- Full-duplex (Full-duplex)

by Muhammad R. A. Khandaker08 Mar 2016 12:48 - Plasma physics (Plasma physics)

by Jim Crumley22 Sep 2015 16:59 - MHD equations (MHD equations)

by Jim Crumley22 Sep 2015 16:57 - Electricity and magnetism (Electricity and magnetism)

by Jim Crumley22 Sep 2015 16:54 - Geosynchronous satellites (Geosynchronous satellites)

by Jim Crumley22 Sep 2015 16:51 - Minimal Dark Matter (Minimal Dark Matter)

by Dr. Marco Cirelli05 Dec 2010 22:13 - Leptogenesis (Leptogenesis)

by Dr. Sacha Davidson08 Dec 2010 13:32 - Fingers of God (Fingers of God)

by Dr. Ganna Ivashchenko18 May 2011 22:42 - Grey-body radiation (Grey-body radiation)

by Prof. Carlo Beenakker08 Jan 2011 20:36 - Wigner transform (Wigner transform)

by Dr. Claude Becker06 Apr 2011 14:04

- There is a very reason to consider that to solve Zeno's paradoxes is to propose the theory of mechanical world view. We believe that this is not only our opinion but also most philosophers' opinion. Recently, in order to justify Heisenberg`s uncertainty principle (cf. Rep. Math. Phys Vol. 29, No. 3, 1991) more firmly. we proposed the linguistic interpretation of quantum mechanics (called quantum and classical measurement theory), which was characterized as the metaphysical and linguistic turn of the Copenhagen interpretation. This turn from physics to language does not only extend quantum mechanicsto classical systems but also yield the (quantum and classical) mechanical world view (and therefore, establish the method of science). If it be so, we may assert that Zeno's paradoxes (Flying Arrow Paradox, Achilles and the tortoise, etc.) were already solved in measurement theory. The purpose of this paper is to examine this assertion.Quantum mechanicsCopenhagen interpretationInterpretations of quantum mechanicsUncertainty principleCausalityKolmogorov extension theoremOperator algebraTrace classComplete metric spaceCompleteness...
- We present a variety of new architectural features and training procedures that we apply to the generative adversarial networks (GANs) framework. We focus on two applications of GANs: semi-supervised learning, and the generation of images that humans find visually realistic. Unlike most work on generative models, our primary goal is not to train a model that assigns high likelihood to test data, nor do we require the model to be able to learn well without using any labels. Using our new techniques, we achieve state-of-the-art results in semi-supervised classification on MNIST, CIFAR-10 and SVHN. The generated images are of high quality as confirmed by a visual Turing test: our model generates MNIST samples that humans cannot distinguish from real data, and CIFAR-10 samples that yield a human error rate of 21.3%. We also present ImageNet samples with unprecedented resolution and show that our methods enable the model to learn recognizable features of ImageNet classes.ArchitectureClassificationSemi-supervised learningGenerative modelResolutionLikelihoodNetworks...
- In recent years, supervised learning with convolutional networks (CNNs) has seen huge adoption in computer vision applications. Comparatively, unsupervised learning with CNNs has received less attention. In this work we hope to help bridge the gap between the success of CNNs for supervised learning and unsupervised learning. We introduce a class of CNNs called deep convolutional generative adversarial networks (DCGANs), that have certain architectural constraints, and demonstrate that they are a strong candidate for unsupervised learning. Training on various image datasets, we show convincing evidence that our deep convolutional adversarial pair learns a hierarchy of representations from object parts to scenes in both the generator and discriminator. Additionally, we use the learned features for novel tasks - demonstrating their applicability as general image representations.ArchitectureUnsupervised learningSupervised learningClassificationImage ProcessingArithmeticInstabilityK-means++Generative modelHyperparameter...
- We propose a new framework for estimating generative models via an adversarial process, in which we simultaneously train two models: a generative model G that captures the data distribution, and a discriminative model D that estimates the probability that a sample came from the training data rather than G. The training procedure for G is to maximize the probability of D making a mistake. This framework corresponds to a minimax two-player game. In the space of arbitrary functions G and D, a unique solution exists, with G recovering the training data distribution and D equal to 1/2 everywhere. In the case where G and D are defined by multilayer perceptrons, the entire system can be trained with backpropagation. There is no need for any Markov chains or unrolled approximate inference networks during either training or generation of samples. Experiments demonstrate the potential of the framework through qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the generated samples.Generative modelMarkov chainMultilayer perceptronBackpropagationDiscriminative modelMinimaxAutoencoderBoltzmann machineLatent variableMonte Carlo Markov chain...
- Holographic models provide unique laboratories to investigate non-linear physics of transport in inhomogeneous systems. We provide a detailed account of both DC and AC conductivities in a defect CFT with spontaneous stripe order. The spatial symmetry is broken at large chemical potential and the resulting ground state is a combination of a spin and charge density wave. An infinitesimal applied electric field across the stripes will cause the stripes to slide over the underlying density of smeared impurities, a phenomenon which can be associated with the Goldstone mode for the spontaneously broken translation symmetry. We show that the presence of a spatially modulated background magnetization current thwarts the expression of some DC conductivities in terms of horizon data.Stripe phasesInfinitesimalMagnetizationHorizonConformal field theoryGoldstone bosonCharge density waveAnti de Sitter spaceSymmetrySpin...
- We present UV luminosity functions of star-forming galaxies at $z\sim6-10$ derived with the full-data set of the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) program consisting of 6 lensing-cluster and parallel-field data. We obtain a catalog of $\sim400$ dropout galaxy candidates at $z\sim6-10$ whose UV absolute magnitudes reach $\sim-14$ mag. We carefully evaluate number densities of the dropout galaxies by Monte-Carlo simulations, including all lensing effects such as magnification, distortion, and multiplication of images as well as detection completeness and contamination effects. We find that UV luminosity functions at $z\sim6-8$ have steep faint end slopes, $\alpha\sim-2$, and the evolution of UV luminosity densities show a smooth decline toward high redshift. We examine whether our HFF results consistently explain cosmic reionization with the Thomson scattering optical depth $\tau_{\rm e}$ measurement from the Planck satellite and the ionized hydrogen fraction $Q_{\rm HII}$ estimates at $z\lesssim7$ from the literature. We conduct $\chi^2$ minimization fitting of the model to the observational measurements, introducing three free parameters; the escape fraction $f_{\rm esc}$, the conversion factor of the UV luminosity to the ionizing photon emission rate $\xi_{\rm ion}$, and the faint limit of the galaxy UV luminosity function $M_{\rm trunc}$. We find that there exist reionizaiton scenarios that consistently explain all of the observational measurements with the allowed parameters of $f_{\rm esc} = 0.15^{+0.06}_{-0.02}$ and $M_{\rm trunc} > -12.5$ for $\log \xi_{\rm ion}/[{\rm erg}^{-1}{\rm Hz}] = 25.34$. Our results indicate that the length of the reionization period is $\Delta z = 4.1\pm1.7$ (for $0.1 < Q_{\rm HII} < 0.99$), which is consistent with the Planck's kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect estimate.Hubble Frontier FieldsUV luminosity functionReionizationLuminosityIonizing radiationLuminosity functionMilky WayStar-forming galaxyHigh-redshift galaxyPlanck mission...
