-6$ and $n=1$ we find combined constraints of $\sigma(\text{log}_{10}(f_{R0}))=0.48$ and $\sigma(n)=2.3$, while for the nDGP model with $n_{\text{nDGP}}=1$ we find $\sigma(n_{\text{nDGP}})=0.087$. Around a fiducial General Relativity (GR) model, we find a $95\%$ confidence upper limit on $f(R)$ of $f_{R0}\leq5.68\times 10^{-7}$. Our results present the exciting potential to utilize upcoming galaxy and CMB survey data available in the near future to discern and/or constrain cosmic deviations from GR.General relativityGalaxy clusteringTwo-point correlation functionGalaxyEmission line galaxyLuminous Red GalaxyRedshift-space distortionCluster of galaxiesMilky WayDark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument...
- High-significance measurements of the monopole thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich CMB spectral distortions have the potential to tightly constrain poorly understood baryonic feedback processes. The sky-averaged Compton-y distortion and its relativistic correction are measures of the total thermal energy in electrons in the observable universe and their mean temperature. We use the CAMELS suite of hydrodynamic simulations to explore possible constraints on parameters describing the subgrid implementation of feedback from active galactic nuclei and supernovae, assuming a PIXIE-like measurement. The small 25 Mpc/h CAMELS boxes present challenges due to the significant cosmic variance. We utilize machine learning to construct interpolators through the noisy simulation data. Using the halo model, we translate the simulation halo mass functions into correction factors to reduce cosmic variance where required. Our results depend on the subgrid model. In the case of IllustrisTNG, we find that the best-determined parameter combination can be measured to ~2% and corresponds to a product of AGN and SN feedback. In the case of SIMBA, the tightest constraint is ~0.2% on a ratio between AGN and SN feedback. A second orthogonal parameter combination can be measured to ~8%. Our results demonstrate the significant constraining power a measurement of the late-time spectral distortion monopoles would have for baryonic feedback models.Cosmology and Astrophysics with MachinE Learning SimulationsIllustrisTNG simulationHalo modelCMB spectral distortionsCosmic varianceActive Galactic NucleiReionizationMagnetic monopoleSubgrid modelBaryonic feedback...
- Galaxy clusters are biased tracers of the underlying matter density field. At very large radii beyond about 10 Mpc/\textit{h}, the shear profile shows evidence of a second-halo term. This is related to the correlated matter distribution around galaxy clusters and proportional to the so-called halo bias. We present an observational analysis of the halo bias-mass relation based on the AMICO galaxy cluster catalog, comprising around 7000 candidates detected in the third release of the KiDS survey. We split the cluster sample into 14 redshift-richness bins and derive the halo bias and the virial mass in each bin by means of a stacked weak lensing analysis. The observed halo bias-mass relation and the theoretical predictions based on the $\Lambda$CDM standard cosmological model show an agreement within $2\sigma$. The mean measurements of bias and mass over the full catalog give $M_{200c} = (4.9 \pm 0.3) \times 10^{13} M_{\odot}/\textit{h}$ and $b_h \sigma_8^2 = 1.2 \pm 0.1$. With the additional prior of a bias-mass relation from numerical simulations, we constrain the normalization of the power spectrum with a fixed matter density $\Omega_m = 0.3$, finding $\sigma_8 = 0.63 \pm 0.10$.Cluster of galaxiesShearedKiDS surveyWeak lensingGalaxyLensing signalRedshift binsVirial massCosmological parametersCovariance...
