- Time dilation (Time dilation)

by Manoj Agravat22 Aug 2016 22:44 - Baryon number (Baryon number)

by Manoj Agravat10 Jul 2016 08:30 - Causal inference (Causal inference)

by Manoj Agravat25 Aug 2016 14:48 - Full-duplex (Full-duplex)

by Muhammad R. A. Khandaker08 Mar 2016 12:48 - Effective field theory (Effective field theory)

by Manoj Agravat15 Jul 2016 21:12 - Quantum point contact (Quantum point contact)

by Prof. Carlo Beenakker08 Jan 2011 20:32 - Grey-body radiation (Grey-body radiation)

by Prof. Carlo Beenakker08 Jan 2011 20:36 - Gravitational lensing (Gravitational lensing)

by Prof. Koen Kuijken05 Dec 2010 22:11 - Quantum shot noise (Quantum shot noise)

by Prof. Carlo Beenakker04 Feb 2014 08:52 - Fingers of God (Fingers of God)

by Dr. Ganna Ivashchenko18 May 2011 22:42

- Primes in the two complete associative normed division algebras C and H have affinities with structures seen in the standard model of particle physics. On the integers in the two algebras, there are two equivalence relations: a strong one, related to a U(1) and SU(3) symmetry allowing to permute and switch signs of the coordinates of the integers, as well as a weak relation with origins from units U(1),SU(2) in the algebra. Weak equivalence classes within the strong equivalence classes of odd primes in C case relate to leptons, the inert ones being neutrino like, and the split ones resembling electron-positron pairs. In the H case, for odd primes, the equivalence classes come in groups of two or three, leading to a caricature of hadrons featuring either mesons built by a quark pair or then baryons obtained by quark triplets. We can now list for every rational prime p all these particles and attach fractional charges to its constituents.QuaternionsPermutationDivision algebraStandard ModelRecombinationElectron-positron pairNeutrinoArithmeticWave equationPositron...
- This paper presents an algebraic formulation of the renormalization group flow in quantum mechanics on flat target spaces. For any interacting quantum mechanical theory, the fixed point of this flow is a theory of classical probability, not a different effective quantum mechanics. Each energy eigenstate of the UV Hamiltonian flows to a probability distribution whose entropy is a natural diagnostic of quantum ergodicity of the original state. These conclusions are supported by various examples worked out in detail.EntropyQuantum mechanicsHamiltonianRenormalization groupCoarse grainingErgodicityStanding wavePath integralTorusQuantum chaos...
- The classical part of the QCD partition function (the integrand) has, ignoring irrelevant exact zero modes of the Dirac operator, a local SU(2N_F) \supset SU(N_F)_L \times SU(N_F)_R \times U(1)_A symmetry which is absent at the Lagrangian level. This symmetry is broken anomalously and spontaneously. Effects of spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry are contained in the near-zero modes of the Dirac operator. If physics of anomaly is also encoded in the same near-zero modes, then their truncation on the lattice should recover a hidden classical SU(2N_F) symmetry in correlators and spectra. This naturally explains observation on the lattice of a large degeneracy of hadrons, that is higher than the SU(N_F)_L \times SU(N_F)_R \times U(1)_A chiral symmetry, upon elimination by hands of the lowest-lying modes of the Dirac operator. We also discuss an implication of this symmetry for the high temperature QCD.Zero modeDirac operatorChiral symmetryPartition functionIrreducible representationSubgroupLattice calculationsHigh temperature quantum chromodynamicsDirac spinorIsospin...
- The absence of any signal of supersymmetry (SUSY) at the LHC has raised the SUSY particle mass scale compared to $Z$ boson mass $M_Z$. We investigate the naturalness of the electroweak symmetry breaking after considering radiative symmetry breaking along with 125 GeV Higgs mass. We find that the important quantity to measure the naturalness of the hierarchy between the SUSY scale and $M_Z$ is the separation between the radiative symmetry breaking scale, i.e., where $m_{H_u}^2+\mu^2$ turns negative for large $\tan\beta$ case ($\mu$ is the Higgsino mass and $m_{H_u}$ is the SUSY breaking up-type Higgs boson mass) and the average stop mass. Using this measure, one can show that the electroweak symmetry breaking can be natural even if $\mu$ is large contrary to the prevailing claim that $\mu$ is needed to be small to maintain the naturalness.Electroweak symmetry breakingSupersymmetry breakingHiggs boson massNaturalnessSupersymmetryRenormalisation group equationsGluinoMinimal supersymmetric Standard ModelHiggsinoTeV scale...
- We investigate the little hierarchy between Z boson mass and the SUSY breaking scale in the context of landscape of electroweak symmetry breaking vacua. We consider the radiative symmetry breaking and found that the scale where the electroweak symmetry breaking conditions are satisfied and the average stop mass scale is preferred to be very close to each other in spite of the fact that their origins depend on different parameters of the model. If the electroweak symmetry breaking scale is fixed at about 1 TeV by the supersymmetry model parameters then the little hierarchy seems to be preferred among the electroweak symmetry breaking vacua. We characterize the little hierarchy by a probability function and the mSUGRA model is used as an example to show the 90% and 95% probability contours in the experimentally allowed region. We also investigate the size of the Higgsino mass by considering the distribution of electroweak symmetry breaking scale.Electroweak symmetry breakingSupersymmetry breakingBosonizationSupersymmetrySupersymmetry breaking scaleHiggsinoSupergravityHiggs potentialRenormalisation group equationsElectroweak symmetry...