- We show that for a heavy vector-like quark model with a down type isosinglet, branching ratio for $c\rightarrow u{\gamma}$ decay is enhanced by more than $\mathcal{O}(10^2)$ as compared to that in the Standard model when QCD corrections to next-to-leading order are incorporated. In a left-right symmetric model (LRSM) along with a heavy vector-like fermion, enhancement of this order can be achieved at the bare (QCD uncorrected) level itself. We propose that a measurement of the photon polarization could be used to signal the presence of such new physics inspite of the large long distance effects. We find that there is a large region within the allowed parameter space of the LRSM, as well as in the model with vector-like quark with additional left-right symmetry, where the photon polarization can be dominantly right-handed.Standard ModelNext-to-leading order computationCharm quarkRadiative decayFlavourQCD correctionsBranching ratioWilson coefficientsQuantum chromodynamicsDecay rate...
- We explicitly describe an expansion of ${\rm e}^{A+B}$ as an infinite sum of the products of $B$ multiplied by the exponential function of $A$. This is the full expansion of the Zassenhaus formula. We also express the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula in a different manner.Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formulaExponential function
- We study quantum mechanical systems with a discrete spectrum. We show that the asymptotic series associated to certain paths of steepest-descent (Lefschetz thimbles) are Borel resummable to the full result. Using a geometrical approach based on the Picard-Lefschetz theory we characterize the conditions under which perturbative expansions lead to exact results. Even when such conditions are not met, we explain how to define a different perturbative expansion that reproduces the full answer without the need of transseries, i.e. non-perturbative effects, such as real (or complex) instantons. Applications to several quantum mechanical systems are presented.Saddle pointPath integralPerturbative expansionPerturbation theoryInstantonQuantum mechanicsStandard perturbation theoryResummationQuantum field theoryCritical point...
- We study quantum many-body states of immanons, hypothetical particles that obey an exchange symmetry defined for more than two participating particles. Immanons thereby generalize bosons and fermions, which are defined by their behavior under pairwise symmetric and anti-symmetric exchange processes. The scalar product of two many-body states with fermionic, bosonic or generalized exchange symmetry becomes the determinant, permanent or immanant of the matrix containing all mutual scalar products of the occupied single-particle states. As a measurable consequence, immanons are shown to obey a partial Pauli principle that forbids the multiple occupation of single-particle states above a certain threshold. The tendency to favor or oppose multiple occupation of single-particle modes, i.e. the degree of bunching, is the determinant, permanent or immanant of a hermitian positive semi-definite matrix. We exploit this identity to devise a Gedankenexperiment that corroborates the permanental dominance conjecture.PermutationWavefunctionPositive semi definiteDegree of freedomInterferenceIndistinguishable particlesHamiltonianFock stateExpectation ValueSchur orthogonality relations...
- The curvature and twisting of spacetime rotate the angle of polarization and imprint orbital angular momentum to photons emitted by the accretion disk near rotating black holes. Considering polarization and orbital angular momentum as two degrees of freedom of single-photons that can encode quantum information, we emphasize that the particular shape of spacetime around rotating black holes implements quantum gates and simple quantum circuits. Consequently, we demonstrate the implementation of some elementary quantum gates, like Hadamard or C-NOT, and simple quantum circuits, like Bell states, with photons in the presence of spinning black holes. Detection and measurement of quantum information encoded in photons emitted in the accretion disk around rotating black holes may be performed by actual quantum information technology.Orbital angular momentum of lightAccretion diskDegree of freedomKerr black holeBlack holeBell stateSpinning Black HoleQuantum gatesGravitational fieldsDensity matrix...
- Verlinde (2016) has recently proposed that spacetime and gravity may emerge from an underlying microscopic theory. In a de Sitter spacetime, such emergent gravity (EG) contains an additional gravitational force due to dark energy, which may explain the mass discrepancies observed in galactic systems without the need of dark matter. For a point mass, EG is equivalent to Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND). We show that this equivalence does not hold for finite-size galaxies: there are significant differences between EG and MOND in the inner regions of galaxies. We confront theoretical predictions with the empirical Radial Acceleration Relation (RAR). We find that (i) EG is consistent with the observed RAR only if we substantially decrease the fiducial stellar mass-to-light ratios; the resulting values are in tension with other astronomical estimates; (ii) EG predicts that the residuals around the RAR should correlate with radius; such residual correlation is not observed.Disk galaxyVerlinde theoryBaryonic Tully-Fisher relationMass discrepancyIntrinsic scatterRotation CurveGravitational forceDark matterDe Sitter spaceModified Newtonian Dynamics...
- It was recently proposed that the effects usually attributed to particle dark matter on galaxy scales are due to the displacement of dark energy by baryonic matter, a paradigm known as emergent gravity. This formalism leads to predictions similar to Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) in spherical symmetry, but not quite identical. In particular, it leads to a well defined transition between the Newtonian and the modified gravitational regimes, a transition depending on both the Newtonian acceleration and its first derivative with respect to radius. Under the hypothesis of the applicability of this transition to aspherical systems, we investigate whether it can reproduce observed galaxy rotation curves. We conclude that the formula leads to marginally acceptable fits with strikingly low best-fit distances, low stellar mass-to-light ratios, and a low Hubble constant. In particular, some unobserved wiggles are produced in rotation curves because of the dependence of the transition on the derivative of the Newtonian acceleration, leading, even in the most favorable case, to systematically less good fits than MOND. Then, applying the predicted transition from emergent gravity in a regime where it should be fully applicable, i.e. in spherical symmetry and outside of the bulk of matter, we show that the predictions for the secular advances of Solar System planets' perihelia are discrepant with the data by seven orders of magnitude, ruling out the present emergent gravity formalism with high confidence.Emergent gravityRotation CurveModified Newtonian DynamicsSolar systemHubble constantMass to light ratioGravitational fieldsChi-squared statisticPlanetDark energy...