- We examine the cosmological constraining power from two cross-correlation probes between galaxy and CMB surveys: the cross-correlation of lens galaxy density with CMB lensing convergence $\langle\delta_g\kappa_{\rm CMB}\rangle$ and source galaxy weak lensing shear with CMB lensing convergence $\langle\gamma\kappa_{\rm CMB}\rangle$. These two cross-correlation probes provide an independent cross-check of other large-scale structure constraints and are insensitive to systematic effects that could be present in galaxy-only or CMB-only analyses. We study how the constraining power of $\langle\delta_g\kappa_{\rm CMB}\rangle+\langle\gamma\kappa_{\rm CMB}\rangle$ changes as the galaxy samples and CMB dataset qualitatively change from Stage-III (ongoing) to Stage-IV (future) surveys. Given the flexibility in selecting the lens galaxy sample, we also explore the impact on cosmological constraints when we vary the redshift range and magnitude limit of the lens galaxies using mock galaxy catalogs. We find that in our setup, cosmological constraints from $\langle\delta_g\kappa_{\rm CMB}\rangle$ and $\langle\gamma\kappa_{\rm CMB}\rangle$ are comparable in Stage-III; but as we move to Stage-IV, shot noise from the galaxy density becomes subdominant to cosmic variance, preventing the contribution from $\langle\delta_g\kappa_{\rm CMB}\rangle$ to further improve. This implies that to maximize the cosmological constraints from future $\langle\delta_g\kappa_{\rm CMB}\rangle+\langle \gamma\kappa_{\rm CMB}\rangle$ analyses, we should focus more on the requirements on $\langle\gamma \kappa_{\rm CMB}\rangle$ instead of $\langle\delta_g\kappa_{\rm CMB}\rangle$. In addition, the selection of the lens galaxy sample in $\langle\delta_g\kappa_{\rm CMB}\rangle$ should be optimized in terms of our ability to characterize its redshift or galaxy bias instead of its number density.GalaxyLegacy Survey of Space and TimeCMB lensingDark Energy SurveyMilky WayCross-correlationGalaxy biasShearedCosmological constraintsGravitational lens galaxy...
- The upcoming WEAVE-QSO survey will target a high density of quasars over a large area, enabling the reconstruction of the 3D density field through Lyman-$\alpha$ tomography over unprecedented volumes smoothed on intermediate scales ($\approx$ 16 Mpc/$h$). We produce mocks of the Lyman-$\alpha$ forest using LyMAS, and reconstruct the 3D density field between sightlines through Wiener filtering in a configuration compatible with the future WEAVE-QSO observations. The fidelity of the reconstruction is assessed by measuring one- and two-point statistics from the distribution of critical points in the cosmic web. In addition, initial Lagrangian statistics are predicted from first principles, and measurements of the connectivity of the cosmic web are performed. The reconstruction captures well the expected features in the auto- and cross-correlations of the critical points. This remains true after a realistic noise is added to the synthetic spectra, even though sparsity of sightlines introduces systematics, especially in the cross-correlations of points with mixed signature. Specifically, for walls and filaments, the most striking clustering features could be measured with up to 4 sigma of significance with a WEAVE-QSO-like survey. Moreover, the connectivity of each peak identified in the reconstructed field is globally consistent with its counterpart in the original field, indicating that the reconstruction preserves the geometry of the density field not only statistically, but also locally. Hence the critical points relative positions within the tomographic reconstruction could be used as standard rulers for dark energy by WEAVE-QSO and similar surveys.Critical pointQuasarCross-correlationDark matterCosmic voidWEAVEStatisticsCosmic webSignal to noise ratioCovariance matrix...
- The Kepler supernova remnant (SNR) is the only historic supernova remnant lacking a detection at GeV and TeV energies which probe particle acceleration. A recent analysis of Fermi-LAT data reported a likely GeV gamma-ray candidate in the direction of the SNR. Using approximately the same dataset but with an optimized analysis configuration, we confirm the gamma-ray candidate to a solid $>6\sigma$ detection and report a spectral index of $2.14 \pm 0.12_{\rm stat} \pm 0.15_{\rm syst}$ for an energy flux above 100 MeV of $(3.1 \pm 0.6_{\rm stat} \pm 0.3_{\rm syst}) \times 10^{-12}$ erg~cm$^{-2}$~s$^{-1}$. The gamma-ray excess is not significantly extended and is fully compatible with the radio, infrared or X-ray spatial distribution of the SNR. We successfully characterized this multi-wavelength emission with a model in which accelerated particles interact with the dense circumstellar material in the North-West portion of the SNR and radiate GeV gamma-rays through $\pi^{o}$ decay. The X-ray synchrotron and inverse-Compton (IC) emission mostly stem from the fast shocks in the southern regions with a magnetic field B$\sim$100 $\mu$G or higher. Depending on the exact magnetic field amplitude, the TeV emission could arise from either the South region (IC dominated) or the interaction region ($\pi^{o}$ decay dominated).Supernova remnantTest statisticInfrared limitInverse ComptonSynchrotronAkaike information criterionPoint sourceBlast waveRegion of interestSpectral analysis...