- We present the discovery of 61 wide (>5 arcsecond) separation, low-mass (stellar and substellar) companions to stars in the solar neighborhood identified from Pan-STARRS\,1 (PS1) data and the spectral classification of 27 previously known companions. Our companions represent a selective subsample of promising candidates and span a range in spectral type of K7-L9 with the addition of one DA white dwarf. These were identified primarily from a dedicated common proper motion search around nearby stars, along with a few as serendipitous discoveries from our Pan-STARRS1 brown dwarf search. Our discoveries include 24 new L dwarf companions and one known L dwarf not previously identified as a companion. The primary stars around which we searched for companions come from a list of bright stars with well-measured parallaxes and large proper motions from the Hipparcos catalog (8583 stars, mostly A-K~dwarfs) and fainter stars from other proper motion catalogues (79170 stars, mostly M~dwarfs). We examine the likelihood that our companions are chance alignments between unrelated stars and conclude that this is unlikely for the majority of the objects that we have followed-up spectroscopically. We also examine the entire population of ultracool (>M7) dwarf companions and conclude that while some are loosely bound, most are unlikely to be disrupted over the course of $\sim$10 Gyr. Our search increases the number of ultracool M dwarf companions wider than 300 AU by 88% and increases the number of L dwarf companions in the same separation range by 96%. Finally, we resolve our new L dwarf companion to HIP 6407 into a tight (0.13 arcsecond, 7.4 AU) L1+T3 binary, making the system a hierarchical triple. Our search for these key benchmarks against which brown dwarf and exoplanet atmosphere models are tested has yielded the largest number of discoveries to date.CompanionStarStellar classificationProper motionA dwarfsPan-STARRSTwo Micron All Sky SurveyL dwarfsAstronomical UnitPhotometry...
#### A History of Dark Matterver. 2

Although dark matter is a central element of modern cosmology, the history of how it became accepted as part of the dominant paradigm is often ignored or condensed into a brief anecdotical account focused around the work of a few pioneering scientists. The aim of this review is to provide the reader with a broader historical perspective on the observational discoveries and the theoretical arguments that led the scientific community to adopt dark matter as an essential part of the standard cosmological model.Dark matterNeutrinoRotation CurveMilky WayModified Newtonian DynamicsCosmologyStarCluster of galaxiesAxionDark matter candidate...- The theoretical description of quantum dynamics in an intriguing way does not necessarily imply the underlying dynamics is indeed intriguing. Here we show how a known very interesting master equation with an always negative decay rate [eternal non-Markovianity (ENM)] arises from simple stochastic Schr\"odinger dynamics (random unitary dynamics). Equivalently, it may be seen as arising from a mixture of Markov (semi-group) open system dynamics. Both these approaches lead to a more general family of CPT maps, characterized by a point within a parameter triangle. Our results show how ENM quantum dynamics can be realised easily in the laboratory without having to resort on any kind of "memory". Remarkably, we find a quantum time-continuously measured (quantum trajectory) realisation of the dynamics of the ENM master equation based on unitary transformations and projective measurements in an extended Hilbert space, guided by a classical Markov process.Master equationQubitMarkov processDephasingDecay rateUnitary transformationJump processClassical master equationPropagatorInformation flow...
- In this paper we develop an operational formulation of General Relativity similar in spirit to existing operational formulations of Quantum Theory. To do this we introduce an operational space (or op-space) built out of scalar fields. A point in op-space corresponds to some nominated set of scalar fields taking some given values in coincidence. We assert that op-space is the space in which we observe the world. We introduce also a notion of agency (this corresponds to the ability to set knob settings just like in Operational Quantum Theory). The effects of agents' actions should only be felt to the future so we introduce also a time direction field. Agency and time direction can be understood as effective notions. We show how to formulate General Relativity as a possibilistic theory and as a probabilistic theory. In the possibilistic case we provide a compositional framework for calculating whether some operationally described situation is possible or not. In the probabilistic version we introduce probabilities and provide a compositional framework for calculating the probability of some operationally described situation. Finally we look at the quantum case. We review the operator tensor formulation of Quantum Theory and use it to set up an approach to Quantum Field Theory that is both operational and compositional. Then we consider strategies for solving the problem of Quantum Gravity. By referring only to operational quantities we are able to provide formulations for the possibilistic, probabilistic, and (the nascent) quantum cases that are manifestly invariant under diffeomorphisms.General relativityManifoldQuantum theoryDiffeomorphismQuantum gravityCausalityScalar fieldSpecial relativityQuantum field theoryEinstein field equations...
- Deep observations of the dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxy NGC 1396 (M$_V = -16.60$, Mass $\sim 4\times10^8$ M$_\odot$), located in the Fornax cluster, have been performed with the VLT/ MUSE spectrograph in the wavelength region from $4750-9350$ \AA{}. In this paper we present a stellar population analysis studying chemical abundances, the star formation history (SFH) and the stellar initial mass function (IMF) as a function of galacto-centric distance. Different, independent ways to analyse the stellar populations result in a luminosity-weighted age of $\sim$ 6 Gyr and a metallicity [Fe/H]$\sim$ $-0.4$, similar to other dEs of similar mass. We find unusually overabundant values of [Ca/Fe] $\sim +0.1$, and under-abundant Sodium, with [Na/Fe] values around $-0.1$, while [Mg/Fe] is overabundant at all radii, increasing from $\sim+0.1$ in the centre to $\sim +0.2$ dex. We notice a significant metallicity and age gradient within this dwarf galaxy. To constrain the stellar IMF of NGC 1396, we find that the IMF of NGC 1396 is consistent with either a Kroupa-like or a top-heavy distribution, while a bottom-heavy IMF is firmly ruled out. An analysis of the abundance ratios, and a comparison with galaxies in the Local Group, shows that the chemical enrichment history of NGC 1396 is similar to the Galactic disc, with an extended star formation history. This would be the case if the galaxy originated from a LMC-sized dwarf galaxy progenitor, which would lose its gas while falling into the Fornax cluster.MetallicityNatriumAbundance ratioMilky WayStellar populationsAbundanceDwarf galaxyStar formationGlobular clusterStar...
