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  • These lectures provide an introduction to Soft-Collinear Effective Theory. After discussing the expansion of Feynman diagrams around the high-energy limit, the effective Lagrangian is constructed, first for a scalar theory, then for QCD. The underlying concepts are illustrated with the Sudakov form factor, i.e. the quark vector form factor at large momentum transfer. We then apply the formalism in two examples: We perform soft gluon resummation as well as transverse-momentum resummation for the Drell-Yan process using renormalization group evolution in SCET, and we derive the infrared structure of n-point gauge theory amplitudes by relating them to effective theory operators. We conclude with an overview of the different applications of the effective theory.
    PartonAnomalous dimensionHadronizationRenormalisation group equationsParton distribution functionRenormalizationPerturbation theoryCoupling constantLight conesDimensional regularization...
  • Relatively light Top Partners are unmistakable signatures of reasonably Natural Composite Higgs models and as such they are worth searching for at the LHC. Their phenomenology is characterized by a certain amount of model-dependence, which makes the interpretation of Top Partner experimental searches not completely straightforward especially if one is willing to take also single production into account. We describe a model-independent strategy by which the interpretation is provided on the parameter space of a Simplified Model that captures the relevant features of all the explicit constructions. The Simplified Model limits are easy to interpret within explicit models, in a way that requires no recasting and no knowledge of the experimental details of the analyses. We illustrate the method by concrete examples, among which the searches for a charge 5/3 Partner in same-sign dileptons and the searches for a charge 2/3 singlet. In each case we perform a theory recasting of the available 8 TeV Run-1 results and an estimate of the 13 TeV Run-2 reach, also including the effect of single production for which dedicated experimental analyses are not yet available. A rough assessment of the reach of a hypothetical 100 TeV collider is also provided.
    CMS experimentPair productionChiralityStandard ModelQCD jetBranching ratioInterferenceNext-to-leading order computationTop quarkKinematics...
  • Recent measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) by the Planck Collaboration have produced arguably the most powerful observational evidence in support of the standard model of cosmology, i.e. the spatially flat $\Lambda$CDM paradigm. In this work, we perform model selection tests to examine whether the base CMB temperature and large scale polarization anisotropy data from Planck 2015 (P15) prefer any of eight commonly used one-parameter model extensions with respect to flat $\Lambda$CDM. We find a clear preference for models with free curvature, $\Omega_\mathrm{K}$, or free amplitude of the CMB lensing potential, $A_\mathrm{L}$. We also further develop statistical tools to measure tension between datasets. We use a Gaussianization scheme to compute tensions directly from the posterior samples using an entropy-based method, the surprise, as well as a calibrated evidence ratio presented here for the first time. We then proceed to investigate the consistency between the base P15 CMB data and six other CMB and distance datasets. In flat $\Lambda$CDM we find a $4.8\sigma$ tension between the base P15 CMB data and a distance ladder measurement, whereas the former are consistent with the other datasets. In the curved $\Lambda$CDM model we find significant tensions in most of the cases, arising from the well-known low power of the low-$\ell$ multipoles of the CMB data. In the flat $\Lambda$CDM$+A_\mathrm{L}$ model, however, all datasets are consistent with the base P15 CMB observations except for the CMB lensing measurement, which remains in significant tension. This tension is driven by the increased power of the CMB lensing potential derived from the base P15 CMB constraints in both models, pointing at either potentially unresolved systematic effects or the need for new physics beyond the standard flat $\Lambda$CDM model.
    Cosmic microwave backgroundCMB lensingPlanck missionCalibrationLambda-CDM modelStatisticsSupernovaEntropyCurvatureCosmological parameters...
  • We review the formalism and applications of the halo-based description of nonlinear gravitational clustering. In this approach, all mass is associated with virialized dark matter halos; models of the number and spatial distribution of the halos, and the distribution of dark matter within each halo, are used to provide estimates of how the statistical properties of large scale density and velocity fields evolve as a result of nonlinear gravitational clustering. We first describe the model, and demonstrate its accuracy by comparing its predictions with exact results from numerical simulations of nonlinear gravitational clustering. We then present several astrophysical applications of the halo model: these include models of the spatial distribution of galaxies, the nonlinear velocity, momentum and pressure fields, descriptions of weak gravitational lensing, and estimates of secondary contributions to temperature fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background.
    Halo modelLarge scale structureStatisticsNumerical simulationDark matter haloWeak lensingGalaxyCosmic microwave backgroundDark matterGravitation...
  • We discuss detectability of the nonlinear growth of the large-scale structure in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing. Lensing signals involved in CMB anisotropies have been measured from multiple CMB experiments, such as Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT), Planck, POLARBEAR, and South Pole Telescope (SPT). Reconstructed lensing signals are useful to constrain cosmology via their angular power spectrum, while detectability and cosmological application of their bispectrum induced by the nonlinear evolution are not well studied. Extending the analytic estimate of the galaxy lensing bispectrum presented in Takada and Jain (2004) to the CMB case, we show that even near term CMB experiments such as Advanced ACT, Simons Array and SPT3G could detect the CMB lensing bispectrum induced by the nonlinear growth of the large-scale structure. In the case of the CMB Stage-IV, we find that the lensing bispectrum is detectable at $\gtrsim 50\,\sigma$ statistical significance. This precisely measured lensing bispectrum has rich cosmological information, and could be used to constrain cosmology, e.g., the sum of the neutrino masses and the dark-energy properties.
    BispectrumCosmologyCosmic microwave backgroundLensing signalCMB lensingCosmic microwave background experimentLarge scale structureAtacama Cosmology TelescopeDark energyNeutrino mass...
  • Recently I posted a paper entitled "External observer reflections on QBism". As any external observable, I was not able to reflect some features of QBism properly. Therefore comments which I received from one of its creators, C. Fuchs, are very valuable - to understand better the views of QBists. Some of QBism features are very delicate and to extract them from articles of QBists is not a simple task. Therefore I hope that the second portion of my reflection on QBism (or better to say my reflections on Fuchs' reflections on my reflections) might be interesting and useful for other experts in quantum foundations and quantum information theory (especially by taking into account my previous aggressively anti-QBism position). In the present paper I correct some of my previously posted critical comments on QBism. At the same time better understanding of QBists views on some problems leads to improvement and strengthening of other critical comments.
    Quantum mechanicsCopenhagen interpretationPOVMQuantum information theoryMany-worlds interpretationDecision makingBohmian mechanicsStatistical mechanicsConjunctionStatistics...
  • We discuss a cosmological model where the universe shrinks rather than expands during the radiation and matter dominated periods. Instead, the Planck mass and all particle masses grow exponentially, with the size of atoms shrinking correspondingly. Only dimensionless ratios as the distance between galaxies divided by the atom radius are observable. Then the cosmological increase of this ratio can also be attributed to shrinking atoms. We present a simple model where the masses of particles arise from a scalar "cosmon" field, similar to the Higgs scalar. The potential of the cosmon is responsible for inflation and the present dark energy. Our model is compatible with all present observations. While the value of the cosmon field increases, the curvature scalar is almost constant during all cosmological epochs. Cosmology has no big bang singularity. There exist other, equivalent choices of field variables for which the universe shows the usual expansion or is static during the radiation or matter dominated epochs. For those "field coordinates" the big bang is singular. Thus the big bang singularity turns out to be related to a singular choice of field coordinates.