- Very high energy {\gamma}-rays are one of the most important messengers of the non-thermal Universe. The major motivation of very high energy {\gamma}-ray astronomy is to find sources of high energy cosmic rays. Several astrophysical sources are known to accelerate cosmic rays to very high energies under extreme conditions. Very high energy {\gamma}-rays are produced at these astrophysical sites or near through interactions of cosmic rays in the surrounding medium close to the sources. Gamma-rays, being neutral, travel in a straight line and thus give us valuable information about the cosmic ray sources and their surroundings. Additionally, very high energy {\gamma}-ray astronomy can probe many fundamental physics questions. Ground-based {\gamma}-ray astronomy began its journey in 1989 when Whipple telescope detected TeV {\gamma}-rays from the Crab, a pulsar wind nebula in the Milky Way. In the last two decades, technological improvements have facilitated the development of the latest generation of very high energy detectors and telescopes which have delivered exciting new results. Until now over two hundred very high energy {\gamma}-ray sources, both galactic and extra-galactic has been detected. These observations have provided a deeper insight into a large number of important questions in high energy astrophysics and astroparticle physics. This review article is an attempt to enumerate the most important results in the exciting and rapidly developing field of very high energy {\gamma}-ray astronomy.BlazarPulsarSupernova remnantMAGIC telescopeGamma ray burstCosmic raySpectral energy distributionTelescopesInverse ComptonExtragalactic background light...
- Observations with imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) have enhanced our knowledge of nearby supernova (SN) remnants with ages younger than 500 years by establishing Cassiopeia A and the remnant of Tycho's SN as very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray sources. The remnant of Kepler's SN, which is the product of the most recent naked-eye supernova in our Galaxy, is comparable in age to the other two, but is significantly more distant. If the gamma-ray luminosities of the remnants of Tycho's and Kepler's SNe are similar, then the latter is expected to be one of the faintest gamma-ray sources within reach of the current generation IACT arrays. Here we report evidence at a statistical level of 4.6 sigma for a VHE signal from the remnant of Kepler's SN based on deep observations by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) with an exposure of 152 hours. The measured integral flux above an energy of 226 GeV is ~0.3% of the flux of the Crab Nebula. The spectral energy distribution (SED) reveals a gamma-ray emitting component connecting the VHE emission observed with H.E.S.S. to the emission observed at GeV energies with Fermi-LAT. The overall SED is similar to that of the remnant of Tycho's SN, possibly indicating the same non-thermal emission processes acting in both these young remnants of thermonuclear SNe.SupernovaSpectral energy distributionTycho supernova remnantHESS telescopeCherenkov telescopeMagnetic field strengthTest statisticRegion of interestMultidimensional ArrayTelescopes...
- Computational fluid dynamics is a crucial tool to theoretically explore the cosmos. In the last decade, we have seen a substantial methodological diversification with a number of cross-fertilizations between originally different methods. Here we focus on recent developments related to the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method. We briefly summarize recent technical improvements in the SPH-approach itself, including smoothing kernels, gradient calculations and dissipation steering. These elements have been implemented in the Newtonian high-accuracy SPH code MAGMA2 and we demonstrate its performance in a number of challenging benchmark tests. Taking it one step further, we have used these new ingredients also in the first particle-based, general-relativistic fluid dynamics code that solves the full set of Einstein equations, SPHINCS_BSSN. We present the basic ideas and equations and demonstrate the code performance at examples of relativistic neutron stars that are evolved self-consistently together with the spacetime.Smoothed-particle hydrodynamicsDissipationNeutron starEntropyStarInstabilityRelativistic hydrodynamicsSPH codeEngineeringTolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff...
- Topological insulators constitute one of the most intriguing phenomena in modern condensed matter theory. The unique and exotic properties of topological states of matter allow for unidirectional gapless electron transport and extremely accurate measurements of the Hall conductivity. Recently, new topological effects occurring at Dirac/Weyl points have been better understood and demonstrated using artificial materials such as photonic and phononic crystals, metamaterials and electrical circuits. In comparison, the topological properties of nodal lines, which are one-dimensional degeneracies in momentum space, remain less explored. Here, we explain the theoretical concept of topological nodal lines and review recent and ongoing progress using artificial materials. The review includes recent demonstrations of non-Abelian topological charges of nodal lines in momentum space and examples of nodal lines realized in photonic and other systems. Finally, we will address the challenges involved in both experimental demonstration and theoretical understanding of topological nodal lines.PhotonicsMomentum spaceTopological invariantMetamaterialsTopological quantum numberPhotonic crystalBerry phaseHamiltonianQuaternionsPhononic crystal...