- The counting function on the natural numbers defines a discrete Morse-Smale complex with a cohomology for which topological quantities like Morse indices, Betti numbers or counting functions for critical points of Morse index are explicitly given in number theoretical terms. The Euler characteristic of the Morse filtration is related to the Mertens function, the Poincar\'e-Hopf indices at critical points correspond to the values of the Moebius function. The Morse inequalities link number theoretical quantities like the prime counting functions relevant for the distribution of primes with cohomological properties of the graphs. The just given picture is a special case of a discrete Morse cohomology equivalent to simplicial cohomology. The special example considered here is a case where the graph is the Barycentric refinement of a finite simple graph.GraphCohomologyCritical pointSimple graphCountingMorse indexEuler characteristicManifoldOrientationExterior derivative...
- We discuss the parameter space reach of future experiments searching for heavy neutral leptons (HNLs) at the GeV scale in terms of neutrino mass models with three HNL generations. We focus on two classes of models: Generic assumptions (such as random mass matrices or the Casas-Ibarra parameterization) and flavor symmetry-generated models. We demonstrate that the generic approaches lead to comparable parameter space predictions, which tend to be at least partially within the reach of future experiments. On the other hand, specific flavor symmetry models yield more refined predictions, some of these can be more clearly excluded. We also highlight the importance to measure the flavor-dependent couplings of the HNLs as a model discriminator, and we clarify the impact of assumptions frequently used in the literature to show the parameter space reach for the active-sterile mixings.Sterile neutrinoActive-sterile neutrino mixingSHiP experimentNeutrino massLBNE experimentFlavour symmetryPlanned experimentNeutrinoCasas-Ibarra parameterizationNeutrino oscillations...
- We argue that spinning black holes are capable to implement complex quantum information processes encoded in X-ray photons emitted by the accretion disk. Recently, numerical simulations showed that X-ray photons emitted by accretion disk acquire rotation of polarization angle and orbital angular momentum due to strong gravitational field in the vicinity of the rotating black holes. Based on these two degrees of freedom we construct a bipartite two-level quantum system of the photons emitted by the accretion disk. To characterize the quantum states of this system we consider linear entropy for the reduced density matrix of polarization with the intention to exploit its direct relation with the photons degree of polarization. Since the X-ray radiation has a minimum degree of polarization located at the transition region of the accretion disk, the linear entropy is higher for the photons emitted on this region inferring a higher degree of entanglement for the composite system. We emphasize that for an extreme rotating black hole in the thermal state, the photons with energies at the thermal peak are maximally entangled in polarization and orbital angular momentum, leading to the creation of all four Bell states. Detection of the Bell states encoded by X-ray photons emitted nearby rotating black holes should be possible by equipment actually used in quantum information processing.Orbital angular momentum of lightAccretion diskKerr black holeBell stateSpinning Black HoleEntanglementBlack holeEntropyDegree of freedomReduced density matrix...
- The model for the generation of magnetic fields in a neutron star, based on the magnetic field instability caused by the electroweak interaction between electrons and nucleons, is developed. Using the methods of the quantum field theory, the helicity flip rate of electrons in their scattering off protons in dense matter of a neutron star is calculated. The influence of the electroweak interaction between electrons and background nucleons on the process of the helicity flip is studied. The kinetic equation for the evolution of the chital imbalance is derived. The obtained results are applied for the description of the magnetic fields evolution in magnetars.Neutron starMagnetarElectroweak interactionHelicity flippingKinetic equationHelicityCoolingNeutrinoRelaxationQuantum field theory...
- We revisit the constraints on the small scale density perturbations ($10^4\,\mathrm{Mpc}^{-1}\lesssim k \lesssim10^5\,\mathrm{Mpc}^{-1}$) from the modification of the freeze-out value of the neutron-proton ratio at big-bang nucleosynthesis era. Around the freeze-out temperature $T\sim 0.5\,\mathrm{MeV}$, the universe can be divided into several local patches which have different temperatures since any perturbation which enters the horizon after the neutrino decoupling has not diffused yet. Taking account of this situation, we calculate the freeze-out value in detail. We find that the small scale perturbations decrease the n-p ratio in contrast to previous works. With use of the latest observed $^4$He abundance, we obtain the constraint on the power spectrum of the curvature perturbations as $\Delta^2_\mathcal{R}\lesssim 0.018$ on $10^4\,\mathrm{Mpc}^{-1}\lesssim k \lesssim 10^5\,\mathrm{Mpc}^{-1}$.Freeze-outHorizonBig bang nucleosynthesisNeutrinoAbundanceNeutrino decouplingCurvature perturbationPrimordial density perturbationCosmic microwave backgroundAdiabatic curvature perturbation...
- Symmetry protected topological (SPT) phases are gapped short-range-entangled quantum phases with a symmetry G. They can all be smoothly connected to the same trivial product state if we break the symmetry. The Haldane phase of spin-1 chain is the first example of SPT phase which is protected by SO(3) spin rotation symmetry. The topological insulator is another exam- ple of SPT phase which is protected by U(1) and time reversal symmetries. It has been shown that free fermion SPT phases can be systematically described by the K-theory. In this paper, we show that interacting bosonic SPT phases can be systematically described by group cohomology theory: distinct d-dimensional bosonic SPT phases with on-site symmetry G (which may contain anti-unitary time reversal symmetry) can be labeled by the elements in H^{1+d}[G, U_T(1)] - the Borel (1 + d)-group-cohomology classes of G over the G-module U_T(1). The boundary excitations of the non-trivial SPT phases are gapless or degenerate. Even more generally, we find that the different bosonic symmetry breaking short-range-entangled phases are labeled by the following three mathematical objects: (G_H, G_{\Psi}, H^{1+d}[G_{\Psi}, U_T(1)], where G_H is the symmetry group of the Hamiltonian and G_{\Psi} the symmetry group of the ground states.Symmetry protected topological orderSymmetry groupTime-reversal symmetryProjective representationGroup cohomologyTopological orderQuantizationCohomologyChiralityDegree of freedom...
- This expository paper describes sewing conditions in two-dimensional open/closed topological field theory. We include a description of the G-equivariant case, where G is a finite group. We determine the category of boundary conditions in the case that the closed string algebra is semisimple. In this case we find that sewing constraints -- the most primitive form of worldsheet locality -- already imply that D-branes are (G-twisted) vector bundles on spacetime. We comment on extensions to cochain-valued theories and various applications. Finally, we give uniform proofs of all relevant sewing theorems using Morse theory.
