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  • 1707.04591  ,  ,  et al.,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  show less
    This white paper summarizes the workshop "U.S. Cosmic Visions: New Ideas in Dark Matter" held at University of Maryland on March 23-25, 2017.
    Dark matter
  • We present a combined analysis of rest-frame far-UV (1000-2000 A) and rest-frame optical (3600-7000 A) composite spectra formed from very deep observations of a sample of 30 star-forming galaxies with z=2.4+/-0.1, selected to be representative of the full KBSS-MOSFIRE spectroscopic survey. Since the same massive stars are responsible for the observed FUV continuum and the excitation of the observed nebular emission, a self-consistent stellar population synthesis model must simultaneously match the details of the far-UV stellar+nebular continuum and-- when inserted as the excitation source in photoionization models-- account for all observed nebular emission line ratios. We find that only models including massive star binaries, having low stellar metallicity (Z_*/Z_{sun} ~ 0.1) but relatively high ionized gas-phase oxygen abundances (Z_{neb}/Z_{sun} ~ 0.5), can successfully match all of the observational constraints. We argue that this apparent discrepancy is naturally explained by highly super-solar O/Fe [4-5 times (O/Fe)_{sun}], expected for gas whose enrichment is dominated by the products of core-collapse supernovae. Once the correct ionizing spectrum is identified, photoionization models reproduce all of the observed strong emission line ratios, the direct T_e measurement of O/H, and allow accurate measurement of the gas-phase abundance ratios of N/O and C/O -- both of which are significantly sub-solar but, as for O/Fe, are in remarkable agreement with abundance patterns observed in Galactic thick disk, bulge, and halo stars with similar O/H. High nebular excitation is the rule at high-z (and rare at low-z) because of systematically shorter enrichment timescales (<<1 Gyr): low Fe/O environments produce harder (and longer-lived) stellar EUV spectra at a given O/H, enhanced by dramatic effects on the evolution of massive star binaries.
    AbundanceMassive starsMetallicityIonizationCalibrationPhotoionizationStarPhotosphereInitial mass functionStar formation...
  • The Quijote simulations are a set of 43100 full N-body simulations spanning more than 7000 cosmological models in the $\{\Omega_{\rm m}, \Omega_{\rm b}, h, n_s, \sigma_8, M_\nu, w \}$ hyperplane. At a single redshift the simulations contain more than 8.5 trillions of particles over a combined volume of 43100 $(h^{-1}{\rm Gpc})^3$. Billions of dark matter halos and cosmic voids have been identified in the simulations, whose runs required more than 35 million core hours. The Quijote simulations have been designed for two main purposes: 1) to quantify the information content on cosmological observables, and 2) to provide enough data to train machine learning algorithms. In this paper we describe the simulations and show a few of their applications. We also release the Petabyte of data generated, comprising hundreds of thousands of simulation snapshots at multiple redshifts, halo and void catalogs, together with millions of summary statistics such as power spectra, bispectra, correlation functions, marked power spectra, and estimated probability density functions.
    StatisticsCosmic voidCosmological parametersNeutrinoCosmologyMassive neutrinoTwo-point correlation functionRedshift spaceMachine learningMatter power spectrum...
  • We introduce a light dark photon $A_\mu^\prime$ to the minimal Higgs portal model, by coupling the Higgs boson to "dark QED" containing fermionic dark matter, which gives rise to rich and interesting collider phenomenology. There are two prominent features in such a simple extension -- the Higgs boson could have decays into the long-lived dark photon through the "mono-$A^\prime$ channel," or into multiple collimated leptons via "darkonium," depending on the mixing parameter of the $A_\mu^\prime$ with the visible photon. We initiate a study on the possibility of probing the parameter space of the model in both the energy and the lifetime frontiers at the Large Hadron Collider.
    Hidden photonHiggs bosonDark matterLarge Hadron ColliderHiggs portalMATHUSLA experimentStandard ModelLepton jetDecay rateQuantum electrodynamics...