- We present all the leading twist T-even TMDs in the light-front quark diquark model(LFQDM) and study the relations among them. The model contains both the scalar and vector diquarks with the light front wave functions modeled from the soft-wall AdS/QCD prediction. The $x-p^2_\perp$ factorization used in phenomenological extraction for TMDs is observed in this model. We present the results for the quark densities and the transverse shape of proton. The shape of the transversely polarized proton is shown to be non-spherical for nonzero transverse momentum. The scale evolution of both integrated and unintegrated TMDs are also presented in this paper.DiquarkLight frontHelicityTransverse momentumAdS/QCD correspondenceGeneralized parton distributionsLight conesBag Model of Quark ConfinementPartonDGLAP equations...
- This paper is designed to discuss four-body lepton number violating tau decay. We study the processes $\tau^+ \to e^+ e^+ \pi^- \nu_\tau$ and $\tau^+ \to e^+ e^+ \pi^- \nu_e$ to determine the nature of neutrino. The first process violates lepton number by two units which can only happen through an internal Majorana. The second one conserves lepton number but violates lepton flavor which can take place with both Majorana neutrino and Dirac neutrino. We calculate their branching ratio $Br$ and differential branching ratio $dBr/dE_\pi$ to distinguish Majorana neutrino vs. Dirac neutrino. We also propose the possibility of experiment to perform this detection.NeutrinoDirac neutrinoBranching ratioMajorana neutrinoLepton numberSterile neutrinoNeutrino massStandard ModelDecay widthHeavy sterile neutrino...
- In a recent publication [6], the Belle collaboration updated their analysis of the inclusive weak radiative B-meson decay, including the full dataset of (772 +_ 11) x 10^6 BBbar pairs. Their result for the branching ratio is now below the Standard Model prediction [7,8], though it remains consistent with it. However, bounds on the charged Higgs boson mass in the Two-Higgs-Doublet Model get affected in a significant manner. In the so-called Model-II, the 95% C.L. lower bound on $M_{H^\pm}$ is now in the 570-800 GeV range, depending quite sensitively on the method applied for its determination. Our present note is devoted to presenting and discussing the updated bounds, as well as to clarifying several ambiguities that one might encounter in evaluating them. One of such ambiguities stems from the photon energy cutoff choice, which deserves re-consideration in view of the improved experimental accuracy.Standard ModelTwo Higgs Doublet ModelHeavy Quark Effective TheoryMeson decaysWilson coefficientsRadiative decayBranching ratioB mesonHiggs bosonInterference...
- The electric dipole moment of the electron is studied in detail in an extended mirror fermion model with the following unique features of (a) the right-handed neutrinos are non-sterile and have masses at the electroweak scale, and (b) equipping a horizontal symmetry of the tetrahedral group in the lepton and scalar sectors. We analyze the parameter space of the model by using the latest ACME experimental limit on the electron electric dipole moment. Other low energy experimental observables such as the anomalous magnetic dipole moment of the muon, charged lepton flavor violating processes like muon decays into electron plus photon and muon-to-electron conversion in titanium, gold and lead are also considered in our analysis for comparison. In addition to the well-known CP violating Dirac phase in the neutrino mixing matrix, the dependence of additional phases of the new Yukawa couplings in the model is studied in detail for all these observables.Electric dipole momentMirror fermionStandard ModelElectroweak scaleSterile neutrinoYukawa couplingMuonLarge Hadron ColliderCharged leptonNeutrino mass...
- We present a comparison between several observational tests of the post-reionization IGM and the numerical simulations of reionization completed under the Cosmic Reionization On Computers (CROC) project. We show that CROC simulations reproduce "out-of-the-box" the observed distributions of Gunn-Peterson optical depths, underscoring the importance of self-consistent modeling of radiative transfer. We also show that CROC simulations match well the observed distributions of dark gaps from SDSS quasars. Finally, we introduce a novel statistical probe of the small-scale structure in the IGM: heights and widths of transmission peaks. Simulations match the peak height distributions reasonably well, but do not reproduce the observed abundance of wide peaks.Cosmic Reionization On ComputersIntergalactic mediumQuasarStatisticsReionizationSloan Digital Sky SurveyIonizationAbsorptivitySpectral resolutionIonizing radiation...
- We have studied solid hydrogen under pressure at low temperatures. With increasing pressure we observe changes in the sample, going from transparent, to black, to a reflective metal, the latter studied at a pressure of 495 GPa. We have measured the reflectance as a function of wavelength in the visible spectrum finding values as high as 0.90 from the metallic hydrogen. We have fit the reflectance using a Drude free electron model to determine the plasma frequency of 30.1 eV at T= 5.5 K, with a corresponding electron carrier density of 6.7x1023 particles/cm3, consistent with theoretical estimates. The properties are those of a metal. Solid metallic hydrogen has been produced in the laboratory.Plasma frequencyFree electron modelPressureMetalsParticlesWavelengthTemperatureElectron...
- We show that the measured abundance of ultra-faint lensed galaxies at $z\approx 6$ in the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) provides stringent constraints on the parameter space of i) Dark Matter models based on keV sterile neutrinos; ii) the "fuzzy" wavelike Dark Matter models, based on Bose-Einstein condensate of ultra-light particles. For the case of the sterile neutrinos, we consider two production mechanisms: resonant production through the mixing with active neutrinos and the decay of scalar particles. For the former model, we derive constraints for the combination of sterile neutrino mass $m_{\nu}$ and mixing parameter $\sin^2(2\theta)$ which provide the tightest lower bounds on the mixing angle (and hence on the lepton asymmetry) derived so far by methods independent of baryonic physics. For the latter we compute the allowed combinations of the scalar mass, its coupling to the Higgs field, and the Yukawa coupling of the scalar to the sterile neutrinos. We compare our results to independent, existing astrophysical bounds on sterile neutrinos in the same mass range. For the case of "fuzzy" Dark Matter, we show that the observed number density $\approx 1/{\rm Mpc}^3$ of high-redshift galaxies in the HFF sets a lower limit $m_\psi\geq 8\cdot 10^{-22}$ eV (at 3-$\sigma$ confidence level) on the particle mass, a result that strongly disfavors wavelike bosonic Dark Matter as a viable model for structure formation. We discuss the impact on our results of uncertainties due to systematics in the selection of highly magnified, faint galaxies at high redshifts.Sterile neutrinoDark matterHubble Frontier FieldsAbundanceDark matter modelLuminosity functionCold dark matterStructure formationMixing angleSterile neutrino mass...