    CosmologyBig BangPlanck scaleParticle massEinstein frameDark energyScalar fieldJordan frameScalar curvatureNeutrino...
  • We review the theoretical and experimental developments in recent research on quantum simulators with interacting photons. Enhancing optical nonlinearities so that they become appreciable on the single photon level and lead to nonclassical light fields has been a central objective in quantum optics for many years. After this has been achieved in individual micro-cavities representing an effectively zero-dimensional volume, this line of research has now shifted its focus towards engineering devices where such strong optical nonlinearities simultaneously occur in extended volumes of multiple nodes of a network. Recent technological progress in several experimental platforms now opens the possibility to employ the systems of strongly interacting photons these give rise to as quantum simulators. Here we review the recent development and current status of this research direction for theory and experiment. Addressing both, optical photons interacting with atoms and microwave photons in networks of superconducting circuits, we focus on scenarios where effective photon-photon interactions play a central role.
    PolaritonQuantum simulatorsHamiltonianMultidimensional ArrayQubitSuperconductivityBose-Hubbard modelWave guideJaynes-Cummings-Hubbard modelDissipation...
  • We show that a two-excitation process in superfluid helium, combined with sensitivity to meV energy depositions, can probe dark matter down to the ~keV warm dark matter mass limit. This mass reach is three orders of magnitude below what can be probed with ordinary nuclear recoils in helium at the same energy resolution. The kinematics of the process requires the two athermal excitations to have nearly equal and opposite momentum, potentially providing a built-in coincidence mechanism for controlling backgrounds.
    Dark matterSuperfluidSuperfluid heliumPhononEnergy resolutionKinematicsMomentum transferHamiltonianLight dark matterDark matter particle mass...
  • We describe the construction of $2+1$-dimensional toplogically massive adS gravity with ${\mathcal{N}}$-extended supersymmetry in conformal superspace by means of introducing a compensating hypermultiplet for the super-Weyl invariance. For $\mathcal{N}\geq 3$ the scalar multiplet must be on shell and the potential for the scalar compensator is completely determined by the geometry. As a consequence the resulting massive theory has no free parameter for $\mathcal{N}\geq 4$. For $\mathcal{N}= 4$ we obtain the complete off-shell component action.
    Massive gravityExtended supersymmetrySuperfieldSupersymmetryCosmological constantDegree of freedomSuperspaceSupergravityWeyl transformationGauge field...
  • We perform a general computation of the off-shell one-loop divergences in Einstein gravity, in a two-parameter family of path integral measures, corresponding to different ways of parametrizing the graviton field, and a two-parameter family of gauges. Trying to reduce the gauge- and measure-dependence selects certain classes of measures and gauges respectively. There is a choice of two parameters (corresponding to the exponential parametrization and the partial gauge condition that the quantum field be traceless) that automatically eliminates the dependence on the remaining two parameters and on the cosmological constant. We observe that the divergences are invariant under a $\mathbf{Z}_2$ "duality" transformation that (in a particularly important special case) involves the replacement of the densitized metric by a densitized inverse metric as the fundamental quantum variable. This singles out a formulation of unimodular gravity as the unique "self-dual" theory in this class.
    Messier 3Quantum gravityGauge conditionGauge fixingDualityGeneral relativityFunctional integrationGravitonPath integralOne-loop effective action...
  • In the present paper, we revisit gravitational theories which are invariant under TDiffs -- transverse (volume preserving) diffeomorphisms and global scale transformations. It is known that these theories can be rewritten in an equivalent diffeomorphism-invariant form with an action including an integration constant (cosmological constant for the particular case of non-scale-invariant unimodular gravity). The presence of this integration constant, in general, breaks explicitly scale invariance and induces a runaway potential for the (otherwise massless) dilaton, associated with the determinant of the metric tensor. We show, however, that if the metric carries mass dimension $\left[\text{GeV}\right]^{-2}$, the scale invariance of the system is preserved, unlike the situation in theories in which the metric has mass dimension different from $-2$. The dilaton remains massless and couples to other fields only through derivatives, without any conflict with observations. We observe that one can define a specific limit for fields and their derivatives (in particular, the dilaton goes to zero, potentially related to the small distance domain of the theory) in which the only singular terms in the action correspond to the Higgs mass and the cosmological constant. We speculate that the self-consistency of the theory may require the regularity of the action, leading to the absence of the bare Higgs mass and cosmological constant, whereas their small finite values may be generated by nonperturbative effects.
    DilatonCosmological constantScale invarianceHiggs boson massDiffeomorphismDilationScalar fieldDiffeomorphism invarianceDegree of freedomRegularization...
  • We study the validity of effective field theory (EFT) interpretations of monojet searches for dark matter at the LHC for vector and axial-vector interactions. We show that the EFT approach is valid when the mediator has mass m_med greater than 2.5 TeV. We find that the current limits on the contact interaction scale Lambda in the EFT apply to theories that are perturbative for dark matter mass m_DM < 800 GeV. However, for all values of m_DM in these theories, the mediator width is larger than the mass, so that a particle-like interpretation of the mediator is doubtful. Furthermore, consistency with the thermal relic density occurs only for 170 <m_DM < 520 GeV. For lighter mediator masses, the EFT limit either under-estimates the true limit (because the process is resonantly enhanced) or over-estimates it (because the missing energy distribution is too soft). We give some `rules of thumb' that can be used to estimate the limit on Lambda (to an accuracy of about 50%) for any dark matter and mediator masses from knowledge of the EFT limit. We also compare the relative sensitivities of monojet and dark matter direct detection searches finding that both dominate in different regions of the m_DM-m_med plane. Comparing only the EFT limit with direct searches is misleading and can lead to incorrect conclusions about the relative sensitivity of the two search approaches.
    Effective field theoryDark matterCMS experimentLarge Hadron ColliderLaboratory dark matter searchRelic abundanceStandard ModelSpin independentDirac fermionParton...
  • (abridged) The connection between black hole, accretion disk, and radio jet can be best constrained by fitting models to observations of nearby low luminosity galactic nuclei, in particular the well studied sources Sgr~A* and M87. There has been considerable progress in modeling the central engine of active galactic nuclei by an accreting supermassive black hole coupled to a relativistic plasma jet. However, can a single model be applied to a range of black hole masses and accretion rates? Here we want to compare the latest three-dimensional numerical model, originally developed for Sgr A* in the center of the Milky Way, to radio observations of the much more powerful and more massive black hole in M87. We postprocess three-dimensional GRMHD models of a jet-producing radiatively inefficient accretion flow around a spinning black hole using relativistic radiative transfer and ray-tracing to produce model spectra and images. As a key new ingredient to these models, we allow the proton-electron coupling in these simulations depend on the magnetic properties of the plasma. We find that the radio emission in M87 is well described by a combination of a two-temperature accretion flow and a hot single-temperature jet. The model fits the basic observed characteristics of the M87 radio core. The best fit model has a mass-accretion rate of Mdot approx 9x10^{-3} MSUN/YR and a total jet power of P_j \sim 10^{43} erg/s. Emission at 1.3mm is produced by the counter jet close to the event horizon. Its characteristic crescent shape surrounding the black hole shadow could be resolved by future millimeter-wave VLBI experiments. The model was successfully derived from one for the supermassive black hole in center of the Milky Way by appropriately scaling mass and accretion rate. This suggests the possibility that this model could also apply to a larger range of low-luminosity black holes.