  • We present a review of Higgs physics in the SM and beyond, including the tests of the Higgs boson properties that have been performed at LHC and have permitted to delineate its profile. After presenting the essential features of the BEH mechanism, and its implementation in the SM, we discuss how the Higgs mass limits developed over the years. These constraints in turn helped to classify the Higgs phenomenology (decays and production mechanisms), which provided the right direction to search for the Higgs particle, an enterprise that culminated with its discovery at LHC. So far, the constraints on the couplings of the Higgs particle, point towards a SM interpretation. However, the SM has open ends that suggest the need to look for extensions of the model. We discuss in general the connection of the Higgs sector with some new physics (e.g. supersymmetry, flavor and Dark matter), with special focus on a more flavored Higgs sector. Thus is realized in the most general 2HDM, and its textured version, which we study in general, and for its various limits, which contain distinctive flavor-violating signals that could be searched at current and future colliders.
    Higgs bosonStandard ModelLarge Hadron ColliderTwo Higgs Doublet ModelHiggs boson massHiggs doubletColliderSupersymmetricLarge Electron-Positron ColliderDark matter...
  • We analyze the stability of Maxwell equations in bounded domains taking into account electric and magnetization effects. Well-posedness of the model is obtained by means of semigroup theory. A passitivity assumption guarantees the boundedness of the associated semigroup. Further the exponential or polynomial decay of the energy is proved under suitable sufficient conditions. Finally, several illustrative examples are presented.
    Ds mesonE_nMagnetizationBc mesonCauchy-Schwarz inequalityLaplace transformComplex numberIsomorphismDrude modelPermeability...
  • Building upon the recent results in \cite{FoSp17} we provide a thorough description of the free boundary for the fractional obstacle problem in $\mathbb{R}^{n+1}$ with obstacle function $\varphi$ (suitably smooth and decaying fast at infinity) up to sets of null $\mathcal{H}^{n-1}$ measure. In particular, if $\varphi$ is analytic, the problem reduces to the zero obstacle case dealt with in \cite{FoSp17} and therefore we retrieve the same results: (i) local finiteness of the $(n-1)$-dimensional Minkowski content of the free boundary (and thus of its Hausdorff measure), (ii) $\mathcal{H}^{n-1}$-rectifiability of the free boundary, (iii) classification of the frequencies and of the blow-ups up to a set of Hausdorff dimension at most $(n-2)$ in the free boundary. Instead, if $\varphi\in C^{k+1}(\mathbb{R}^n)$, $k\geq 2$, similar results hold only for a distinguished subset of points in the free boundary where the order of contact of the solution and the obstacle is less than $k+1$.
    Obstacle problemHausdorff dimensionMinkowski contentClassificationInfinitesimalHausdorff measureFractional LaplacianLinear subspaceBarycenterDisorder...
  • In this paper we give a streamlined proof of an inequality recently obtained by the author: For every $\alpha \in (0,1)$ there exists a constant $C=C(\alpha,d)>0$ such that \begin{align*} \|u\|_{L^{d/(d-\alpha),1}(\mathbb{R}^d)} \leq C \| D^\alpha u\|_{L^1(\mathbb{R}^d;\mathbb{R}^d)} \end{align*} for all $u \in L^q(\mathbb{R}^d)$ for some $1 \leq q<d/(1-\alpha)$ such that $D^\alpha u:=\nabla I_{1-\alpha} u \in L^1(\mathbb{R}^d;\mathbb{R}^d)$. We also give a counterexample which shows that in contrast to the case $\alpha =1$, the fractional gradient does not admit an $L^1$ trace inequality, i.e. $\| D^\alpha u\|_{L^1(\mathbb{R}^d;\mathbb{R}^d)}$ cannot control the integral of $u$ with respect to the Hausdorff content $\mathcal{H}^{d-\alpha}_\infty$. The main substance of this counterexample is a result of interest in its own right, that even a weak-type estimate for the Riesz transforms fails on the space $L^1(\mathcal{H}^{d-\beta}_\infty)$, $\beta \in [1,d)$. It is an open question whether this failure of a weak-type estimate for the Riesz transforms extends to $\beta \in (0,1)$.
    Riesz transformHardy spaceRiesz potentialRadon measureFractional LaplacianHölder's inequalityFubini's theoremAttentionOptimizationMollifier...