- In this work, we investigate the axion-like particle (ALP)-photon oscillation effect in the spectra of the blazar Markarian 421 (Mrk 421) using 4.5 years of the Astrophysical Radiation with Ground-based Observatory at YangBaJing (ARGO-YBJ) and Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) data. These data are collected during the common operation time, which cover ten activity phases of Mrk 421. No significant ALP-photon oscillation effect is confirmed. On the other hand, not all the observations of the ten phases can be individually used to set the 95% confidence level ($\rm C.L.$) constraint on the ALP parameter space. However, the constraint can be significantly improved if the analyses for the ten phases are combined. We find that the upper limit at 95% $\rm C.L.$ on the ALP-photon coupling $g_{a\gamma}$ set by the ARGO-YBJ and Fermi-LAT observations of Mrk 421 is within $\sim [2\times 10^{-11}, \ 6\times 10^{-11}] \rm \, GeV^{-1}$ for the ALP mass of $\sim 5\times 10^{-10}$ eV $\lesssim m_a \lesssim 5\times 10^{-7}\, \rm eV$.Axion-like particleMarkarian 421ALP parameter spaceFERMI telescopeARGO-YBJTest statisticBlazarNull hypothesisAxion-photon couplingAxion mass...
- Constraints on the cosmic history of self-interacting Bose-Einstein condensed (SIBEC) dark matter (DM) are obtained using the cosmic microwave background (CMB), baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO), growth factor measurements, and type Ia supernovae (SNIa) distances. Four scenarios are considered, one with purely SIBEC-DM, and three in which SIBEC-DM is the final product of some transition from different initial states, which are either cold, warm, or has a constant equation of state. Using a fluid approximation for the self-interacting scalar field it is found that in the simplest scenario of purely SIBEC-DM the self-interaction necessary for solving the cusp-core problem, with core-radii of low-mass halos of order $R_c\gtrsim 1\text{kpc}$, is excluded at $2.4\sigma$, or $98.5\%$ confidence. Introducing a transition, however, relaxes this constraint, but the transitions are preferred to be after matter-radiation equality, and the initial phase to be cold.Dark matterCold dark matterFuzzy dark matterSpeed of soundCosmic microwave backgroundScalar fieldCore-Cusp problemDark matter haloWarm dark matterJeans length...
- Upcoming ground and space-based experiments may have sufficient accuracy to place significant constraints upon high-redshift star formation, Reionization, and dark matter (DM) using the global 21-cm signal of the IGM. In the early universe, when the relative abundance of low-mass DM halos is important, measuring the global signal would place constraints on the damping of structure formation caused by DM having a higher relic velocity (warm dark matter, or WDM) than in cold dark matter (CDM). Such damping, however, can be mimicked by altering the star formation efficiency (SFE) and difficult to detect because of the presence of Pop III stars with unknown properties. We study these various cases and their degeneracies with the WDM mass parameter $m_X$ using a Fisher matrix analysis. We study the $m_X = 7$ keV case and a star-formation model that parametrizes the SFE as a strong function of halo mass and include several variations of this model along with three different input noise levels for the likelihood. We find that when the likelihood includes only Pop II stars, $m_X$ is constrained to $\sim 0.4$ keV for all models and noise levels at 68$\%$ CI. When the likelihood includes weak Pop III stars, $m_X \sim 0.3$ keV, and if Pop III star formation is relatively efficient, $m_X \sim 0.1$ keV, with tight Pop III star-formation parameter constraints. Our results show that the global 21-cm signal is a promising test-bed for WDM models, even in the presence of strong degeneracies with astrophysical parameters.Population IIIStar formationWarm dark matterStar formation efficiencyWDM particle massCovarianceCold dark matterDark matterPopulation IIHydrogen 21 cm line...