- Semileptonic $b \to c$ transitions, and in particular the ratios $R(D^{(*)}) \equiv \Gamma(B \rightarrow D^{(*)} \tau \nu )/\Gamma(B \rightarrow D^{(*)} \ell \nu )$ (where $\ell = \mu$ or $e$), can be used to test the universality of the weak interactions. In light of the recent discrepancies between the experimental measurements of these observables by BaBar, Belle and LHCb \textcolor{black}{ on the one hand and the Standard Model predicted values on the other hand, we study the predicted ratios $R(D^{(*)}) = \Gamma(B \rightarrow D^{(*)} \tau +{\rm "missing"} )/\Gamma(B \rightarrow D^{(*)} \ell \nu )$ in scenarios with an additional sterile heavy neutrino of mass $\sim 1$ GeV. Further, we calculate the newly defined ratio $R(0) \equiv \Gamma(B \to \tau +{\rm "missing"} )/\Gamma(B \to \mu \nu )$ in such scenarios, in view of the future possibilities of measuring the quantity at Belle--II.Standard ModelSterile neutrinoUnitarityNeutrinoDecay widthForm factorWeak interactionBELLE IILHCbCharged lepton...
- The Missing Satellites Problem (MSP) broadly refers to the overabundance of predicted Cold Dark Matter (CDM) subhalos compared to satellite galaxies known to exist in the Local Group. The most popular interpretation of the MSP is that the smallest dark matter halos in the universe are extremely inefficient at forming stars. The question from that standpoint is to identify the feedback source that makes small halos dark and to identify any obvious mass scale where the truncation in the efficiency of galaxy formation occurs. Among the most exciting developments in near-field cosmology in recent years is the discovery of a new population satellite galaxies orbiting the Milky Way and M31. Wide field, resolved star surveys have more than doubled the dwarf satellite count in less than a decade, revealing a population of ultrafaint galaxies that are less luminous that some star clusters. For the first time, there are empirical reasons to believe that there really are missing satellite galaxies in the Local Group, lurking just beyond our ability to detect them, or simply inhabiting a region of the sky that has yet to have been surveyed. Both kinematic studies and completeness-correction studies seem to point to a characteristic potential well depth for satellite subhalos that is quite close to the mass scale where photoionization and atomic cooling should limit galaxy formation. Among the more pressing problems associated with this interpretation is to understand the selection biases that limit our ability to detect the lowest mass galaxies. The least massive satellite halos are likely to host stealth galaxies with very-low surface brightness and this may be an important limitation in the hunt for low-mass fossils from the epoch of reionization.Dark matter subhaloGalaxyLuminosityMilky WayA dwarfsSatellite galaxyCold dark matterDwarf galaxy problemGalaxy FormationDwarf spheroidal galaxy...
- Authentication is the first step toward establishing a service provider and customer (C-P) association. In a mobile network environment, a lightweight and secure authentication protocol is one of the most significant factors to enhance the degree of service persistence. This work presents a secure and lightweight keying and authentication protocol suite termed TAP (Time-Assisted Authentication Protocol). TAP improves the security of protocols with the assistance of time-based encryption keys and scales down the authentication complexity by issuing a re-authentication ticket. While moving across the network, a mobile customer node sends a re-authentication ticket to establish new sessions with service-providing nodes. Consequently, this reduces the communication and computational complexity of the authentication process. In the keying protocol suite, a key distributor controls the key generation arguments and time factors, while other participants independently generate a keychain based on key generation arguments. We undertake a rigorous security analysis and prove the security strength of TAP using CSP and rank function analysis.SecurityCommunicating Sequential ProcessesRankNetworksCommunication...
- To cope with the ongoing changing demands of the internet, 'in-network caching' has been presented as an application solution for two decades. With the advent of information-centric network (ICN) architecture, 'in-network caching' becomes a network level solution. Some unique features of ICNs, e.g., rapidly changing cache states, higher request arrival rates, smaller cache sizes, and other factors, impose diverse requirements on the content eviction policies. In particular, eviction policies should be fast and lightweight. In this study, we propose cache replication and eviction schemes, Conditional Leave Cope Everywhere (CLCE) and Least Frequent Recently Used (LFRU), which are well suited for the ICN type of cache networks (CNs). The CLCE replication scheme reduces the redundant caching of contents; hence improves the cache space utilization. LFRU approximates the Least Frequently Used (LFU) scheme coupled with the Least Recently Used (LRU) scheme and is practically implementable for rapidly changing cache networks like ICNs.Least Frequently UsedArchitectureInformation-centric networkingNetworks...
- The hot electrons in the intra-cluster medium produce a spectral distorsion of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) black body emission, the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (tSZ). This characteristic spectral distorsion is now commonly used to detect and characterize the properties of galaxy clusters. The tSZ effect spectral distorsion does not depends on the redshift, and is only slightly affected by the galaxy cluster properties via the relativistic corrections, when the electrons reach relativistic velocities. The present work proposes a linear component separation approach to extract the tSZ effect Compton parameter and relativistic corrections for next-generation CMB experiments. We demonstrated that relativistic corrections, if neglected, would induce a significant bias on galaxy cluster Compton parameter, tSZ scaling relation slope, and tSZ angular power spectrum shape measurements. We showed that tSZ relativistic corrections mapping can be achieved at high signal-to-noise ratio with a low level of contamination up to $\ell=3000$ for next generation CMB experiments. At smaller angular scales the contamination produced by infra-red emission will be a significant source of bias. Such tSZ relativistic corrections mapping enables the study of galaxy cluster temperature profile via the tSZ effect only.Relativistic correctionThermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effectCluster of galaxiesSpectral energy distributionIntra-cluster mediumCosmic microwave backgroundCovariance matrixPlanck missionMilky WayScaling law...