  • We present the concept of BlueMUSE, a blue-optimised, medium spectral resolution, panoramic integral field spectrograph based on the MUSE concept and proposed for the Very Large Telescope. With an optimised transmission down to 350 nm, a larger FoV (1.4 x 1.4 arcmin$^2$) and a higher spectral resolution compared to MUSE, BlueMUSE will open up a new range of galactic and extragalactic science cases allowed by its specific capabilities, beyond those possible with MUSE. For example a survey of massive stars in our galaxy and the Local Group will increase the known population of massive stars by a factor $>$100, to answer key questions about their evolution. Deep field observations with BlueMUSE will also significantly increase samples of Lyman-alpha emitters, spanning the era of Cosmic Noon. This will revolutionise the study of the distant Universe: allowing the intergalactic medium to be detected unambiguously in emission, enabling the study of the exchange of baryons between galaxies and their surroundings. By 2030, at a time when the focus of most of the new large facilities (ELT, JWST) will be on the infra-red, BlueMUSE will be a unique facility, outperforming any ELT instrument in the Blue/UV. It will have a strong synergy with ELT, JWST as well as ALMA, SKA, Euclid and Athena.
    Multi Unit Spectroscopic ExplorerMassive starsJames Webb Space TelescopeSpectral resolutionLyman alpha emitterEuclid missionSquare Kilometre ArrayAtacama Large Millimeter ArrayIntegral field spectrographGalaxy...
  • The simplest possibility to explain the baryon asymmetry of the Universe is to assume that radiation is created asymmetrically between baryons and anti-baryons after the inflation. We propose a new mechanism of this kind where CP-violating flavor oscillations of left-handed leptons in the reheating era distribute the lepton asymmetries partially into the right-handed neutrinos while net asymmetry is not created. The asymmetry stored in the right-handed neutrinos is later washed out by the lepton number violating decays, and it ends up with the net lepton asymmetry in the Standard Model particles, which is converted into the baryon asymmetry by the sphaleron process. This scenario works for a range of masses of the right-handed neutrinos while no fine-tuning among the masses is required. The reheating temperature of the Universe can be as low as $O(10)$~TeV if we assume that the decays of inflatons in the perturbative regime are responsible for the reheating. For the case of the reheating via the dissipation effects, the reheating temperature can be as low as $O(100)$~GeV.
    Sterile neutrinoReheatingBaryon asymmetry of the UniverseInflatonReheating temperatureLepton asymmetryNeutrino massSphaleronYukawa interactionThermalisation...
  • Much digital instrumentation and control systems embedded in the critical medical healthcare equipment aerospace devices and nuclear industry have obvious consequence of different failure modes. These failures can affect the behavior of the overall safety critical digital system and its ability to deliver its dependability attributes if any defected area that could be a hardware component or software code embedded inside the digital system is not detected and repaired appropriately. The safety and reliability analysis of safety critical systems can be accomplished with Markov modeling techniques which could express the dynamic and regenerative behavior of the digital control system. Certain states in the system represent system failure while others represent fault free behavior or correct operation in the presence of faults. This paper presents the development of a safety and reliability modeling of a digital feedwater control system using Markov based chain models. All the Markov states and the transitions between these states were assumed and calculated from the control logic for the digital control system. Finally based on the simulation results of modeling the digital feedwater control system the system does meet its reliability requirement with the probability of being in fully operational states is 0.99 over a 6 months time.
    SoftwareAerospaceSimulationsProbability...
  • Over the last decades, cosmological simulations of galaxy formation have been instrumental for advancing our understanding of structure and galaxy formation in the Universe. These simulations follow the non-linear evolution of galaxies modeling a variety of physical processes over an enormous range of scales. A better understanding of the physics relevant for shaping galaxies, improved numerical methods, and increased computing power have led to simulations that can reproduce a large number of observed galaxy properties. Modern simulations model dark matter, dark energy, and ordinary matter in an expanding space-time starting from well-defined initial conditions. The modeling of ordinary matter is most challenging due to the large array of physical processes affecting this matter component. Cosmological simulations have also proven useful to study alternative cosmological models and their impact on the galaxy population. This review presents a concise overview of the methodology of cosmological simulations of galaxy formation and their different applications.