    Black holeMessier 87Accretion diskAccretionIntensityMagnetizationSupermassive black holeBlack hole spinAccretion flowElectron temperature...
  • We investigate the properties of the hot gas in four fossil galaxy systems detected at high significance in the Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) survey. XMM-Newton observations reveal overall temperatures of kT ~ 5-6 keV and yield hydrostatic masses M500,HE > 3.5 x 10e14 Msun, confirming their nature as bona fide massive clusters. We measure the thermodynamic properties of the hot gas in X-rays (out to beyond R500 in three cases) and derive their individual pressure profiles out to R ~ 2.5 R500 with the SZ data. We combine the X-ray and SZ data to measure hydrostatic mass profiles and to examine the hot gas content and its radial distribution. The average Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) concentration parameter, c500 = 3.2 +/- 0.4, is the same as that of relaxed `normal' clusters. The gas mass fraction profiles exhibit striking variation in the inner regions, but converge to approximately the cosmic baryon fraction (corrected for depletion) at R500. Beyond R500 the gas mass fraction profiles again diverge, which we interpret as being due to a difference in gas clumping and/or a breakdown of hydrostatic equilibrium in the external regions. Overall our observations point to considerable radial variation in the hot gas content and in the gas clumping and/or hydrostatic equilibrium properties in these fossil clusters, at odds with the interpretation of their being old, evolved and undisturbed. At least some fossil objects appear to be dynamically young.
    Hot gasHydrostatic equilibriumFossil groupNavarro-Frenk-White profilePressure profileHydrostatic massFossil galaxyRelaxationHigh massEllipticity...
  • We report on the presence of large amounts of million-degree gas in the Milky Way's interstellar and circum-galactic medium. This gas (1) permeates both the Galactic plane and the halo, (2) extends to distances larger than 60-200 kpc from the center, and (3) its mass is sufficient to close the Galaxy's baryon census. Moreover, we show that a vast, $\sim 6$ kpc radius, spherically-symmetric central region of the Milky Way above and below the 0.16 kpc thick plane, has either been emptied of hot gas or the density of this gas within the cavity has a peculiar profile, increasing from the center up to a radius of $\sim 6$ kpc, and then decreasing with a typical halo density profile. This, and several other converging pieces of evidence, suggest that the current surface of the cavity, at 6 kpc from the Galaxy's center, traces the distant echo of a period of strong nuclear activity of our super-massive black-hole, occurred about 6 Myrs ago.
    Line of sightAbsorbanceMilky WayAbsorptivityHot gasElectron microscopyMessier 3EllipticityBlack holeStatistics...
  • The escape of ionizing Lyman Continuum (LyC) photons requires the existence of low-N_HI sightlines, which also promote escape of Lyman-Alpha (Lya). We use a suite of 2500 Lya Monte-Carlo radiative transfer simulations through models of dusty, clumpy interstellar (`multiphase') media from Gronke & Dijkstra (2016), and compare the escape fractions of Lya [f_esc(Lya)] and LyC radiation [f_esc(LyC)]. We find that f_esc(LyC) and f_esc(Lya) are correlated: galaxies with a low f_esc(Lya) consistently have a low f_esc(LyC), while galaxies with a high f_esc(Lya) exhibit a large dispersion in f_esc(LyC). We argue that there is increasing observational evidence that Lya escapes more easily from UV-faint galaxies. The correlation between f_esc(LyC) and f_esc(Lya) then implies that UV-faint galaxies contribute more to the ionizing background than implied by the faint-end slope of the UV-luminosity function. In multiphase gases, the ionizing escape fraction is most strongly affected by the cloud covering factor, f_cl, which implies that f_esc(LyC) is closely connected to the observed Lya spectral line shape. Specifically, LyC emitting galaxies typically having narrower, more symmetric line profiles. This prediction is qualitatively similar to that for `shell models'.
    Lyman recombination continuaLyman-alpha forestIonizationReionizationIonizing radiationLyc photonShell modelRadiative transferSpectral lineLyman-alpha line...
  • While scattering of light by atoms and molecules yields large amount of polarization at the B-band of both T- and L-dwarfs, scattering by dust grains in cloudy atmosphere of L-dwarfs gives rise to significant polarization at the far-optical and infra-red wavelengths where these objects are much brighter. However, the observable disk averaged polarization should be zero if the clouds are uniformly distributed and the object is spherically symmetric. Therefore, in order to explain the observed large polarization of several L-dwarfs, rotation-induced oblateness or horizontally inhomogeneous cloud distribution in the atmosphere is invoked. On the other hand, when an extra-solar planet of Earth-size or larger transits the brown dwarf along the line of sight, the asymmetry induced during the transit gives rise to a net non-zero, time dependent polarization. Employing atmospheric models for a range of effective temperature and surface gravity appropriate for T- and L-dwarfs, I derive the time dependent polarization profiles of these objects during transit phase and estimate the peak amplitude of polarization that occurs during the inner contact points of the transit ingress/egress phase. It is found that peak polarization in the range of 0.2-1.0 % at I- and J-band may arise of cloudy L dwarfs occulted by Earth-size or larger exoplanets. Such an amount of polarization is higher than that can be produced by rotation-induced oblateness of even the rapidly rotating L-dwarfs. Hence, I suggest that time resolved imaging polarization should be a potential technique to detect transiting exoplanets around L-dwarfs.
    L dwarfsPlanetBrown dwarfT dwarfsExtrasolar planetSurface gravityStellar diskEffective temperatureInclinationEllipticity...
  • Astrophysical plasmas are typically magnetized, with the Larmor radii of the charged particles many orders of magnitude smaller than their collisional mean free paths. The fundamental properties of such plasmas, e.g., conduction and viscosity, may depend on the instabilities driven by the anisotropy of the particle distribution functions and operating at scales comparable to the Larmor scales. We discuss a possibility that the pressure anisotropy of thermal electrons could produce polarization of thermal bremsstrahlung emission. In particular, we consider coherent large-scale motions in galaxy clusters to estimate the level of anisotropy driven by stretching of the magnetic-field lines by plasma flow and by heat fluxes associated with thermal gradients. Our estimate of the degree of polarization is $\sim 0.1 \%$ at energies $\gtrsim kT$. While this value is too low for the forthcoming generation of X-ray polarimeters, it is potentially an important proxy for the processes taking place at extremely small scales, which are impossible to resolve spatially. The absence of the effect at the predicted level may set a lower limit on the electron collisionality in the ICM. At the same time, the small value of the effect implies that it does not preclude the use of clusters as (unpolarized) calibration sources for X-ray polarimeters at this level of accuracy.