- Conventional definitions of habitability require abundant liquid surface water to exist continuously over geologic timescales. Water in each of its thermodynamic phases interacts with solar and thermal radiation and is the cause for strong climatic feedbacks. Thus, assessments of the habitable zone require models to include a complete treatment of the hydrological cycle over geologic time. Here, we use the Community Atmosphere Model from the National Center for Atmospheric Research to study the evolution of climate for an Earth-like planet at constant CO2, under a wide range of stellar fluxes from F-, G-, and K-dwarf main sequence stars. Around each star we find four stable climate states defined by mutually exclusive global mean surface temperatures (Ts); snowball (Ts < 235 K), waterbelt (235 K < Ts < 250 K), temperate (275 K < Ts < 315 K), and moist greenhouse (Ts > 330 K). Each is separated by abrupt climatic transitions. Waterbelt, temperate, and cooler moist greenhouse climates can maintain open-ocean against both sea-ice albedo and hydrogen escape processes respectively, and thus constitute habitable worlds. We consider the warmest possible habitable planet as having Ts ~ 355 K, at which point diffusion limited water-loss could remove an Earth ocean in ~1 Gyr. Without long timescale regulation of non-condensable greenhouse species at Earth-like temperatures and pressures, such as CO2, habitability can be maintained for an upper limit of ~2.2, ~2.4 and ~4.7 Gyr around F-, G- and K-dwarf stars respectively due to main sequence brightening.ClimateEarthGeneral circulation modelsExtrasolar planetCarbon dioxideOrange dwarfMain sequence starEarth-like planetAlbedoPlanet...
- We report the results of a sensitive search for the 443.952902 GHz $J=1-0$ transition of the LiH molecule toward two interstellar clouds in the Milky Way, W49N and Sgr B2 (Main), that has been carried out using the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) telescope. The results obtained toward W49N place an upper limit of $1.9 \times 10^{-11}\, (3\sigma)$ on the LiH abundance, $N({\rm LiH})/N({\rm H}_2)$, in a foreground, diffuse molecular cloud along the sight-line to W49N, corresponding to 0.5% of the solar system lithium abundance. Those obtained toward Sgr B2 (Main) place an abundance limit $N({\rm LiH})/N({\rm H}_2) < 3.6 \times 10^{-13} \,(3\sigma)$ in the dense gas within the Sgr B2 cloud itself. These limits are considerably smaller that those implied by the tentative detection of LiH reported previously for the $z=0.685$ absorber toward B0218+357.Milky WayAbundanceAtacama Pathfinder ExperimentLithium abundanceTelescopesSolar systemMolecular cloudInterstellar cloudGas...
- We introduce a neural architecture for navigation in novel environments. Our proposed architecture learns to map from first-person viewpoints and plans a sequence of actions towards goals in the environment. The Cognitive Mapper and Planner (CMP) is based on two key ideas: a) a unified joint architecture for mapping and planning, such that the mapping is driven by the needs of the planner, and b) a spatial memory with the ability to plan given an incomplete set of observations about the world. CMP constructs a top-down belief map of the world and applies a differentiable neural net planner to produce the next action at each time step. The accumulated belief of the world enables the agent to track visited regions of the environment. Our experiments demonstrate that CMP outperforms both reactive strategies and standard memory-based architectures and performs well in novel environments. Furthermore, we show that CMP can also achieve semantically specified goals, such as 'go to a chair'.ArchitectureReinforcement learningGround truthConvolutional neural networkTraining setRoboticsGraphNeural networkOrientationDeep Reinforcement Learning...
- We describe the execution and data reduction of the European Southern Observatory Large Programme "Quasars and their absorption lines: a legacy survey of the high-redshift universe with VLT/XSHOOTER" (hereafter `XQ-100'). XQ-100 has produced and made publicly available an homogeneous and high-quality sample of echelle spectra of 100 QSOs at redshifts z~3.5-4.5 observed with full spectral coverage from 315 to 2500 nm at a resolving power ranging from R~4000 to 7000, depending on wavelength. The median signal-to-noise ratios are 33, 25 and 43, as measured at rest-frame wavelengths 1700, 3000 and 3600 Angstrom, respectively. This paper provides future users of XQ-100 data with the basic statistics of the survey, along with details of target selection, data acquisition and data reduction. The paper accompanies the public release of all data products, including 100 reduced spectra. XQ-100 is the largest spectroscopic survey to date of high-redshift QSOs with simultaneous rest-frame UV/optical coverage, and as such enables a wide range of extragalactic research, from cosmology and galaxy evolution to AGN astrophysics.QuasarXQ-100Near-infraredEuropean Southern ObservatorySignal to noise ratioSloan Digital Sky SurveyUltraviolet backgroundVLT telescopeCalibrationAbsorption line...
- We present constraints on masses of active and sterile neutrinos. We use the one-dimensional Ly$\alpha$-forest power spectrum from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-III) and from the VLT/XSHOOTER legacy survey (XQ-100). In this paper, we present our own measurement of the power spectrum with the publicly released XQ-100 quasar spectra. Fitting Ly$\alpha$ data alone leads to cosmological parameters in excellent agreement with the values derived independently from Planck 2015 Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data. Combining BOSS and XQ-100 Ly$\alpha$ power spectra, we constrain the sum of neutrino masses to $\sum m_\nu < 0.8$ eV (95\% C.L). With the addition of CMB data, this bound is tightened to $\sum m_\nu < 0.14$ eV (95\% C.L.). With their sensitivity to small scales, Ly$\alpha$ data are ideal to constrain $\Lambda$WDM models. Using XQ-100 alone, we issue lower bounds on pure dark matter particles: $m_X \gtrsim 2.08 \: \rm{keV}$ (95\% C.L.) for early decoupled thermal relics, and $m_s \gtrsim 10.2 \: \rm{keV}$ (95\% C.L.) for non-resonantly produced right-handed neutrinos. Combining the 1D Ly$\alpha$ forest power spectrum measured by BOSS and XQ-100, we improve the two bounds to $m_X \gtrsim 4.17 \: \rm{keV}$ and $m_s \gtrsim 25.0 \: \rm{keV}$ (95\% C.L.). The $3~\sigma$ bound shows a more significant improvement, increasing from $m_X \gtrsim 2.74 \: \rm{keV}$ for BOSS alone to $m_X \gtrsim 3.10 \: \rm{keV}$ for the combined BOSS+XQ-100 data set. Finally, we include in our analysis the first two redshift bins ($z=4.2$ and $z=4.6$) of the power spectrum measured with the high-resolution HIRES/MIKE spectrographs. The addition of HIRES/MIKE power spectrum allows us to further improve the two limits to $m_X \gtrsim 4.65 \: \rm{keV}$ and $m_s \gtrsim 28.8 \: \rm{keV}$ (95\% C.L.).Flux power spectrumXQ-100Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic SurveyQuasarSpectrographsPlanck missionRedshift binsNeutrinoCosmic microwave backgroundMIKE spectrograph...