- We look at the distribution of the Bayesian evidence for mock realizations of supernova and baryon acoustic oscillation data. The ratios of Bayesian evidences of different models are often used to perform model selection. The significance of these Bayes factors are then interpreted using scales such as the Jeffreys or Kass \& Raftery scale. First, we demonstrate how to use the evidence itself to validate the model, that is to say how well a model fits the data, regardless of how well other models perform. The basic idea is that if, for some real dataset a model's evidence lies outside the distribution of evidences that result when the same fiducial model that generates the datasets is used for the analysis, then the model in question is robustly ruled out. Further, we show how to asses the significance of a hypothetically computed Bayes factor. We show that range of the distribution of Bayes factors can greatly depend on the models in question and also the number of independent degrees of freedom in the dataset. Thus, we have demonstrated that the significance of Bayes factors need to be calculated for each unique dataset.Bayes factorBayesian evidenceSupernovaCold dark matterCurvatureDark energyBaryon acoustic oscillationsModel selectionDegree of freedomDark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument...
- The cycle of baryons through the circumgalactic medium (CGM) is important to understand in the context of galaxy formation and evolution. In this study we forecast constraints on the feedback processes heating the CGM with current and future Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) observations. To constrain these processes, we use a suite of cosmological simulations, the Cosmology and Astrophysics with MachinE Learning Simulations (CAMELS), that varies four different feedback parameters of two previously existing hydrodynamical simulations, IllustrisTNG and SIMBA. We capture the dependencies of SZ radial profiles on these feedback parameters with an emulator, calculate their derivatives, and forecast future constraints on these feedback parameters from upcoming experiments. We find that for a DESI-like (Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument) galaxy sample observed by the Simons Observatory all four feedback parameters are able to be constrained (some within the $10\%$ level), indicating that future observations will be able to further restrict the parameter space for these sub-grid models. Given the modeled galaxy sample and forecasted errors in this work, we find that the inner SZ profiles contribute more to the constraining power than the outer profiles. Finally, we find that, despite the wide range of AGN feedback parameter variation in the CAMELS simulation suite, we cannot reproduce the tSZ signal of galaxies selected by the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey as measured by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope.Cosmology and Astrophysics with MachinE Learning SimulationsIllustrisTNG simulationCircumgalactic mediumGalaxyAtacama Cosmology TelescopeDark Energy Spectroscopic InstrumentCosmic microwave backgroundGaussian beamAGN feedbackPressure profile...
- The 21-cm signal from the epoch of cosmic dawn prior to reionization consists of a promising observable to gain new insights into the dark matter (DM) sector. In this paper, we investigate its potential to constrain mixed (cold + non-cold) dark matter scenarios that are characterised by the non-cold DM fraction ($f_{\rm nCDM}$) and particle mass ($m_{\rm nCDM}$). As non-cold DM species, we investigate both a fermionic (sterile neutrino) and a bosonic (ultra-light axion) particle. We show how these scenarios affect the global signal and the power spectrum using a halo-model implementation of the 21-cm signal at cosmic dawn. Next to this study, we perform an inference-based forecast study based on realistic mock power spectra from the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) telescope. Assuming inefficient, yet non-zero star-formation in minihaloes (i.e. haloes with mass below $10^8$ M$_{\odot}$), we obtain stringent constraints on both $m_{\rm nCDM}$ and $f_{\rm nCDM}$ that go well beyond current limits. Regarding the special case of $f_{\rm nCDM}\sim 1$, for example, we find a constraint of $m_{\rm nCDM}>15$ keV (thermal mass) for fermionic DM and $m_{\rm nCDM}>2\times10^{-20}$ eV for bosonic DM. For the opposite case of dominating cold DM, we find that at most one percent of the total DM abundance can be made of a hot fermionic or bosonic relic. All constraints are provided at the 95 percent confidence level.Dark matterSquare Kilometre ArrayHydrogen 21 cm lineCosmic DawnDark matter modelParticle massMixed dark matterCold dark matterUltracompact minihaloTelescopes...
- This review deals with the inconsistency of inner dark matter density profiles in dwarf galaxies, known as the cusp-core problem. Particularly, we aim to focus on gas-poor dwarf galaxies. One of the most promising solutions to this cold dark matter small scale issue is the stellar feedback but it seems to be only designed for gas-rich dwarfs. However, in the regime of classical dwarfs, this core mechanism becomes negligible. Therefore, it is required to find solutions without invoking these baryonic processes as dark matter cores tend to persist even for these dwarfs, which are rather dark matter-dominated. Here we have presented two categories of solutions. One consists of creating dark matter cores from cusps within cold dark matter by altering the dark matter potential via perturbers. The second category gathers solutions which depict the natural emergence of dark matter cores in alternative theories. Given the wide variety of solutions, it becomes necessary to identify which mechanism dominates in the central region of galaxies by finding observational signatures left by them in order to highlight the true nature of dark matter.Dark matterCold dark matterSelf-interacting dark matterGalaxyGlobular clusterDwarf galaxyDark matter haloFuzzy dark matterCore-Cusp problemDark matter subhalo...
- Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) were identified as a separate class of objects in 2000 based on data from the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. These are unique objects: their X-ray luminosities exceed the Eddington limit for a typical stellar-mass black hole. For a long time, the nature of ULXs remained unclear. However, the gradual accumulation of data, new results of X-ray and optical spectroscopy, and the study of the structure and energy of nebulae surrounding ULXs led to the understanding that most of the ultraluminous X-ray sources must be supercritical accretion disks like SS 433. The discovery of neutron stars in a number of objects only increased the confidence of the scientific community in the conclusions obtained, since the presence of neutron stars in such systems clearly indicates a supercritical accretion regime. In this review, we systematize the main facts about the observational manifestations of ULXs and SS 433 in the X-ray and optical ranges and discuss their explanation from the point of view of the supercritical accretion theory.Ultraluminous X-rayAstronomical X-ray sourceAccretionSS 433Neutron starEddington limitX-ray luminosityStellar mass black holesAccretion diskNebulae...
- We prove a conjecture due to Sturmfels and Uhler concerning the degree of the projective variety associated to the Gaussian graphical model of the cycle. We involve new methods based on the intersection theory in the space of complete quadrics.GraphRankGraphical modelGrassmannianChow ringTangent spaceRational mappingIsomorphismLinear subspaceExceptional divisor...
- The purpose of this book is to help you program shared-memory parallel systems without risking your sanity. Nevertheless, you should think of the information in this book as a foundation on which to build, rather than as a completed cathedral. Your mission, if you choose to accept, is to help make further progress in the exciting field of parallel programming-progress that will in time render this book obsolete. Parallel programming in the 21st century is no longer focused solely on science, research, and grand-challenge projects. And this is all to the good, because it means that parallel programming is becoming an engineering discipline. Therefore, as befits an engineering discipline, this book examines specific parallel-programming tasks and describes how to approach them. In some surprisingly common cases, these tasks can be automated. This book is written in the hope that presenting the engineering discipline underlying successful parallel-programming projects will free a new generation of parallel hackers from the need to slowly and painstakingly reinvent old wheels, enabling them to instead focus their energy and creativity on new frontiers. However, what you get from this book will be determined by what you put into it. It is hoped that simply reading this book will be helpful, and that working the Quick Quizzes will be even more helpful. However, the best results come from applying the techniques taught in this book to real-life problems. As always, practice makes perfect. But no matter how you approach it, we sincerely hope that parallel programming brings you at least as much fun, excitement, and challenge that it has brought to us!ProgrammingEngineeringApplication programming interfaceFieldEnergy...
- Recent studies have outlined the interest for the evaluation of transport coefficients in space plasmas, where the observed velocity distributions of plasma particles are conditioned not only by the binary collisions, e.g., at low energies, but also by the energisation of particles from their interaction with wave turbulence and fluctuations, generating the suprathermal Kappa-distributed populations. This paper provides a first estimate of the main transport coefficients based on regularised Kappa distributions (RKDs), which, unlike standard Kappa distributions (SKDs), enable macroscopic parameterisation without mathematical divergences or physical inconsistencies. All transport coefficients derived here, i.e., the diffusion and mobility coefficients, electric conductivity, thermoelectric coefficient and thermal conductivity, are finite and well defined for all values of $\kappa > 0$. Moreover, for low values of $\kappa$ (i.e., below the SKD poles), the transport coefficients can be orders of magnitudes higher than the corresponding Maxwellian limits, meaning that significant underestimations can be made if suprathermal electrons are ignored.Transport coefficientMobilityDiffusion coefficientThermal conductivityAstrophysical plasmaBoltzmann transport equationParticle velocityKummer's functionSolar windTurbulence...