    AnisotropyThermal bremsstrahlungBremsstrahlungThermalisationElectron pressureLine of sightInstabilityMean free pathPolarimetersCluster of galaxies...
  • We present new observations of the field containing the z=3.786 protocluster, PC217.96+32.3. We confirm that it is one of the largest and most overdense high-redshift structures known. Such structures are rare even in the largest cosmological simulations. We used the Mayall/MOSAIC1.1 imaging camera to image a 1.2x0.6 deg area (~150x75 comoving Mpc) surrounding the protocluster's core and discovered 165 candidate Lyman Alpha emitting galaxies (LAEs) and 788 candidate Lyman Break galaxies (LBGs). There are at least 2 overdense regions traced by the LAEs, the largest of which shows an areal overdensity in its core (i.e., within a radius of 2.5 comoving Mpc) of 14+/-7 relative to the average LAE spatial density in the imaged field. Further, the average LAE spatial density in the imaged field is twice that derived by other field LAE surveys. Spectroscopy with Keck/DEIMOS yielded redshifts for 164 galaxies (79 LAEs and 85 LBGs); 65 lie at a redshift of 3.785+/-0.010. The velocity dispersion of galaxies near the core is 350+/-40 km/s, a value robust to selection effects. The overdensities are likely to collapse into systems with present-day masses of >10^{15} solar masses and >6x10^{14} solar masses. The low velocity dispersion may suggest a dynamically young protocluster. We find a weak trend between narrow-band (Lyman Alpha) luminosity and environmental density: the Lyman Alpha luminosity is enhanced on average by 1.35X within the protocluster core. There is no evidence that the Lyman Alpha equivalent width depends on environment. These suggest that star-formation and/or AGN activity is enhanced in the higher density regions of the structure. PC217.96+32.3 is a Coma cluster analog, witnessed in the process of formation.
    Lyman alpha emitterProtoclustersVelocity dispersionLuminosityLyman break galaxyEquivalent widthCalibrationTelescopesLine of sightStar formation...
  • We report new properties of the 11 and 12.7 {\mu}m emission complexes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by applying a Gaussian-based decomposition technique. Using high-resolution \textit{Spitzer} Space Telescope data, we study in detail the spectral and spatial characteristics of the 11 and 12.7 {\mu}m emission bands in maps of reflection nebulae NGC 7023 and NGC 2023 (North and South) and the star-forming region M17. Profile variations are observed in both the 11 and 12.7 {\mu}m emission bands. We identify a neutral contribution to the traditional 11.0 {\mu}m PAH band and a cationic contribution to the traditional 11.2 {\mu}m band, the latter of which affects the PAH class of the 11.2 {\mu}m emission in our sample. The peak variations of the 12.7 {\mu}m complex are explained by the competition between two underlying blended components. The spatial distributions of these components link them to cations and neutrals. We conclude that the 12.7 {\mu}m emission originates in both neutral and cationic PAHs, lending support to the use of the 12.7/11.2 intensity ratio as a charge proxy.
    Iris NebulaNGC 2023Messier 17IntensityExtinctionSpace telescopesIonization fractionStar-forming regionFull width at half maximumIonization...
  • In the interstellar medium of galaxies and the intracluster gas of galaxy clusters, the charged particles making up cosmic rays are moving almost exclusively along (but not across) magnetic field lines. The resulting anisotropic transport of cosmic rays in the form of diffusion or streaming not only affects the gas dynamics but also rearranges the magnetic fields themselves. The coupled dynamics of magnetic fields and cosmic rays can thus impact the formation and evolution of galaxies and the thermal evolution of galaxy clusters in critical ways. Numerically studying these effects requires solvers for anisotropic diffusion that are accurate, efficient, and robust, requirements that have proven difficult to satisfy in practice. Here, we present an anisotropic diffusion solver on an unstructured moving mesh that is conservative, does not violate the entropy condition, allows for semi-implicit time integration with individual timesteps, and only requires solving a single linear system of equations per timestep. We apply our new scheme to a large number of test problems and show that it works as well or better than previous implementations. Finally, we demonstrate for a numerically demanding simulation of the formation of an isolated disk galaxy that our local time-stepping scheme reproduces the results obtained with global time-stepping at a fraction of the computational cost.
    Cosmic rayEntropyInterstellar mediumMagnetohydrodynamicsGalactic evolutionDiffusion coefficientRegularizationDisk galaxyFluid dynamicsThermalisation...
  • Recent experiments have perfectly verified the fact that quantum correlations between two entangled particles are stronger than any classical, local pre-quantum worldview allows. This is famously called the EPR paradox first conceived as a thought experiment and decades later realized in the lab. We discuss in depth the nature of the paradox and show that the problematics it presents is first and foremost epistemological. After briefly exploring resolutions to the paradox that after many decades of discourse still remain controversial, we argue that the paradox is rooted in the failure of our current metaphysical scheme, being the foundation of our knowledge, to accommodate and cohere our knowledge of the phenomena of entanglement. We then develop and make the case for a novel and more fundamental resolution of the paradox by changing the underlying metaphysical foundation from one based on individuals to a one based on individuation. We discuss in detail how in the light of this new scheme concepts central to the paradox such as realism, causality and locality are adjusted to the effect that the paradox is resolved without giving up these concepts so fundamental to our thinking. We conclude with a brief note about the important role of metaphysics to the progress of knowledge and our understanding of reality.
    EntanglementParadoxismQuantum theoryQuantum entanglementCausalityRegularizationStatisticsMetastateTransductionQuantum mechanics...
  • Continuing the work arXiv:1603.06207, we study perturbative series in general 3d $\mathcal{N}=2$ supersymmetric Chern-Simons matter theory with $U(1)_R$ symmetry, which is given by a power series expansion of inverse Chern-Simons levels. We find that perturbative series are usually non-Borel summable along positive real axis for various observables. Alternatively we prove that the perturbative series are Borel summable along negative (positive) imaginary axis for positive (negative) Chern-Simons levels. It turns out that the Borel resummations along this direction are the same as exact results.
    Chern-Simons termPartition functionResummationWilson loopABJM theoryChiralityUniform convergenceAnalytic continuationQuantum field theoryVacuum expectation value...
  • This work is dedicated to the study of large-$N$ quantum behavior of Lifshitz nonlinear sigma models with dynamical critical exponent $z=2$ in 2+1 dimensions. We discuss renormalization and renormalization group aspects with emphasis on the possibility of emergence of Lorentz invariance at low energies. Contrarily to the perturbative expansion, where in general the Lorentz symmetry restoration is delicate and may depend on stringent fine-tuning, our results provide a more favorable scenario in the large-$N$ framework. We also consider supersymmetric extension in this nonrelativistic situation.
    SupersymmetryLorentz invariantNon-linear sigma modelRenormalization groupSuperfieldRenormalizationSuperchargeCoupling constantSuperspaceAuxiliary field...