- Primordial black holes (PBH) have been shown to arise from high peaks in the matter power spectra of multi-field models of inflation. Here we show, with a simple toy model, that it is also possible to generate a peak in the curvature power spectrum of single-field inflation. We assume that the effective dynamics of the inflaton field presents a near-inflection point which slows down the field right before the end of inflation and gives rise to a prominent spike in the fluctuation power spectrum at scales much smaller than those probed by Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and Large Scale Structure (LSS) observations. This peak will give rise, upon reentry during the radiation era, to PBH via gravitational collapse. The mass and abundance of these PBH is such that they could constitute the totality of the Dark Matter today. We satisfy all CMB and LSS constraints and predict a very broad range of PBH masses. Some of these PBH are light enough that they will evaporate before structure formation, leaving behind a large curvature fluctuation on small scales. This broad mass distribution of PBH as Dark Matter will be tested in the future by AdvLIGO and LISA interferometers.Primordial black holeInflationInflection pointDark matterInflatonCosmic microwave backgroundCurvatureLarge scale structureModel of inflationMatter power spectrum...
- We study the consistency of having Lorentz invariance as a low energy approximation within the quantum field theory framework. A model with a scalar and a fermion field is used to show how a Lorentz invariance violating high momentum scale, a physical cutoff rendering the quantum field theory finite, can be made compatible with a suppression of Lorentz invariance violations at low momenta. The fine tuning required to get this suppression and to have a light scalar particle in the spectrum is determined at one loop.Lorentz violationQuantum field theoryEffective theoryEffective field theoryMomentum cutoffField theoryFermion propagatorUltraviolet divergencePropagatorLight scalar...
- In our prior papers, we considered the non-relativistic linear stability analysis of magnetized jets that do not have current sheet at the boundary. In this paper, we extend our analysis to relativistic jets. In order to find the unstable modes of current sheet-free, magnetized relativistic jets, we linearize full relativistic magnetohydrodynamics equations and solve them numerically. We find the dispersion relation of the pinch and kink mode instabilities. By comparing the dispersion relations of mildly relativistic jet (Lorentz factor 2) with moderately relativistic jet (Lorentz factor 10), we find that the jet with higher Lorentz factor is significantly more stable in both pinch and kink modes. We show that inclusion of the current sheet-free magnetic field in the jet further enhances the stability. Both pinch and kink mode instabilities become progressively more stable with increasing magnetization. We also show a scaling relation between the maximum temporal growth rate of the unstable mode and the Lorentz factor of the jet. The maximum temporal growth rates of the unstable modes are inversely proportion to the Lorentz factors for most of the modes that we study. However, for the fundamental pinch mode it is inversely proportional to the square of the Lorentz factor. This very beneficial scaling relation holds regardless of the presence of a magnetic field.Lorentz factorRelativistic jetPinchMagnetized jetAstrophysical jetScaling lawInstabilityRelativistic magnetohydrodynamicsMHD equationsMagnetization...
- We present a suite of cosmological N-body simulations with cold dark matter and baryons aiming at modeling the low-density regions of the IGM as probed by the Lyman-$\alpha$ forests at high redshift. The simulations are designed to match the requirements imposed by the quality of BOSS and eBOSS data. They are made using either 2x768$^3$ or 2x192$^3$ particles, spanning volumes ranging from (25 Mpc.h$^{-1})^3$ for high-resolution simulations to (100 Mpc.h$^{-1})^3$ for large-volume ones. Using a splicing technique, the resolution is further enhanced to reach the equivalent of simulations with 2x3072$^3$= 58 billion particles in a (100 Mpc.h$^{-1}$)^3 box size, i.e. a mean mass per gas particle of 1.2x10$^5$M_sun.h$^{-1}$. We show that the resulting power spectrum is accurate at the 2% level over the full range from a few Mpc to several tens of Mpc. We explore the effect on the one-dimensional transmitted-flux power spectrum of 4 cosmological parameters ($n_s, \sigma_8, \Omega_m, H_0$) and 2 astrophysical parameters ($T_0, \gamma$) related to the heating rate of the IGM. By varying the input parameters around a central model chosen to be in agreement with the latest Planck results, we built a grid of simulations that allows the study of the impact on the flux power spectrum of these six relevant parameters. We improve upon previous studies by not only measuring the effect of each parameter individually, but also probing the impact of the simultaneous variation of each pair of parameters. We thus provide a full second-order expansion, including cross-terms, around our central model. We check the validity of the second-order expansion with independent simulations obtained either with different cosmological parameters or different seeds. Finally, a comparison to the one-dimensional Ly-$\alpha$ forest power spectrum obtained with BOSS shows an excellent agreement.Matter power spectrumSplicingIntergalactic mediumBaryon Oscillation Spectroscopic SurveySmoothed-particle hydrodynamicsLine of sightQuasarCosmological parametersCosmologyAbsorptivity...
- We present the results of a search for the rare decays $B\to h\nu\overline{\nu}$, where $h$ stands for $K^+,\:K^0_{\mathrm{S}},\:K^{\ast +},\:K^{\ast 0},\:\pi^+,\:\pi^0,\:\rho^+$ and $\rho^{0}$. The results are obtained with $772\times10^{6}$ $B\overline{B}$ pairs collected with the Belle detector at the KEKB $e^+ e^-$ collider. We reconstruct one $B$ meson in a semileptonic decay and require a single $h$ meson but nothing else on the signal side. We observe no significant signal and set upper limits on the branching fractions. The limits set on the $B\to K^0_{\mathrm{S}}\nu\overline{\nu}$, $B^0\to K^{*0}\nu\overline{\nu}$, $B\to \pi^+\nu\overline{\nu}$, $B^0\to\pi^0\nu\overline{\nu}$, $B^+\to\rho^+\nu\overline{\nu}$, and $B^0\to\rho^0\nu\overline{\nu}$ channels are the world's most stringent.Rare decayBranching ratioColliderKEKBSemileptonic decayMesons...