- We measure the spectral dimension of universes emerging from nonperturbative quantum gravity, defined through state sums of causal triangulated geometries. While four-dimensional on large scales, the quantum universe appears two-dimensional at short distances. We conclude that quantum gravity may be "self-renormalizing" at the Planck scale, by virtue of a mechanism of dynamical dimensional reduction.Quantum gravityCausal dynamical triangulationPath integralPlanck scaleFractalDiffusion processScale factorProper timeDimensional ReductionMonte Carlo method...
- We extend the definition of "spectral dimension" (usually defined for fractal and lattice geometries) to theories on smooth spacetimes with anisotropic scaling. We show that in quantum gravity dominated by a Lifshitz point with dynamical critical exponent z in D+1 spacetime dimensions, the spectral dimension of spacetime is equal to d_s=1+D/z. In the case of gravity in 3+1 dimensions presented in arXiv:0901.3775, which is dominated by z=3 in the UV and flows to z=1 in the IR, the spectral dimension of spacetime flows from d_s=4 at large scales, to d_s=2 at short distances. Remarkably, this is the qualitative behavior of d_s found numerically by Ambjorn, Jurkiewicz and Loll in their causal dynamical triangulations approach to quantum gravity.Quantum gravityCausal dynamical triangulationCritical exponentCausalityDiffusion processDiffeomorphismTheories of gravityFractalCovarianceGeneral relativity...
- That the speed of light is a universal constant is a logical consequence of Maxwell's equations. Here we show the converse is also true. Electromagnetism (EM) and electrodynamics (ED), in all details, can be derived from two simple assumptions: i) the speed of light is a universal constant and, ii) the common observations that there are the so-called charged particles that interact with each other. Conventional EM and ED are observation based. The proposed alternative spares all those observational foundations, only to reintroduce them as theoretically derived and empiricism-free laws of Nature. There are merits to simplicity. For instance, when one learns that Poisson's equation emerges as a corollary of the formalism, one immediately concludes that Coulomb's $1/r^2$ law of force is exact. Or, if it turns out that $\nabla.\mathbf{B}=0$ follows from the theory, then non-existence of (at least classical) magnetic monopoles will be an exact law of Nature. The list is longer than the these two examples.ElectromagnetismMagnetic monopoleSpeed of lightCurrent densityCharged currentMagnetic chargeCharged particleElectrodynamicsPerturbation theoryMagnet...
- A general sketch on how the problem of space dimensionality depends on anthropic arguments is presented. Several examples of how life has been used to constraint space dimensionality (and vice-versa) are reviewed. In particular, the influences of three-dimensionality in the solar system stability and the origin of life on Earth are discussed. New constraints on space dimensionality and on its invariance in very large spatial and temporal scales are also stressed.Solar systemEarthSketch
- During his life Weyl approached the problem of space (PoS) from various sides. Two aspects stand out as permanent features of his different approaches: the {\em unique determination of an affine connection} (i.e., without torsion in the terminology of Cartan) and the question {\em which type of group} characterizes physical space. The first feature came up in 1919 (commentaries to Riemann's inaugural lecture) and played a crucial role in Weyl's work on the PoS in the early 1920s. He defended the central role of affine connections even in the light of Cartan's more general framework of connections with torsion. In later years, after the rise of the Dirac field, it could have become problematic, but Weyl saw the challenge posed to Einstein gravity by spin coupling primarily in the possibility to allow for non-metric affine connections. Only after Weyl's death Cartan's approach to infinitesimal homogeneity and torsion became revitalized in gravity theories.InfinitesimalAffine connectionTorsion tensorGeneral relativityManifoldTheories of gravityAutomorphismCurvatureDiffeomorphismDifferential form...
- This paper is dedicated to the discovery of one of the most important relationships in supernova cosmology - the relation between the peak luminosity of Type Ia supernovae and their luminosity decline rate after maximum light. The history of this relationship is quite long and interesting. The relationship was independently discovered by the American statistician and astronomer Bert Woodard Rust and the Soviet astronomer Yury Pavlovich Pskovskii in the 1970s. Using a limited sample of Type I supernovae they were able to show that the brighter the supernova is, the slower its luminosity declines after maximum. Only with the appearance of CCD cameras could Mark Phillips re-inspect this relationship on a new level of accuracy using a better sample of supernovae. His investigations confirmed the idea proposed earlier by Rust and Pskovskii.SupernovaLuminosityObservational cosmologyCosmologySupernova Type Ia...
- We study the pages in Albert Einstein's 1916 landmark paper in the Annalen der Physik where he derived his field equations for gravity. Einstein made two heuristic and physically insightful steps. The first was to obtain the field equations in vacuum in a rather geometric fashion. The second step was obtaining the field equations in the presence of matter from the field equations in vacuum. (This transition is an essential principle in physics, much as the principle of local gauge invariance in quantum field theory.) To this end, we go over some quick differential geometric background related to curvilinear coordinates, vectors, tensors, metric tensor, Christoffel symbols, Riemann curvature tensor, Ricci tensor, and see how Einstein used geometry to model gravity.RankCovariant derivativeCurvature tensorRicci tensorGravitational fieldsChristoffel symbolsGeneral relativityScalar fieldRiemannian geometryQuantum field theory...
- In this historical note, we wish to highlight the crucial conceptual role played by the principle of virtual work of analytical mechanics, in working out the fundamental notion of parallel transport on a Riemannian manifold, which opened the way to the theory of connections and gauge theories. Moreover, after a detailed historical-technical reconstruction of the original Levi-Civita's argument, a further historiographical deepening and a related critical discussion of the question, are pursued.Parallel transportCurvatureInfinitesimalManifoldCovariant derivativeOrdinary differential equationsGeneral relativityTangent spaceIsomorphismRiemannian geometry...