  • We introduce the `Illustris zoom simulation project', which allows the study of selected galaxies forming in the $\Lambda$CDM cosmology with a 40 times better mass resolution than in the parent large-scale hydrodynamical Illustris simulation. We here focus on the starburst properties of the gas in four cosmological simulations of major mergers. The galaxies in our high-resolution zoom runs exhibit a bursty mode of star formation with gas consumption timescales 10 times shorter than for the normal star formation mode. The strong bursts are only present in the simulations with the highest resolution, hinting that a too low resolution is the reason why the original Illustris simulation showed a dearth of starburst galaxies. Very pronounced bursts of star formation occur in two out of four major mergers we study. The high star formation rates, the short gas consumption timescales and the morphology of these systems strongly resemble observed nuclear starbursts. This is the first time that a sample of major mergers is studied through self-consistent cosmological hydrodynamical simulations instead of using isolated galaxy models setup on a collision course, thereby greatly reducing the parameter freedom involved in this traditional modelling technique. We also study the orbits of the colliding galaxies and find that the starbursting gas preferentially appears in head-on mergers with very high collision velocities. Encounters with large impact parameters do typically not lead to the formation of starbursting gas.
    Star formationInterstellar mediumStar formation rateIllustris simulationSimulations of structure formationCosmologyStarburst galaxyGas consumption timescaleStellar massAccretion...
  • In the 80 years since the seminal Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) paper, physicists and philosophers have mused about the `spooky action at a distance' aspect of quantum mechanics that so bothered Einstein. In his formal analysis of EPR-type entangled quantum states, Bell (1964) concluded that any hidden variable theory designed to reproduce the predictions of quantum mechanics must necessarily be nonlocal and allow superluminal interactions. This doesn't immediately imply that nonlocality is a characteristic feature of quantum mechanics let alone a fundamental property of nature; however, many physicists and philosophers of science do harbor this belief. Experts in the field often use the term `nonlocality' to designate particular non-classical aspects of quantum entanglement and do not confuse the term with superluminal interactions. However, many physicists seem to take the term more literally. I endeavor to disabuse the latter of this notion by emphasizing that the correlations of Bell-type entanglement are a result of ordinary quantum superposition with no need to introduce nonlocality. The conclusion of the EPR paper wasn't that quantum mechanics is nonlocal but rather that it is an incomplete description of reality. For different reasons, many physicists, including me, agree with Einstein that quantum mechanics is necessarily an incomplete description of reality.
    Quantum mechanicsBell's theoremEntanglementQuantum entanglementHidden variable theoryQuantum superpositionFieldAction...
  • We present cosmological upper limits on the sum of active neutrino masses using large-scale power spectrum data from the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey and from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey - Data Release 7 (SDSS-DR7) sample of Luminous Red Galaxies (LRG). Combining measurements on the Cosmic Microwave Background temperature and polarisation anisotropies by the Planck satellite together with WiggleZ power spectrum results in a neutrino mass bound of 0.37 eV at 95% C.L., while replacing WiggleZ by the SDSS-DR7 LRG power spectrum, the 95% C.L. bound on the sum of neutrino masses is 0.38 eV. Adding Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) distance scale measurements, the neutrino mass upper limits greatly improve, since BAO data break degeneracies in parameter space. Within a $\Lambda$CDM model, we find an upper limit of 0.13 eV (0.14 eV) at 95% C.L., when using SDSS-DR7 LRG (WiggleZ) together with BAO and Planck. The addition of BAO data makes the neutrino mass upper limit robust, showing only a weak dependence on the power spectrum used. We also quantify the dependence of neutrino mass limit reported here on the CMB lensing information. The tighter upper limit (0.13 eV) obtained with SDSS-DR7 LRG is very close to that recently obtained using Lyman-alpha clustering data, yet uses a completely different probe and redshift range, further supporting the robustness of the constraint. This constraint puts under some pressure the inverted mass hierarchy and favours the normal hierarchy.
    Neutrino massLuminous Red GalaxyBaryon acoustic oscillationsPlanck missionCosmologyLarge scale structureLarge scale structure surveyGalaxy power spectrumMatter power spectrumInverted hierarchy...
  • We present a simplified method for the extraction of meaningful signals from Hanford and Livingstone 32 seconds data for the GW150914 event made publicly available by the LIGO collaboration and demonstrate its ability to reproduce the LIGO collaboration's own results quantitatively given the assumption that all narrow peaks in the power spectrum are a consequence of physically uninteresting signals and can be removed. After the clipping of these peaks and return to the time domain, the GW150914 event is readily distinguished from broadband background noise. This simple technique allows us to identify the GW150914 event without any assumption regarding its physical origin and with minimal assumptions regarding its shape. We also confirm that the LIGO GW150914 event is uniquely correlated in the Hanford and Livingston detectors for 4096 second data at the level of $6-7\,\sigma$ with a temporal displacement of $\tau=6.9 \pm 0.4\,$ms. We have also identified a few events that are morphologically close to GW150914 but less strongly cross correlated with it.
    Cross-correlationLIGO GW150914 eventLaser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave ObservatoryGravitational waveObservatoriesOptimizationStatisticsFast Fourier transformBinary numberThermalisation...
  • We develop an extension of the Landau Fermi liquid theory to systems of interacting fermions with non-trivial Berry curvature. We propose a kinetic equation and a constitutive relation for the electromagnetic current that together encode the linear response of such systems to external electromagnetic perturbations, to leading and next-to-leading orders in the expansion over the frequency and wave number of the perturbations. We analyze the Feynman diagrams in a large class of interacting quantum field theories and show that, after summing up all orders in perturbation theory, the current-current correlator exactly matches with the result obtained from the kinetic theory.
    Fermi surfaceBerry phaseElectron microscopyFermi liquid theoryQuantum field theoryHall conductanceBerry Fermi liquidBoltzmann transport equationFermi liquidKinetic theory...
  • Dark matter may interact with the Standard Model through the kinetic mixing of dark photons, $A'$, with Standard Model photons. Such dark matter will accumulate in the Sun and annihilate into dark photons. The dark photons may then leave the Sun and decay into pairs of charged Standard Model particles that can be detected by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer. The directionality of this "dark sunshine" is distinct from all astrophysical backgrounds, providing an opportunity for unambiguous dark matter discovery by AMS. We perform a complete analysis of this scenario including Sommerfeld enhancements of dark matter annihilation and the effect of the Sun's magnetic field on the signal, and we define a set of cuts to optimize the signal probability. With the three years of data already collected, AMS may discover dark matter with mass 1 TeV $\lesssim m_X \lesssim$ 10 TeV, dark photon masses $m_{A'} \sim \mathcal O(100)$ MeV, and kinetic mixing parameters $10^{-11} \lesssim \varepsilon \lesssim 10^{-8}$. The proposed search extends beyond existing beam dump and supernova bounds, and it is complementary to direct detection, probing the same region of parameter space for elastic dark matter, but potentially far more in the case of inelastic dark matter.
    Hidden photonDark matterSunPositronAlpha Magnetic SpectrometerEarthStandard ModelSolar Magnetic FieldOptimizationThermalisation...