- A finite abstract simplicial complex G defines two finite simple graphs: the Barycentric refinement G1, connecting two simplices if one is a subset of the other and the connection graph G', connecting two simplices if they intersect. We prove that the Poincare-Hopf value i(x)=1-X(S(x)), where X is Euler characteristics and S(x) is the unit sphere of a vertex x in G1, agrees with the Green function value g(x,x),the diagonal element of the inverse of (1+A'), where A' is the adjacency matrix of G'. By unimodularity, det(1+A') is the product of parities (-1)^dim(x) of simplices in G, the Fredholm matrix 1+A' is in GL(n,Z), where n is the number of simplices in G. We show that the set of possible unit sphere topologies in G1 is a combinatorial invariant of the complex G. So, also the Green function range of G is a combinatorial invariant. To prove the invariance of the unit sphere topology we use that all unit spheres in G1 decompose as a join of a stable and unstable part. The join operation + renders the category X of simplicial complexes into a monoid, where the empty complex is the 0 element and the cone construction adds 1. The augmented Grothendieck group (X,+,0) contains the graph and sphere monoids (Graphs, +,0) and (Spheres,+,0). The Poincare-Hopf functionals i(G) as well as the volume are multiplicative functions on (X,+). For the sphere group, both i(G) as well as Fredholm characteristic are characters. The join + can be augmented with a product * so that we have a commutative ring (X,+,0,*,1)for which there are both additive and multiplicative primes and which contains as a subring of signed complete complexes isomorphic to the integers (Z,+,0,*,1). We also look at the spectrum of the Laplacian of the join of two graphs. Both for addition + and multiplication *, one can ask whether unique prime factorization holds.GraphEuler characteristicMonoidGreen's functionCohomologySimple graphAdjacency matrixManifoldRing of integersStar...
- In this article using elementary school level Geometry we observe an alternative proof of Pythagorean Theorem from Heron's Formula.Geometry
- Arrangement field theory is a theory of everything which describes all particles as different manifestations of an unique field, the gauge field Sp(12,C). All fields (bosons and fermions in three families) fill up the adjoint representation of Lie group Sp(12,C), with quarks and leptons which take the role of gauginos. The theory represents a serious improvement of current Quantum Field Theory and includes some features of String Theory and Loop Gravity. It starts by describing universe as an ensemble of vertices connected by edges, where the existence of an edge is regulated by a quantum amplitude. This implies that universe is made by elementary blocks (atoms of space-time), whose reciprocal positions are determined by a probabilistic law. In such a way, concepts as "near", "far" or "between to" become limited. After a huge number of measurements we can find "far" a particle which first was "near", due to displacement of space-time block where the particle has sat. This occurence is highly improbable nowadays, but it has been the normality just after Big Bang. At that time the universe was made by mini-blocks which have continuously exchanged their positions.Gauge fieldQuantizationQuaternionsGraphProbability amplitudeCovariant derivativeHorizonClassicalizationQuantum mechanicsOverring...
- We recover in QCD an amazingly simple relationship between the anomalous dimensions, resummed through next-to-next-to-leading-logarithmic order, in the Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi evolution equations for the first Mellin moments $D_{q,g}(\mu^2)$ of the quark and gluon fragmentation functions, which correspond to the average hadron multiplicities in jets initiated by quarks and gluons, respectively. This relationship, which is independent of the number of quark flavors, dramatically improves previous treatments by allowing for an exact solution of the evolution equations. So far, such relationships have only been known from supersymmetric QCD, where $C_F/C_A=1$. This also allows us to extend our knowledge of the ratio $D_g^-(\mu^2)/D_q^-(\mu^2)$ of the minus components by one order in $\sqrt{\alpha_s}$. Exploiting available next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-order information on the ratio $D_g^+(\mu^2)/D_q^+(\mu^2)$ of the dominant plus components, we fit the world data of $D_{q,g}(\mu^2)$ for charged hadrons measured in $e^+e^-$ annihilation to obtain $\alpha_s^{(5)}(M_Z)=0.1205\genfrac{}{}{0pt}{}{+0.016}{-0.0020}$.Anomalous dimensionSupersymmetryStrong coupling constantPartonEvolution equationDGLAP equationsFragmentationExact solutionResummationCERN...
- We address the problem of analyzing the radius of convergence of perturbative expansion of non-equilibrium steady states of Lindblad driven spin chains. A simple formal approach is developed for systematically computing the perturbative expansion of small driven systems. We consider the paradigmatic model of an open $XXZ$ spin 1/2 chain with boundary supported ultralocal Lindblad dissipators and treat two different perturbative cases: (i) expansion in system-bath coupling parameter and (ii) expansion in driving (bias) parameter. In the first case (i) we find that the radius of convergence quickly shrinks with increasing the system size, while in the second case (ii) we find that the convergence radius is always larger than $1$, and in particular it approaches $1$ from above as we change the anisotropy from easy plane ($XY$) to easy axis (Ising) regime.Radius of convergenceAnisotropyPerturbative expansionNon-equilibrium steady statesSteady stateExact solutionNatriumSelf-adjoint operatorMixed statesArithmetic...
- We propose a scenario where both inflation and dark matter are described by a single axion-like particle (ALP) in a unified manner. In a class of the minimal axion hilltop inflation, the effective masses at the maximum and mimimum of the potential have equal magnitude but opposite sign, so that the ALP inflaton is light both during inflation and in the true vacuum. After inflation, most of the ALPs decay and evaporate into plasma through a coupling to photons, and the remaining ones become dark matter. We find that the observed CMB and matter power spectrum as well as the dark matter abundance point to an ALP of mass $m_\phi = {\cal O}(0.01)$eV and the axion-photon coupling $g_{\phi \gamma \gamma} ={\cal O}(10^{-11})$GeV$^{-1}$: the ALP miracle. The suggested parameter region is within the reach of the next generation axion helioscope, IAXO. Furthermore, thermalized ALPs contribute to hot dark matter and its abundance is given in terms of the effective number of extra neutrino species, $\Delta N_{\rm eff} \simeq 0.03$, which can be tested by the future CMB experiments. We also discuss a case with multiple ALPs, where the coupling to photons can be enhanced in the early Universe by an order of magnitude or more, which enlarges the parameter space for the ALP miracle. The heavy ALPs decay and/or evaporate into the standard model particles and reheats the Universe, and they can be searched for in various experiments such as SHiP.InflationAxionAxion-like particleInflatonDark matterReheatingDissipationAxion massAbundanceInflaton mass...
- We study the production and polarization of $J/\psi$ mesons within a jet in proton-proton collisions at the LHC. We define the $J/\psi$-jet fragmentation function as a ratio of differential jet cross sections with and without the reconstructed $J/\psi$ in the jet. We demonstrate that this is a very useful observable to help explore the $J/\psi$ production mechanism, and to differentiate between different NRQCD global fits based on inclusive $J/\psi$ cross sections. Furthermore, we propose to measure the polarization of $J/\psi$ mesons inside the jet, which can provide even more stringent constraints for the heavy quarkonium production mechanism.FragmentationLarge Hadron ColliderProton-proton collisionsDGLAP equationsSoft-collinear effective theoryResummationDistance matrixQuarkoniumTransverse momentumProduction cross-section...