- Warm dark matter (WDM) of order keV mass may be able to resolve the disagreement between structure formation in cold dark matter simulations and observations. The detailed properties of WDM will depend upon its energy distribution, in particular how it deviates from the thermal distribution usually assumed in WDM simulations. Here we focus on WDM production via the Ultra-Violet (UV) freeze-in mechanism, for the case of fermionic Higgs portal dark matter $\psi$ produced via the portal interaction $\bar{\psi}\psi H^{\dagger}H/\Lambda$. We introduce a new method to simplify the computation of the non-thermal energy distribution of dark matter from freeze-in. We show that the non-thermal energy distribution from UV freeze-in is hotter than the corresponding thermal distribution and has the form of a Bose-Einstein distribution with a non-thermal normalization. The resulting range of dark matter fermion mass consistent with observations is 5-7 keV. The reheating temperature must satisfy $T_{R} \gtrsim 120 $ GeV in order to account for the observed dark matter density when $m_{\psi} \approx 5 $ keV, where the lower bound on $T_{R}$ corresponds to the limit where the fermion mass is entirely due to electroweak symmetry breaking via the portal interaction. The corresponding bound on the interaction scale is $\Lambda \gtrsim 6.0 \times 10^{9}$ GeV.Warm dark matterDark matterUV freeze-inHiggs portalReheating temperatureFreeze-inFermion massNon-thermal energyElectroweak symmetry breakingCold dark matter...
- We study a testable dark matter (DM) model outside of the standard WIMP paradigm in which the observed ratio $\Omega_{\rm dark} \simeq \Omega_{\rm visible}$ for visible and dark matter densities finds its natural explanation as a result of their common QCD origin when both types of matter (DM and visible) are formed at the QCD phase transition and both are proportional to $\Lambda_{\rm QCD}$. Instead of conventional "baryogenesis" mechanism we advocate a paradigm when the "baryogenesis" is actually a charge separation process which always occur in the presence of the $\cal{CP}$ odd axion field $a(x)$. In this scenario the global baryon number of the Universe remains zero, while the unobserved anti-baryon charge is hidden in form of heavy nuggets, similar to Witten's strangelets and compromise the DM of the Universe. We argue that the nuggets will be inevitably produced during the QCD phase transition as a result of Kibble-Zurek mechanism on formation of the topological defects during a phase transition. Relevant topological defects in our scenario are the closed bubbles made of the $N_{\rm DW}=1$ axion domain walls. These bubbles, in general, accrete the baryon (or anti baryon) charge, which eventually result in formation of the nuggets and anti-nuggets carrying a huge baryon (anti-baryon) charge. The main consequence of the model, $\Omega_{\rm dark} \approx \Omega_{\rm visible}$ is insensitive to the axion mass which may assume any value within the observationally allowed window $10^{-6} {\rm eV} \lesssim m_a \lesssim 10^{-3}{\rm eV}$. We also estimate the baryon to entropy ratio $\eta\equiv {n_B}/{n_{\gamma}}\sim 10^{-10}$ within this scenario. Finally, we comment on implications of these results to the axion search experiments, including microwave cavity and the Orpheus experiments.Domain wallQuantum chromodynamicsAxionDark matterAxion massQCD phase transitionBaryogenesisBaryon numberPhase transitionsInflation...
- A minimal extension of the Standard Model (SM) providing a complete and consistent picture of particle physics and cosmology up to the Planck scale is presented. We add to the SM three right-handed SM-singlet neutrinos, a new vector-like color triplet fermion and a complex SM singlet scalar $\sigma$ whose vacuum expectation value at $\sim 10^{11}$ GeV breaks lepton number and a Peccei-Quinn symmetry simultaneously. Primordial inflaton is produced by a combination of $\sigma$ and the SM Higgs. Baryogenesis proceeds via thermal leptogenesis. At low energies, the model reduces to the SM, augmented by seesaw-generated neutrino masses, plus the axion, which solves the strong CP problem and accounts for the dark matter in the Universe. The model can be probed decisively by the next generation of cosmic microwave background and axion dark matter experiments.Standard ModelInflationAxionDark matterSterile neutrinoInflatonPeccei-Quinn symmetryHiggs bosonBaryogenesisCosmic microwave background...
- We consider plasma consisting of electrons and ions in presence of a background neutrino gas and develop the magneto hydrodynamic equations for the system. We show that electron neutrino interaction can induce vorticity in the plasma even in the absence of any electromagnetic perturbations if the background neutrino density is left-right asymmetric. This induced vorticity support a new kind of mode which will vanish when the background neutrino asymmetry vanishes. The normal mode analysis of the equations is done to show that, in the presence of neutrino back-ground, the normal modes get modified and the corrections are proportional to the neutrino asymmetry parameter.NeutrinoNeutrino backgroundVorticityNormal modeNeutrino interactionsFluid dynamicsEvolution equationPhoton polarization tensorHydrodynamic descriptionAlfvén wave...
- We present models of low- and high-ionization metal-line absorbers (O I, C II, C IV and Mg II) during the end of the reionization epoch, at z ~ 6. Using four cosmological hydrodynamical simulations with different feedback schemes (including the Illustris and Sherwood simulations) and two different choices of hydro-solver, we investigate how the overall incidence rate and equivalent width distribution of metal-line absorbers varies with the galactic wind prescription. We find that the O I and C II absorbers are reasonably insensitive to the feedback scheme. All models, however, struggle to reproduce the observations of C IV and Mg II, which are probing down to lower overdensities than O I and C II at z ~ 6, suggesting that the metals in the simulations are not being transported out into the IGM efficiently enough. The situation is improved but not resolved if we choose a harder (but still reasonable) and/or (locally) increased UV background at z ~ 6.AbsorbanceMetallicityUltraviolet backgroundIllustris simulationIonizationEquivalent widthGalactic windVirial massAbsorptivityCompleteness...