  • We systematically analyze the broadband (0.5--200 keV) X-ray spectra of hard X-ray ($>10$ keV) selected local low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs) observed with {\it Suzaku} and {\it Swift}/BAT. The sample consists of ten LLAGNs detected with {\it Swift}/BAT with intrinsic 14--195 keV luminosities smaller than $10^{42}$ erg s$^{-1}$ available in the {\it Suzaku} archive, covering a wide range of the Eddington ratio from $10^{-5}$ to $10^{-2}$. The overall spectra can be reproduced with an absorbed cut-off power law, often accompanied by reflection components from distant cold matter, and/or optically-thin thermal emission from the host galaxy. In all objects, relativistic reflection components from the innermost disk are not required. Eight objects show a significant narrow iron-K$\alpha$ emission line. Comparing their observed equivalent widths with the predictions from the Monte-Carlo based torus model by \cite{Ike09}, we constrain the column density in the equatorial plane to be $\log N^{\rm eq}_{\rm H} > 22.7$ or the torus half opening angle $\theta_{\rm oa} < 70^\circ$. We infer that the Eddington ratio ($\lambda_{\rm Edd}$) is a key parameter that determines the torus structure of LLAGNs: the torus becomes large at $\lambda_{\rm Edd} \gtrsim 2\times10^{-4}$, whereas at lower accretion rates it is little developed. The luminosity correlation between the hard X-ray and mid-infrared (MIR) bands of the LLAGNs follows the same one as for more luminous AGNs. This implies that other mechanisms than AGN-heated dust are responsible for the MIR emission in low Eddington ratio LLAGNs.
    Active Galactic NucleiTorusLuminosityEquivalent widthHard X-rayAbsorbanceSupermassive black holeSuzakuThermalisationHost galaxy...
  • We present Herschel observations of 22 radio galaxies, selected for the presence of shocked, warm molecular hydrogen emission. We measured and modeled spectral energy distributions (SEDs) in 33 bands from the ultraviolet to the far-infrared to investigate the impact of jet feedback on star formation activity. These galaxies are massive, early-type galaxies with normal gas-to-dust ratios, covering a range of optical and IR colors. We find that the star formation rate (SFR) is suppressed by a factor of ~3-6, depending on how molecular gas mass is estimated. We suggest this suppression is due to the shocks driven by the radio jets injecting turbulence into the interstellar medium (ISM), which also powers the luminous warm H2 line emission. Approximately 25% of the sample shows suppression by more than a factor of 10. However, the degree of SFR suppression does not correlate with indicators of jet feedback including jet power, diffuse X-ray emission, or intensity of warm molecular H2 emission, suggesting that while injected turbulence likely impacts star formation, the process is not purely parametrized by the amount of mechanical energy dissipated into the ISM. Radio galaxies with shocked warm molecular gas cover a wide range in SFR-stellar mass space, indicating that these galaxies are in a variety of evolutionary states, from actively star-forming and gas-rich to quiescent and gas-poor. SFR suppression appears to have the biggest impact on the evolution of galaxies that are moderately gas-rich.
    Active Galactic NucleiSpectral energy distributionStar formation rateStar formationPhotometryMilky WayInterstellar mediumLuminosityRadio galaxySloan Digital Sky Survey...
  • In this work, we present a study of 207 quasars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasar catalogs and the Herschel Stripe 82 survey. Quasars within this sample are high luminosity quasars with a mean bolometric luminosity of $10^{46.4}$ erg s$^{-1}$. The redshift range of this sample is within $z<4$, with a mean value of $1.5\pm0.78$. Because we only selected quasars that have been detected in all three Herschel-SPIRE bands, the quasar sample is complete yet highly biased. Based on the multi-wavelength photometric observation data, we conducted a spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting through UV to FIR. Parameters such as active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosity, FIR luminosity, stellar mass, as well as many other AGN and galaxy properties are deduced from the SED fitting results. The mean star formation rate (SFR) of the sample is 419 $M_{\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$ and the mean gas mass is $\sim 10^{11.3}$ $M_{\odot}$. All these results point to an IR luminous quasar system. Comparing with star formation main sequence (MS) galaxies, at least 80 out of 207 quasars are hosted by starburst galaxies. It supports the statement that luminous AGNs are more likely to be associated with major mergers. The SFR increases with the redshift up to $z=2$. It is correlated with the AGN bolometric luminosity, where $L_{\rm FIR} \propto L_{\rm Bol}^{0.46\pm0.03}$. The AGN bolometric luminosity is also correlated with the host galaxy mass and gas mass. Yet the correlation between $L_{\rm FIR}$ and $L_{\rm Bol}$ has higher significant level, implies that the link between AGN accretion and the SFR is more primal. The $M_{\rm BH}/M_{\ast}$ ratio of our sample is 0.02, higher than the value 0.005 in the local Universe. It might indicate an evolutionary trend of the $M_{\rm BH} - M_{\ast}$ scaling relation.
    Active Galactic NucleiQuasarLuminosityStar formation rateHost galaxyStar formationSpectral energy distributionSloan Digital Sky SurveyStripe phasesBolometric luminosity...
  • Radio-mode AGN feedback plays a key role in the evolution of galaxy groups and clusters. Its physical origin lies in the kpc-scale interaction of AGN jets with the intracluster medium. Large-scale jet simulations often initiate light internally-supersonic jets with density contrast $0.01<\eta<1$. Here we argue for the first time for the importance of very-light ($\eta<0.01$) internally-subsonic jets. We investigated the shapes of young X-ray cavities produced in a suite of hydrodynamic simulations, and found that bottom-wide cavities are always produced by internally-subsonic jets, while internally-supersonic jets inflate cylindrical, center-wide, or top-wide cavities. We found examples of real cavities with shapes analogous to those inflated in our simulations by internally-subsonic and internally-supersonic jets, suggesting a dichotomy of AGN jets according to their internal Mach numbers. We further studied the long-term cavity evolution, and found that old cavities resulted from light jets spread along the jet direction, while those produced by very light jets are significantly elongated along the perpendicular direction. The northwestern ghost cavity in Perseus is pancake-shaped, providing tentative evidence for the existence of very light jets. Our simulations show that very-light internally-subsonic jets decelerate faster and rise much slower in the ICM than light internally-supersonic jets, possibly depositing a larger fraction of jet energy to cluster cores and alleviating the problem of low coupling efficiencies found previously. The internal Mach number points to the jet's energy content, and internally-subsonic jets are energetically dominated by non-kinetic energy, such as thermal energy, cosmic rays, or magnetic fields.
    AGN jetsX-ray cavitiesIntra-cluster mediumRadio-mode AGN feedbackCluster of galaxiesMach numberViscosityCygnus ACluster coreHydrodynamical simulations...