    Galaxy FormationSimulations of structure formationGalaxyDark matterDark energyStar formationMilky WayCoolingDark matter modelDark matter halo...
  • Models of Cold Dark Matter predict that the distribution of dark matter in galaxy clusters should be cuspy, centrally concentrated. Constant density cores would be strong evidence for beyond-CDM physics, such as Self-Interacting Dark Matter (SIDM). An observable consequence would be oscillations of the Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) in otherwise relaxed galaxy clusters. Offset BCGs have indeed been observed - but only interpreted via a simplified, analytic model of oscillations. We compare these observations to the BAHAMAS-SIDM suite of cosmological simulations, which include SIDM and a fully hydrodynamical treatment of star formation and feedback. We predict that the median offset of BCGs increases with the SIDM cross-section, cluster mass and the amount of stellar mass within 10kpc, while CDM exhibits no trend in mass. Interpolating between the simulated cross-sections, we find that the observations (of 10 clusters) is consistent with CDM at the ~1.5$\sigma$ level, and prefer cross-section $\sigma$/m < 0.12(0.39)cm$^2$/g at 68% (95%) confidence level. This is on the verge of ruling out velocity-independent dark matter self-interactions as the solution to discrepancies between the predicted and observed behaviour of dwarf galaxies, and will be improved by larger surveys by Euclid or SuperBIT.
    Brightest cluster galaxySelf-interacting dark matterDark matterCluster of galaxiesSimulations of structure formationDwarf galaxyRelaxed galaxy clusterCold dark matterSelf-interaction cross-sectionVirial cluster mass...
  • In this paper we study generic features of nonlocal charges obtained from marginal deformations of WZNW models. Using free fields representations of CFTs based on simply-laced Lie algebras one can use simple arguments to build the nonlocal charges; but for more general Lie algebras these methods are not strong enough to be generally used. We propose a brute force calculation where the nonlocality is associated to a new Lie algebra valued field, and from this prescription we impose several constraints on the algebra of nonlocal charges. Possible applications for Yang-Baxter and holographic $T\bar{T}$ and $T\bar{J}$ deformations are also discussed.
    Conformal field theoryOperator product expansionAnti de Sitter spaceWess-Zumino-Witten modelYangianScaling dimensionFree field representationWorldsheetVertex operatorString theory...
  • Using the fermionic basis discovered in the 6-vertex model, we derive exact formulas for the expectation values of local operators of the sine-Gordon theory in any eigenstate of the Hamiltonian. We tested our formulas in the pure multi-soliton sector of the theory. In the ultraviolet limit, we checked our results against Liouville 3-point functions, while in the infrared limit, we evaluated our formulas in the semi-classical limit and compared them upto 2-particle contributions against the semi-classical limit of the previously conjectured LeClair-Mussardo type formula. Complete agreement was found in both cases.
    Expectation ValueSolitonForm factorConformal field theoryClassical limitSine-Gordon modelExcited stateCountingScattering theoryPrimary field...
  • We present the full evolution of the velocity for a massive particle, along with the equation of state we are able to analytically compute the energy density and pressure evolution. Therefore, is easy to compute the perturbation equations for any massive decoupled particle, i.e. warm dark matter (WDM) or neutrinos, treated as fluid. Using this approach we analytical calculate the moment when the WDM stop being relativistic, a_nr, which is just 15% difference with respect to the exact Boltzmann solution. Using the fluid approximation the matter power spectrum is computed fast and with great accuracy, the cut-off in structure formation due to the free-streaming, lambda_fs, of the particle, characteristic for a WDM particle, is replicated in both matter power spectrum and halo mass function, in which we found up to 30% correction on the Jeans mass. We also show that the matter power can be computed using a fitting formula that involves only the cut-off scale, k_fs. This formulation can be integrated in comprehensive numerical modeling reasonable increasing the performance in the calculations.
    Warm dark matterFree streaming of particlesDark matterMatter power spectrumWDM particlesDark matter particleJeans massBoltzmann transport equationHalo mass functionLarge scale structure...