- We present the first observation of cluster-scale radial metallicity gradients from star-forming galaxies. We use the DEIMOS spectrograph on the Keck II telescope to observe two CLASH clusters at z~0.35: MACS1115+0129 and RXJ1532+3021. Based on our measured interstellar medium (ISM) properties of star-forming galaxies out to a radius of 2.5 Mpc from the cluster centre, we find that the galaxy metallicity decreases as a function of projected cluster-centric distance (-0.15+/-0.08 dex/Mpc}) in MACS1115+01. On the mass-metallicity relation (MZR), star-forming galaxies in MACS1115+01 are offset to higher metallicity (~0.2 dex) than the local SDSS galaxies at a fixed mass range. In contrast, the MZR of RXJ1532+30 is consistent with the local comparison sample. RXJ1532+30 exhibits a bimodal radial metallicity distribution, with one branch showing a similar negative gradient as MACS1115+01 (-0.14+/-0.05 dex/Mpc) and the other branch showing a positive radial gradient. The positive gradient branch in RXJ1532+30 is likely caused by either interloper galaxies or an in-plane merger, indicating that cluster-scale abundance gradients probe cluster substructures and thus the dynamical state of a cluster. Most strikingly, we discover that neither the radial metallicity gradient nor the offset from the MZR is driven by the stellar mass. We compare our observations with Rhapsody-G cosmological hydrodynamical zoom-in simulations of relaxed galaxy clusters and find that the simulated galaxy cluster also exhibits a negative abundance gradient, albeit with a shallower slope (-0.04+/-0.03 dex/Mpc). Our observations suggest that the negative radial gradient originates from ram-pressure stripping and/or strangulation processes in the cluster environments.MetallicityCluster of galaxiesStellar massMilky WayStar-forming galaxyAbundanceSloan Digital Sky SurveyInterstellar mediumStar formationOf stars...
- We point out that a class of non-supersymmetric models based on the gauge group $SU(3)_C \times SU(2)_L\times SU(2)_R\times U(1)_{Y_L}\times U(1)_{Y_R}$ possesses an automatic, exact $Z_{2 }$ symmetry under which the fermions in the $SU(2)_R\times U(1)_{Y_R}$ sector (called $R$-sector) are odd and those in the standard model sector (called $L$-sector) are even. This symmetry, which is different from the usual parity symmetry of the left-right symmetric models, persists in the lepton sector even after the gauge symmetry breaks down to $SU(3)_C \times U(1)_{\rm EM}$. This keeps the lightest right-handed neutrino naturally stable, thereby allowing it to play the role of dark matter (DM) in the Universe. There are several differences between the usual left-right models and the model presented here: (i) our model can have two versions, one which has no parity symmetry so that the couplings and masses in the $L$ and $R$ sectors are unrelated, and another which has parity symmetry so that couplings are related; (ii) the $R$-sector fermions are chosen much heavier than the $L$-sector ones in both scenarios; and finally (iii) both light and heavy neutrinos are Majorana fermions with the light neutrino masses arising from a pure type-II seesaw mechanism. We discuss the DM relic density, direct and indirect detection prospects and associated collider signatures of the model. Comparing with current collider and direct detection constraints, we find a lower bound on the DM mass of order of 1 TeV. We also point out a way to relax the DM unitarity bound in our model for much larger DM masses by an entropy dilution mechanism. An additional feature of the model is that the DM can be made very long lived, if desired, by allowing for weak breaking of the above $Z_{2}$ symmetry. Our model also predicts the existence of long-lived colored particles which could be searched for at the LHC.Dark matterStandard ModelSterile neutrinoYukawa couplingHeavy quarkColliderGauge symmetryStandard Model fermionHiggs bosonLarge Hadron Collider...
- Recently the new model for the generation of strong large scale magnetic fields in neutron stars, driven by the parity violating interaction, was proposed. In this model, the magnetic field instability results from the modification of the chiral magnetic effect in presence of the electroweak interaction between ultrarelativistic electrons and nucleons. In the present work we study how a nonzero mass of charged particles, which are degenerate relativistic electrons and nonrelativistic protons, influences the generation of the magnetic field in frames of this approach. For this purpose we calculate the induced electric current of these charged particles, electroweakly interacting with background neutrons and an external magnetic field, exactly accounting for the particle mass. This current is calculated by two methods: using the exact solution of the Dirac equation for a charged particle in external fields and computing the polarization operator of a photon in matter composed of background neutrons. We show that the induced current is vanishing in both approaches leading to the zero contribution of massive particles to the generated magnetic field. We discuss the implication of our results for the problem of the magnetic field generation in compact stars.Charged particleNeutron starParticle massElectroweak interactionMagnetic field generationChiral magnetic effectParity violating interactionExact solutionChiral symmetryMagnetar...
- It is often presumed, that life evolves relatively fast on planets with clement conditions, at least in its basic forms, and that extended periods of habitability are subsequently needed for the evolution of higher life forms. Many planets are however expected to be only transiently habitable. On a large set of otherwise suitable planets life will therefore just not have the time to develop on its own to a complexity level as it did arise on earth with the cambrian explosion. The equivalent of a cambrian explosion may however have the chance to unfold on transiently habitable planets if it would be possible to fast forward evolution by 3-4 billion years (with respect to terrestrial timescales). We argue here, that this is indeed possible when seeding the candidate planet with the microbial lifeforms, bacteria and unicellular eukaryotes alike, characterizing earth before the cambrian explosion. An interstellar mission of this kind, denoted the `Genesis project', could be carried out by a relatively low-cost robotic microcraft equipped with a on-board gene laboratory for the in situ synthesis of the microbes. We review here our current understanding of the processes determining the timescales shaping the geo-evolution of an earth-like planet, the prospect of finding Genesis candidate planets and selected issues regarding the mission layout. Discussing the ethical aspects connected with a Genesis mission, which would be expressively not for human benefit, we will also touch the risk that a biosphere incompatibility may arise in the wake of an eventual manned exploration of a second earth.PlanetGenesisEarthExtrasolar planetInstabilityHabitable zonePlate tectonicsGeneRoboticsVenus...