  • Cosmic surveys provide crucial information about high energy physics including strong evidence for dark energy, dark matter, and inflation. Ongoing and upcoming surveys will start to identify the underlying physics of these new phenomena, including tight constraints on the equation of state of dark energy, the viability of modified gravity, the existence of extra light species, the masses of the neutrinos, and the potential of the field that drove inflation. Even after the Stage IV experiments, DESI and LSST, complete their surveys, there will still be much information left in the sky. This additional information will enable us to understand the physics underlying the dark universe at an even deeper level and, in case Stage IV surveys find hints for physics beyond the current Standard Model of Cosmology, to revolutionize our current view of the universe. There are many ideas for how best to supplement and aid DESI and LSST in order to access some of this remaining information and how surveys beyond Stage IV can fully exploit this regime. These ideas flow to potential projects that could start construction in the 2020's.
    Large Synoptic Survey TelescopeDark Energy Spectroscopic InstrumentDark energyCosmologyWeak lensingSupernovaWide Field Infrared Survey TelescopeSterile neutrinoDark matterModified gravity...
  • Several powerful techniques for evaluating massless scalar Feynman diagrams are developed, viz: the solution of recurrence relations to evaluate diagrams with arbitrary numbers of loops in $n=4-2\omega$ dimensions; the discovery and use of symmetry properties to restrict and compute Taylor series in $\omega$; the reduction of triple sums over Chebyshev polynomials to products of Riemann zeta functions; the exploitation of conformal invariance to avoid four-dimensional Racah coefficients. As an example of the power of these techniques we evaluate all of the 216 diagrams, with 5 loops or less, which give finite contributions of order $1/k^2$ or $1/k^4$ to a propagator of momentum $k$ in massless four-dimensional scalar field theories. Remarkably, only 5 basic numbers are encountered: $\zeta(3)$, $\zeta(5)$, $\zeta(7)$, $\zeta(9)$ and the value of the most symmetrical diagram, which is calculated to 14 significant figures. It is conceivable that these are the only irrationals appearing in 6-loop beta functions. En route to these results we uncover and only partially explain many remarkable relations between diagrams.
    Feynman diagramsRiemann zeta functionConformal invarianceChebyshev polynomialsScalar field theoryGegenbauer polynomialsGamma functionDimensional regularizationLoop momentumCosmological mirror symmetry...
  • We study the $SU(2)$ Principal Chiral Model (PCM) in the presence of an integrable $\eta$-deformation. We put the theory on $\mathbb{R}\times S^1$ with twisted boundary conditions and then reduce the circle to obtain an effective quantum mechanics associated with the Whittaker-Hill equation. Using resurgent analysis we study the large order behaviour of perturbation theory and recover the fracton events responsible for IR renormalons. The fractons are modified from the standard PCM due to the presence of this $\eta$-deformation but they are still the constituents of uniton-like solutions in the deformed quantum field theory. We also find novel $SL(2,\mathbb{C})$ saddles, thus strengthening the conjecture that the semi-classical expansion of the path integral gives rise to a resurgent transseries once written as a sum over Lefschetz thimbles living in a complexification of the field space. We conclude by connecting our quantum mechanics to a massive deformation of the $\mathcal{N}=2~$ $4$-d gauge theory with gauge group $SU(2)$ and $N_f=2$.
    Quantum mechanicsInstantonChiral modelQuantum field theoryPath integralFractonPerturbation theoryGauge theoryPerturbative expansionCritical point...
  • Turbulent radiation flow is ubiquitous in many physical systems where light-matter interaction becomes relevant. Photon bubbling, in particular, has been identified as the main source of turbulent radiation transport in many astrophysical objects, such as stars and accretion disks. This mechanism takes place when radiation trapping in optically dense media becomes unstable, leading to the energy dissipation from the larger to the smaller bubbles. Here, we report on the observation of photon bubble turbulence in cold atomic gases in the presence of multiple scattering of light. The instability is theoretically explained by a fluid description for the atom density coupled to a diffusive transport equation for the photons, which is known to be accurate in the multiple scattering regime investigated here. We determine the power spectrum of the atom density fluctuations, which displays an unusual $\sim k^{-4}$ scaling, and entails a complex underlying turbulent dynamics resulting from the formation of dynamical bubble-like structures. We derive a power spectrum from the theoretical photon bubble model which, to a high level of accuracy, explains the observations. The experimental results reported here, along with the theoretical model we developed may shed light on the analogue photon bubble instabilities in astrophysical scenarios.
    Photon bubbleTurbulenceInstabilityAtomic gasesLasersOptically thick mediumDissipationAbsorptivityPlasma frequencyCooling...
  • We present data products from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS). CFHTLenS is based on the Wide component of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS). It encompasses 154 deg^2 of deep, optical, high-quality, sub-arcsecond imaging data in the five optical filters u^*g'r'i'z'. The article presents our data processing of the complete CFHTLenS data set. We were able to obtain a data set with very good image quality and high-quality astrometric and photometric calibration. Our external astrometric accuracy is between 60-70 mas with respect to SDSS data and the internal alignment in all filters is around 30 mas. Our average photometric calibration shows a dispersion on the order of 0.01 to 0.03 mag for g'r'i'z' and about 0.04 mag for u^* with respect to SDSS sources down to i <= 21. In the spirit of the CFHTLS all our data products are released to the astronomical community via the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre. We give a description and how-to manuals of the public products which include image pixel data, source catalogues with photometric redshift estimates and all relevant quantities to perform weak lensing studies.
    CFHTLenS surveyCanada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy SurveyCalibrationSloan Digital Sky SurveyPhotometric redshiftWeak lensingCatalogsOpticsDispersion...
  • We report on the young massive clump (G35.20w) in W48 that previous molecular line and dust observations have revealed to be in the very early stages of star formation. Based on virial analysis, we find that a strong field of ~1640 microG is required to keep the clump in pressure equilibrium. We performed a deep Zeeman effect measurement of the 113 GHz CN (1-0) line towards this clump with the IRAM 30 m telescope. We combine simultaneous fitting of all CN hyperfines with Monte Carlo simulations for a large range in realization of the magnetic field to obtain a constraint on the line-of-sight field strength of -687 +/- 420 microG. We also analyze archival dust polarization observations towards G35.20w. A strong magnetic field is implied by the remarkably ordered field orientation that is perpendicular to the longest axis of the clump. Based on this, we also estimate the plane-of-sky component of the magnetic field to be ~740 microG. This allows for a unique comparison of the two orthogonal measurements of magnetic field strength of the same region and at similar spatial scales. The expected total field strength shows no significant conflict between the observed field and that required for pressure equilibrium. By producing a probability distribution for a large range in field geometries, we show that plane-of-sky projections are much closer to the true field strengths than line-of-sight projections. This can present a significant challenge for Zeeman measurements of magnetized structures, even with ALMA. We also show that CN molecule does not suffer from depletion on the observed scales in the predominantly cold and highly deuterated core in an early stage of high-mass star formation and is thus a good tracer of the dense gas.
    Line of sightHigh massTurbulenceStar formationIntensityMagnetic field strengthHigh mass starVelocity dispersionIRAM 30-mZeeman effect...