- In this paper, the mass spectra are obtained for doubly heavy $\Xi$ baryons, namely, $\Xi_{cc}^{+}$, $\Xi_{cc}^{++}$, $\Xi_{bb}^{-}$, $\Xi_{bb}^{0}$, $\Xi_{bc}^{0}$ and $\Xi_{bc}^{+}$. These baryons are consist of two heavy quarks($cc$, $bb$ and $bc$) with a light($d$ or $u$) quark. The ground, radial and orbital states are calculated in framework of Hypercentral constituent quark model with coul- omb plus linear potential. Our outcomes are also compared with other predictions, thus, the average possible range of excited states masses of these $\Xi$ baryons can be determined. The study of the Regge trajectories are performed in (n, $M^{2}$) and (J, $M^{2}$) planes and their slopes and intercepts are also determined. Lastly, the ground state magnetic moments of these doubly heavy baryons are also calculated.Excited stateRegge trajectoryHeavy quarkConstituent quarkDown quarkEffective massHamiltonianStrange quarkCharm quarkGraph...
- We propose an extension of the standard model (SM) with $U(1)_{\mu-\tau}$ gauge symmetry, extra vectorlike quark doublets $Q'_a$ and singlet scalar $\chi$, both of which are charged under $U(1)_{\mu-\tau}$ and carry {odd} dark $Z_2$ parity. Then assuming that $\chi$ is the dark matter (DM) of the universe and imposing various constraints from dark matter search, flavor physics and collider search for $Q'_a$, one can show that radiative corrections to $b\rightarrow s Z^{'*} \rightarrow s l^+ l^- $ involving $Q'_a$ and $\chi$ can induce $\Delta C_9 \sim -1$ which can resolve the LHCb anomalies related with $B\to K^{(*)} \ell^+ \ell^-$. Therefore both DM and $B$ physics anomalies could be accommodated in the model.Dark matterGauge symmetryRadiative correctionColliderFlavour physicsStandard ModelExtensions of the standard modelLHCbU(1)Universe...
- In a recent paper we studied the effect of new-physics operators with different Lorentz structures on the semileptonic $\Lambda_b \to \Lambda_c \tau \bar{\nu}_{\tau}$ decay. This decay is of interest in light of the $R({D^{(*)}})$ puzzle in the semileptonic $\bar{B} \to D^{(*)} \tau {\bar\nu}_\tau$ decays. In this work we add tensor operators to extend our previous results and consider both model-independent new physics (NP) and specific classes of models proposed to address the $R({D^{(*)}})$ puzzle. We show that a measurement of $R(\Lambda_c) = {\cal B}[\Lambda_b \to \Lambda_c \tau \bar{\nu}_{\tau}] / {\cal B}[\Lambda_b \to \Lambda_c \ell \bar{\nu}_{\ell}]$ can strongly constrain the NP parameters of models discussed for the $R({D^{(*)}})$ puzzle. We use form factors from lattice QCD to calculate all $\Lambda_b \to \Lambda_c \tau \bar{\nu}_{\tau}$ observables. The $\Lambda_b \to \Lambda_c$ tensor form factors had not previously been determined in lattice QCD, and we present new lattice results for these form factors here.Form factorStandard ModelLeptoquarkLattice QCDHelicityVector bosonTwo Higgs Doublet ModelWilson coefficientsDecay rateHamiltonian...
- The well-known problem of the unknown power corrections within QCD improved factorisation leaves the interpretation of the so-called LHCb anomalies in the angular observables of B-->K* mu+ mu- as an open problem. In order to contribute to the question whether they represent a first sign for new physics beyond the Standard Model or a consequence of underestimated hadronic power corrections, we present a direct comparison of two global fits to the data based on the two different assumptions. In addition, we summarise the possible options to resolve this puzzle in the future.Form factorLHCbHelicityWilson coefficientsFactorisationRare decayHamiltonianCERNBELLE IIBeyond the Standard Model...
- We review the history of neutron star physics in the 1930s that is related to L. Landau. According to recollections of Rosenfeld (1974, Proc. 16th Solvay Conference on Physics, p. 174), Landau improvised the concept of neutron stars in a discussion with Bohr and Rosenfeld just after the news of the discovery of the neutron reached Copenhagen in February 1932. We present arguments that the discussion took place in March 1931, before the discovery of the neutron, and that they in fact discussed the paper written by Landau in Zurich in February 1931 but not published until February 1932 (Phys. Z. Sowjetunion, 1, 285). In his paper Landau mentioned the possible existence of dense stars which look like one giant nucleus; this can be regarded as an early theoretical prediction or anticipation of neutron stars, prior to the discovery of the neutron. The coincidence of the dates of the neutron's discovery and the paper's publication has led to an erroneous association of the paper with the discovery of the neutron. In passing, we outline the contribution of Landau to the theory of white dwarfs and to the hypothesis of stars with neutron cores.StarNeutron starWhite dwarfQuantum mechanicsA giantsSupernovaConvective envelopeMassive starsSupergiantRadio pulsar...
- The recent measurement by WMAP of a large electron scattering optical depth tau_e = 0.17 +- 0.04 is consistent with a simple model of reionization in which the intergalactic medium (IGM) is ionized at redshift z ~ 15, and remains highly ionized thereafter. Here, we show that existing measurements of the IGM temperature from the Lyman-alpha forest at z ~ 2 - 4 rule out this ``vanilla'' model. Under reasonable assumptions about the ionizing spectrum, as long as the universe is reionized before z = 10, and remains highly ionized thereafter, the IGM reaches an asymptotic thermal state which is too cold compared to observations. To simultaneously satisfy the CMB and forest constraints, the reionization history must be complex: reionization begins early at z >~ 15, but there must have been significant (order unity) changes in fractions of neutral hydrogen and/or helium at 6 < z < 10, and/or singly ionized helium at 4 < z < 10. We describe a physically motivated reionization model that satisfies all current observations. We also explore the impact of a stochastic reionization history and show that a late epoch of (HeII --> HeIII) reionization induces a significant scatter in the IGM temperature, but the scatter diminishes with time quickly. Finally, we provide an analytic formula for the thermal asymptote, and discuss possible additional heating mechanisms that might evade our constraints.History of the reionizationIntergalactic mediumReionizationIGM temperatureReionization modelsNeutral hydrogen gasElectron scatteringWilkinson Microwave Anisotropy ProbeCosmic microwave backgroundLyman-alpha forest...