- AstroSat is a multi-wavelength astronomy satellite, launched on 2015 September 28. It carries a suite of scientific instruments for multi-wavelength observations of astronomical sources. It is a major Indian effort in space astronomy and the context of AstroSat is examined in a historical perspective. The Performance Verification phase of AstroSat has been completed and all instruments are working flawlessly and as planned. Some brief highlights of the scientific results are also given here.ASTROSAT missionHard X-raySpace telescopesGamma ray burstCalibrationSoft X-rayX-ray astronomyInclinationAccretionObservatories...
- The reported observations of an unidentified X-ray line feature at $\sim$3.5 keV have driven a lively discussion about its possible dark matter origin. Motivated by this, we have measured the \emph{K}-shell X-ray spectra of highly ionized bare sulfur ions following charge exchange with gaseous molecules in an electron beam ion trap, as a source of or a contributor to this X-ray line. We produce $\mathrm{S}^{16+}$ and $\mathrm{S}^{15+}$ ions and let them capture electrons in collision with those molecules with the electron beam turned off while recording X-ray spectra. We observed a charge-exchanged-induced X-ray feature at the Lyman series limit (3.47 $\pm$ 0.06 keV). The inferred X-ray energy is in full agreement with the reported astrophysical observations and supports the novel scenario proposed by Gu and Kaastra (A \& A \textbf{584}, {L11} (2015)).Highly charged ionKeV lineX-ray spectrumDark matterIonizationPrincipal quantum numberCalibrationElectron beam ion trapCluster of galaxiesEnergy resolution...
- Deep observations of galaxy outskirts reveal faint extended stellar components (ESCs) of streams, shells, and halos, which are ghostly remnants of the tidal disruption of satellite galaxies. We use cosmological galaxy formation simulations in Cold Dark Matter (CDM) and Warm Dark Matter (WDM) models to explore how the dark matter model influences the spatial, kinematic, and orbital properties of ESCs. These reveal that the spherically averaged stellar mass density at large galacto-centric radius can be depressed by up to a factor of 10 in WDM models relative to the CDM model, reflecting the anticipated suppressed abundance of satellite galaxies in WDM models. However, these differences are much smaller in WDM models that are compatible with observational limits, and are comparable in size to the system-to-system variation we find within the CDM model. This suggests that it will be challenging to place limits on dark matter using only the unresolved ESC.Extended stellar componentsCold dark matterDark matterWDM particlesWarm dark matterAbundanceLambda-CDM modelDark matter modelSatellite galaxyDark matter subhalo...
- The classic composite fermion field theory \cite{HLR} builds up an excellent framework to uniformly study important physical objects and globally explain anomalous experimental phenomena in fractional quantum Hall physics while there are also inherent weaknesses. We present a nonperturbative emergent Dirac fermion theory from this strongly correlated composite fermion field theory, which overcomes these serious long-standing shortcomings. The particle-hole symmetry of Dirac equation resolves this particle-hole symmetry enigma in the composite fermion field theory. With the help of presented numerical data, we show that for main Jain's sequences of fractional quantum Hall effects, this emergent Dirac fermion theory is most likely nonperturbatively stable.Landau levelParticle-hole symmetryComposite fermionsFractional Quantum Hall EffectDirac fermionField theoryLowest Landau LevelEffective massMean fieldQuantum electrodynamics...
- I review the influence jets and the bubbles they inflate might have on their ambient gas as they operate through a negative jet feedback mechanism (JFM). I discuss astrophysical systems where jets are observed to influence the ambient gas, in many cases by inflating large, hot, and low-density bubbles, and systems where the operation of the JFM is still a theoretical suggestion. The first group includes cooling flows in galaxies and clusters of galaxies, star-forming galaxies, young stellar objects, and bipolar planetary nebulae. The second group includes core collapse supernovae, the common envelope evolution, the grazing envelope evolution, and intermediate luminosity optical transients. The suggestion that the JFM operates in these four types of systems is based on the assumption that jets are much more common than what is inferred from objects where they are directly observed. Common to all eight types of systems reviewed here is the presence of a compact object inside an extended ambient gas. The ambient gas serves as a potential reservoir of mass to be accreted on to the compact object. If the compact object launches jets as it accretes mass, the jets might reduce the accretion rate as they deposit energy to the ambient gas, or even remove the entire ambient gas, hence closing a negative feedback cycle.Cooling flowAccretionPlanetary nebulaActive Galactic NucleiCore-collapse supernovaIntra-cluster mediumCompanionStarAccretion diskYoung stellar object...
- Density inhomogeneity in the intergalactic medium (IGM) can boost the recombination rate of ionized gas substantially, affecting the growth of HII regions during reionization. Previous attempts to quantify this effect typically failed to resolve down to the Jeans scale in the pre-ionization IGM, which is important in establishing this effect, along with the hydrodynamical back-reaction of reionization on it. Towards that end, we perform a set of fully-coupled, radiation-hydrodynamics simulations from cosmological initial conditions, extending the mass resolution of previous work to the scale of minihalos. Pre-reionization structure is evolved until a redshift $z_i$ at which the ionizing radiation from external sources arrives to sweep an R-type ionization front supersonically across the volume in a few Myr, until it is trapped on the surfaces of minihalos and converted to D-type, after which the minihalo gas is removed by photoevaporative winds. Small-scale density structures during this time lead to a high ($>$10) clumping factor for ionized gas, which hugely boosts the recombination rate until the structures are disrupted by the hydrodynamic feedback after $\sim 10-100~\rm{Myr}$. For incoming stellar radiation with intensity $J_{21}$ in a $200~h^{-1}~\rm{kpc}$ box with the mean density contrast $\bar\delta$, the number of extra recombinations per H atom, on top of what is expected from homogeneously distributed gas, is given by $0.32[J_{21}]^{0.12}[(1+z_i)/11]^{-1.7}[1+\bar\delta]^{2.5}$. In models in which most of the volume is ionized toward the end of reionization, this can add more than one recombination per H atom to the ionizing photon budget to achieve reionization.IonizationReionizationFluid dynamicsRecombination rateEpoch of reionizationUltracompact minihaloRecombinationIonizing radiationMean mass densityIntensity...