  • Hydrodynamical shocks are a manifestation of the non-linearity of the Euler equations and play a fundamental role in cosmological gas dynamics. In this work, we identify and analyse shocks in the Illustris simulation, and contrast the results with those of non-radiative runs. We show that simulations with more comprehensive physical models of galaxy formation pose new challenges for shock finding algorithms due to radiative cooling and star forming processes, prompting us to develop a number of methodology improvements that robustly suppress spurious shock detections. We find in Illustris a total shock surface area which is about 1.4 times larger at the present epoch compared to non-radiative runs, and an energy dissipation rate at shocks which is higher by a factor of around 7. Remarkably, shocks with Mach numbers above and below $\mathcal{M} \approx 10$ contribute about equally to the total dissipation across cosmic time. This is in strong contrast to non-radiative simulations, and we demonstrate that a large part of the difference arises due to black hole radio-mode feedback. We argue that the lack of observational signatures expected for such strong shocks could be used to constrain the modelling and parameter space of feedback implementations. We also provide an overview of the large diversity of shock morphologies across cosmic time, which includes complex networks of halo-internal shocks, shocks on to cosmic sheets, feedback shocks due to black holes and galactic winds, as well as ubiquitous accretion shocks on to non-linear structures. In high redshift systems more massive than $10^{12}\,\mathrm{M}_\odot$ we discover the existence of a double accretion shock pattern in haloes. They are created when gas streams along filaments without being shocked at the outer accretion shock, but then forms a second, roughly spherical accretion shock further inside.
    DissipationMach numberAccretionBlack holeIllustris simulationThermalisationFluid dynamicsWarm hot intergalactic mediumGalaxy filamentCooling...
  • We report the discovery of a remarkable concentration of massive galaxies with extended X-ray emission at $z_{spec} = 2.506$ in the COSMOS field. This structure contains in its center 11 massive ($M_{*} \gtrsim 10^{11} M_{\odot}$) galaxies distributed over 80-kpc, producing an 11.6$\sigma$ overdensity. We have spectroscopically confirmed 16 member galaxies extending to $\sim1$ Mpc from the core with half of them derived from CO with IRAM-NOEMA and JVLA and the other half from $H\alpha$ with VLT-KMOS. The X-ray luminosity, high stellar mass content and velocity dispersion all point to a collapsed, single cluster-sized dark matter halo with total mass $M_{200c} \sim 10^{13.9\pm0.2} M_{\odot}$, identifying it as the most distant X-ray detected cluster known to date. Unlike other clusters discovered so far, this structure is dominated by star-forming galaxies in the core with only two out of the 11 massive galaxies classified as quiescent. The star formation rate in the 80-kpc core reaches $\sim$3400 $M_{\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$ with a gas depletion time of $\sim 200$ Myr, suggesting that we caught this structure in rapid formation. The high star formation rate is driven by both a high abundance of massive star-forming galaxies and a higher starburst fraction ($\sim25\%$, compared to 3\%-5\% in the field). The presence of both a collapsed, cluster-sized halo and a predominant population of star-forming galaxies in the core suggests that this structure could represent an important transition phase between protoclusters and mature clusters. It provides evidence that the main phase of massive galaxy passivization will take place after galaxies accrete onto the cluster, providing new insights on massive cluster formation at early epochs. The large integrated stellar mass at such high redshift challenges our understanding of massive cluster formation.
    Massive galaxiesStellar massStar-forming galaxyStar formation rateStar formationCluster of galaxiesProtoclustersMassive clusterVelocity dispersionX-ray spectrum...
  • Cosmic reionization is thought to be primarily fueled by the first generations of galaxies. We examine their stellar and gaseous properties, focusing on the star formation rates and the escape of ionizing photons, as a function of halo mass, redshift, and environment using the full suite of the {\it Renaissance Simulations} with an eye to provide better inputs to global reionization simulations. This suite, carried out with the adaptive mesh refinement code Enzo, is unprecedented in terms of their size and physical ingredients. The simulations probe overdense, average, and underdense regions of the universe of several hundred comoving Mpc$^3$, each yielding a sample of over 3,000 halos in the mass range $10^7 - 10^{9.5}~\Ms$ at their final redshifts of 15, 12.5, and 8, respectively. In the process, we simulate the effects of radiative and supernova feedback from 5,000 to 10,000 metal-free (Population III) stars in each simulation. We find that halos as small as $10^7~\Ms$ are able to form stars due to metal-line cooling from earlier enrichment by massive Population III stars. However, we find such halos do not form stars continuously. Using our large sample, we find that the galaxy-halo occupation fraction drops from unity at virial masses above $10^{8.5}~\Ms$ to $\sim$50\% at $10^8 ~\Ms$ and $\sim$10\% at $10^7~\Ms$, quite independent of redshift and region. Their average ionizing escape fraction is $\sim$5\% in the mass range $10^8 - 10^9~\Ms$ and increases with decreasing halo mass below this range, reaching 40--60\% at $10^7~\Ms$. Interestingly, we find that the escape fraction varies between 10--20\% in halos with virial masses $\sim 3 \times 10^9~\Ms$. Taken together, our results confirm the importance of the smallest galaxies as sources of ionizing radiation contributing to the reionization of the universe.
    ReionizationVirial massStar formationIonizing radiationVoidPopulation IIIIonizationMetal enrichmentStar formation rateLyman-werner...
  • We study a quantum mechanical model proposed by Sachdev, Ye and Kitaev. The model consists of $N$ Majorana fermions with random interactions of a few fermions at a time. It it tractable in the large $N$ limit, where the classical variable is a bilocal fermion bilinear. The model becomes strongly interacting at low energies where it develops an emergent conformal symmetry. We study two and four point functions of the fundamental fermions. This provides the spectrum of physical excitations for the bilocal field. The emergent conformal symmetry is a reparametrization symmetry, which is spontaneously broken to $SL(2,R)$, leading to zero modes. These zero modes are lifted by a small residual explicit breaking, which produces an enhanced contribution to the four point function. This contribution displays a maximal Lyapunov exponent in the chaos region (out of time ordered correlator). We expect these features to be universal properties of large $N$ quantum mechanics systems with emergent reparametrization symmetry. This article is largely based on talks given by Kitaev \cite{KitaevTalks}, which motivated us to work out the details of the ideas described there.
    EigenfunctionChaosConformal symmetryEntropyHamiltonianSchwinger-Dyson equationInfrared limitQuantum mechanicsSaddle pointZero mode...
  • In General Relativity, the constraint equation relating metric and density perturbations is inherently nonlinear, leading to an effective non-Gaussianity in the dark matter density field on large scales - even if the primordial metric perturbation is Gaussian. Intrinsic non-Gaussianity in the large-scale dark matter overdensity in GR is real and physical. However, the variance smoothed on a local physical scale is not correlated with the large-scale curvature perturbation, so that there is no relativistic signature in the galaxy bias when using the simplest model of bias. It is an open question whether the observable mass proxies such as luminosity or weak lensing correspond directly to the physical mass in the simple halo bias model. If not, there may be observables that encode this relativistic signature.
    General relativityNon-GaussianityMetric perturbationPrimordial density perturbationCurvature perturbationLarge scale structureRandom FieldDark matterPrimordial Non-GaussianitiesHorizon...