- The FIRST survey, begun over twenty years ago, provides the definitive high-resolution map of the radio sky. This VLA survey reaches a 20cm detection sensitivity of 1 mJy over 10,575 deg**2 largely coincident with the SDSS area. Images and a catalog containing 946,432 sources are available through the FIRST web site (http://sundog.stsci.edu). We record here the authoritative survey history, including hardware and software changes that affect the catalog's reliability and completeness. We use recent JVLA observations to test the survey astrometry and flux bias/scale. Our sidelobe-flagging algorithm finds that fewer than 10% of the catalogued objects are likely sidelobes; these are faint sources concentrated near bright sources, as expected. A match with the NRAO VLA Sky Survey shows very good consistency in flux scale and astrometry. Matches with 2MASS and SDSS indicate a systematic 10-20mas astrometric error with respect to the optical reference frame in old VLA data that has disappeared with the advent of the JVLA. We demonstrate strikingly different behavior between the radio matches to stellar objects and to galaxies in the optical and IR surveys reflecting the different radio populations present over the flux density range 1-1000 mJy. As the radio flux density declines, quasars get redder and fainter, while galaxies get brighter and have colors that initially redden but then turn bluer near the FIRST detection limit. Implications for future radio sky surveys are also discussed. In particular, we show that for radio source identification at faint optical magnitudes, high angular resolution observations are essential, and cannot be sacrificed in exchange for high signal-to-noise data. The value of a JVLA survey as a complement to SKA precursor surveys is briefly discussed.Very Large ArraySloan Digital Sky SurveyNational Radio Astronomy Observatory VLA Sky SurveyFIRST surveyTwo Micron All Sky SurveySky surveysAstrometryInterferenceRight ascensionCalibration...
- The nature of turbulence in molecular clouds is one of the key parameters that control star formation efficiency: compressive motions, as opposed to solenoidal motions, can trigger the collapse of cores, or mark the expansion of Hii regions. We try to observationally derive the fractions of momentum density ($\rho v$) contained in the solenoidal and compressive modes of turbulence in the Orion B molecular cloud and relate these fractions to the star formation efficiency in the cloud. The implementation of a statistical method developed by Brunt & Federrath (2014), applied to a $^{13}$CO(J=1-0) datacube obtained with the IRAM-30m telescope, allows us to retrieve 3-dimensional quantities from the projected quantities provided by the observations, yielding an estimate of the compressive versus solenoidal ratio in various regions of the cloud. Despite the Orion B molecular cloud being highly supersonic (mean Mach number $\sim$ 6), the fractions of motion in each mode diverge significantly from equipartition. The cloud's motions are on average mostly solenoidal (excess > 8 % with respect to equipartition), which is consistent with its low star formation rate. On the other hand, the motions around the main star-forming regions (NGC 2023 and NGC 2024) prove to be strongly compressive. We have successfully applied to observational data a method that was so far only tested on simulations, and have shown that there can be a strong intra-cloud variability of the compressive and solenoidal fractions, these fractions being in turn related to the star formation efficiency. This opens a new possibility for star-formation diagnostics in galactic molecular clouds.Molecular cloudMach numberTurbulenceStar formation efficiencyLine of sightStar-forming regionSignal to noise ratioDust temperatureVelocity dispersionStar...
- The redshift of $z\sim1.5$ is the transition epoch of protoclusters (PCs) from the star-forming phase into the quenching phase, and hence an appropriate era to investigate the build up of the quenched population. We define a `core' as the most massive halo in a given PC, where environmental effects are likely to work most effectively, and search for cores at $1<z<1.5$. We use a photometric redshift catalogue of a wide (effective area of $\sim22.2\,\mathrm{deg}^{2}$) and deep ($i\sim26.8\,\mathrm{mag}$) optical survey with Subaru Hyper-Suprime Cam. Regarding galaxies with $\log(M_{*}/M_{\odot})>11.3$ as the central galaxies of PC cores, we estimate their average halo mass by clustering analysis and find it to be $\log(M_\mathrm{h}/M_{\odot})\sim13.7$. An expected mass growth by the Illustris TNG simulation and the observed overdensities around them suggest that the PC cores we find are progenitors of present-day clusters. Classifying our galaxy sample into red and blue galaxies, we calculate the stellar mass function (SMF) and the red galaxy fraction. The SMFs in the PC cores are more-top heavy than field, implying early high-mass galaxy formation and disruption of low-mass galaxies. We also find that the red fraction increases with stellar mass, consistent with stellar-mass dependent environmental quenching recently found at $z>1$. Interestingly, although the cores with red and blue centrals have similar halo masses, only those with red centrals show a significant red fraction excess compared to the field, suggesting a conformity effect. Some observational features of PC cores may imply that the conformity is caused by assembly bias.GalaxyStellar massVirial massStellar mass functionQuenchingStar formationHyper Suprime-CamCompletenessStar formation activityGalaxy Formation...