- We applied a variety of parametric and non-parametric machine learning models to predict the probability distribution of rainfall based on 1M training examples over a single year across several U.S. states. Our top performing model based on a squared loss objective was a cross-validated parametric k-nearest-neighbor predictor that took about six days to compute, and was competitive in a world-wide competition.Training setLogistic regressionMachine learningTime SeriesOptimizationSigmoid functionClimateLinear discriminant analysisBayesian posterior probabilityGraph...
- We present a new HI modelling tool called \textsc{Galactus}. The program has been designed to perform automated fits of disc-galaxy models to observations. It includes a treatment for the self-absorption of the gas. The software has been released into the public domain. We describe the design philosophy and inner workings of the program. After this, we model the face-on galaxy NGC2403, using both self-absorption and optically thin models, showing that self-absorption occurs even in face-on galaxies. It is shown that the maximum surface brightness plateaus seen in Paper I of this series are indeed signs of self-absorption. The apparent HI mass of an edge-on galaxy can be drastically lower compared to that same galaxy seen face-on. The Tully-Fisher relation is found to be relatively free from self-absorption issues.Milky WayVelocity dispersionEdge-on spiral galaxyRotation CurveKinematicsDark matter haloMonte Carlo Markov chainInclinationParsecTully-Fisher relation...
- We present a new strategy for fitting the structure and kinematics of the HI in edge-on galaxies using a fit to the terminal-velocity channel maps of a HI data cube. The strategy can deal with self-absorbing HI gas and the presence of warps. The method is first tested on a series of models. We demonstrate that fitting optically thin models to real galaxies will lead to an overestimation of the thickness and velocity dispersion, and to a serious underestimation of the HI face-on column densities. We subsequently fit both self-absorption and optically thin models to the HI data of six edge-on galaxies. In three of these we have also measured the velocity dispersion. On average 27 \pm 6 % of the total HI mass of edge-on galaxies is hidden by self-absorption. This implies that the HI mass, thickness and velocity dispersion of galaxies is typically underestimated in the literature.Edge-on spiral galaxyVelocity dispersionKinematicsTerminal velocityLine of sightRotation CurveMilky WayDark matter haloOrbital nodesHydrostatics...
- We present optical and near-infrared archival observations of eight edge-on galaxies. These observations are used to model the stellar content of each galaxy using the FitSKIRT software package. Using FitSKIRT, we can self-consistently model a galaxy in each band simultaneously while treating for dust. This allows us to accurately measure both the scale length and scale height of the stellar disc, plus the shape parameters of the bulge. By combining this data with the previously reported integrated magnitudes of each galaxy, we can infer their true luminosities. We have successfully modelled seven out of the eight galaxies in our sample. We find that stellar discs can be modelled correctly, but have not been able to model the stellar bulge reliably. Our sample consists for the most part of slow rotating galaxies, and we find that the average dust layer is much thicker than what is reported for faster rotating galaxies.Milky WayScale heightEdge-on spiral galaxyLuminosityTelescopesDark matter haloObservatoriesNear-infraredCircular velocityInclination...
- This overview article describes the legacy prospect and discovery potential of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) beyond cosmological studies, illustrating it with examples from the DES early data. DES is using a wide-field camera (DECam) on the 4m Blanco Telescope in Chile to image 5000 sq deg of the sky in five filters (grizY). By its completion the survey is expected to have generated a catalogue of 300 million galaxies with photometric redshifts and 100 million stars. In addition, a time-domain survey search over 27 sq deg is expected to yield a sample of thousands of Type Ia supernovae and other transients. The main goals of DES are to characterise dark energy and dark matter, and to test alternative models of gravity; these goals will be pursued by studying large scale structure, cluster counts, weak gravitational lensing and Type Ia supernovae. However, DES also provides a rich data set which allows us to study many other aspects of astrophysics. In this paper we focus on additional science with DES, emphasizing areas where the survey makes a difference with respect to other current surveys. The paper illustrates, using early data (from `Science Verification', and from the first, second and third seasons of observations), what DES can tell us about the solar system, the Milky Way, galaxy evolution, quasars, and other topics. In addition, we show that if the cosmological model is assumed to be Lambda+ Cold Dark Matter (LCDM) then important astrophysics can be deduced from the primary DES probes. Highlights from DES early data include the discovery of 34 Trans Neptunian Objects, 17 dwarf satellites of the Milky Way, one published z > 6 quasar (and more confirmed) and two published superluminous supernovae (and more confirmed).QuasarSupernovaMilky WayStarGalactic evolutionLarge Magellanic CloudLuminosityDark energyWeak lensingPhotometric redshift...
- We investigate the relationship between X-ray cooling and star formation in brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs). We present an X-ray spectral analysis of the inner regions, 10-40 kpc, of six nearby cool core clusters (z<0.35) observed with Chandra ACIS. This sample is selected on the basis of the high star formation rate (SFR) observed in the BCGs. We restrict our search for cooling gas to regions that are roughly cospatial with the starburst. We fit single- and multi-temperature mkcflow models to constrain the amount of isobarically cooling intracluster medium (ICM). We find that in all clusters, below a threshold temperature ranging between 0.9 and 3 keV, only upper limits can be obtained. In four out of six objects, the upper limits are significantly below the SFR and in two, namely A1835 and A1068, they are less than a tenth of the SFR. Our results suggests that a number of mechanisms conspire to hide the cooling signature in our spectra. In a few systems the lack of a cooling signature may be attributed to a relatively long delay time between the X-ray cooling and the star burst. However, for A1835 and A1068, where the X-ray cooling time is shorter than the timescale of the starburst, a possible explanation is that the region where gas cools out of the X-ray phase extends to very large radii, likely beyond the core of these systems.Cooling timescaleStar formation rateCoolingStar formationCooling flowCool core galaxy clusterEffective areaSystematic errorSpectral analysisStar...