- We present an efficient method for joint optimization of topology, materials and lighting from multi-view image observations. Unlike recent multi-view reconstruction approaches, which typically produce entangled 3D representations encoded in neural networks, we output triangle meshes with spatially-varying materials and environment lighting that can be deployed in any traditional graphics engine unmodified. We leverage recent work in differentiable rendering, coordinate-based networks to compactly represent volumetric texturing, alongside differentiable marching tetrahedrons to enable gradient-based optimization directly on the surface mesh. Finally, we introduce a differentiable formulation of the split sum approximation of environment lighting to efficiently recover all-frequency lighting. Experiments show our extracted models used in advanced scene editing, material decomposition, and high quality view interpolation, all running at interactive rates in triangle-based renderers (rasterizers and path tracers). Project website: https://nvlabs.github.io/nvdiffrec/ .OptimizationNeural networkInferenceTangent spaceAlbedoPhotogrammetryRegularizationSilhouetteGaussian distributionHigh-resolution...
- Photons propagating in an external magnetic field may oscillate into axions or axion-like particles (ALPs). Such oscillations will lead to characteristic features in the energy spectrum of high-energy photons from astrophysical sources that can be used to probe the existence of ALPs. In this work, we revisit the signatures of these oscillations and stress the importance of a proper treatment of turbulent magnetic fields. We implement axions into ELMAG, complementing thereby the usual description of photon-axion oscillations with a Monte Carlo treatment of high-energy photon propagation and interactions. We also propose an alternative method of detecting axions through the discrete power spectrum using as observable the energy dependence of wiggles in the photon spectra.AxionPower spectrum of the magnetic fieldSurvival probabilityAxion-like particleMonte Carlo methodExtragalactic background lightAxion massOpacityCoherence lengthMagnetic field strength...
- Recursive neural networks (Tree-RNNs) based on dependency trees are ubiquitous in modeling sentence meanings as they effectively capture semantic relationships between non-neighborhood words. However, recognizing semantically dissimilar sentences with the same words and syntax is still a challenge to Tree-RNNs. This work proposes an improvement to Dependency Tree-RNN (DT-RNN) using the grammatical relationship type identified in the dependency parse. Our experiments on semantic relatedness scoring (SRS) and recognizing textual entailment (RTE) in sentence pairs using SICK (Sentence Involving Compositional Knowledge) dataset show encouraging results. The model achieved a 2% improvement in classification accuracy for the RTE task over the DT-RNN model. The results show that Pearson's and Spearman's correlation measures between the model's predicted similarity scores and human ratings are higher than those of standard DT-RNNs.Recurrent neural networkNeural networkRecognizing Textual EntailmentHidden stateLong short term memoryEmbeddingEdge labelsWord vectorsClassifierWord embedding...
- For decades we have known that the Sun lies within the Local Bubble, a cavity of low-density, high-temperature plasma surrounded by a shell of cold, neutral gas and dust. However, the precise shape and extent of this shell, the impetus and timescale for its formation, and its relationship to nearby star formation have remained uncertain, largely due to low-resolution models of the local interstellar medium. Leveraging new spatial and dynamical constraints from the Gaia space mission, here we report an analysis of the 3D positions, shapes, and motions of dense gas and young stars within 200 pc of the Sun. We find that nearly all the star-forming complexes in the solar vicinity lie on the surface of the Local Bubble and that their young stars show outward expansion mainly perpendicular to the bubble's surface. Tracebacks of these young stars' motions support a scenario where the origin of the Local Bubble was a burst of stellar birth and then death (supernovae) taking place near the bubble's center beginning 14 Myr ago. The expansion of the Local Bubble created by the supernovae swept up the ambient interstellar medium into an extended shell that has now fragmented and collapsed into the most prominent nearby molecular clouds, in turn providing robust observational support for the theory of supernova-driven star formation.Local Hot BubbleStar formationSunYoung stellar objectSupernovaInterstellar mediumMolecular cloudGAIA missionGasTheory...