  • We use a fully GPU $N$-body code to demonstrate that dark matter minihalos, as a new component of globular clusters, resolves both the timing and cusp-core problems in Fornax if the five globular clusters were recently accreted (2-4 Gyr ago) by Fornax. Under these assumptions, the infall of these globular clusters does not occur and no star clusters form in the centre of Fornax in accordance with observations. Crossings of globular clusters with a DM minihalo near the Fornax centre induce a cusp-to-core transition of the dark matter halo and hence resolve the cusp-core problem in this dwarf galaxy. The dark matter core size depends on the frequency of globular cluster crossings. Our simulations clearly demonstrate also that between the passages, dark matter halo can regenerate its cusp. Moreover, our models are in good agreement with constraints on the dark matter masses of globular clusters as our clusters have lost a large fraction of their initial dark matter minihalos. These results provide circumstantial evidence for the universal existence of dark matter halos in globular clusters.
    Globular clusterUltracompact minihaloDark matter haloDark matterNuclear Star ClusterDwarf galaxyMilky WayAccretionCore-Cusp problemSoftening length...
  • We present an overview of the microscopic theory of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) coupling in strongly correlated 3d compounds. Most attention in the paper centers around the derivation of the Dzyaloshinskii vector, its value, orientation, and sense (sign) under different types of the (super)exchange interaction and crystal field. We consider both the Moriya mechanism of the antisymmetric interaction and novel contributions, in particular, that of spin-orbital coupling on the intermediate ligand ions. We have predicted a novel magnetic phenomenon, {\it weak ferrimagnetism} in mixed weak ferromagnets with competing signs of the Dzyaloshinskii vectors. We revisit a problem of the DM coupling for a single bond in cuprates specifying the local spin-orbital contributions to Dzyaloshinskii vector focusing on the oxygen term. We predict a novel puzzling effect of the on-site staggered spin polarization to be a result of the on-site spin-orbital coupling and the the cation-ligand spin density transfer. The intermediate ligand NMR measurements are shown to be an effective tool to inspect the effects of the DM coupling in an external magnetic field. We predict the effect of a $strong$ oxygen weak antiferromagnetism in edge-shared CuO$_2$ chains due to uncompensated oxygen Dzyaloshinskii vectors. We revisit the effects of symmetric spin anisotropy directly induced by the DM coupling. A critical analysis will be given of different approaches to exchange-relativistic coupling based on the cluster and the DFT based calculations. Theoretical results are applied to different classes of 3d compounds from conventional weak ferromagnets ($\alpha$-Fe$_2$O$_3$, FeBO$_3$, FeF$_3$, RFeO$_3$, RCrO$_3$,.. ) to unconventional systems such as weak ferrimagnets (e.g., RFe$_{1-x}$Cr$_x$O$_3$), helimagnets (e.g., CsCuCl$_3$), and parent cuprates (La$_2$CuO$_4$,...).
    Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactionMagnetismSuperexchangeCopper oxideAntiferromagneticNuclear magnetic resonanceCrystal fieldAnisotropyWeak ferromagnetOrientation...
  • The density profiles of dwarf galaxies are a highly varied set. If the dark matter is an Ultra-light particle such as axions, then simulations predict a distinctive and unique profile. If the axion mass is large enough to fit the ultra-faint dwarf (UFD) satellites($m\gtrapprox 10^{-21}$ eV), then the models do not fit the density profile of Fornax and Sculptor and are ruled out by more than $3-\sigma$ confidence. If the axion mass is in the mass range that can fit mass profiles of Fornax and Sculptor dwarf spheroidals, then its extended profile implies enormous masses ($\approx10^{11}-10^{12}M_{\odot}$) for the UFDs. These large masses for the UFDS are ruled out by more than $3-\sigma$ confidence by dynamical friction arguments. The tension would increase further considering star formation histories and stellar masses of the UFDs. Moreover, light mass axions are inconsistent with the sub-halo mass function in the Milky Way.
    Ultra-faint dwarf spheroidal galaxyVirial massAxion massMass profileMilky Way satelliteDynamical frictionAxionCored dark matter density profileStellar massDark matter...
  • The ubiquitous presence of Galactic cirri in deep optical images represents a major obstacle to study the low surface brightness features of extragalactic sources. To address this issue, we have explored the optical properties of cirri using g, r, i and z bands in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe82 region. Using state-of-the-art $-$custom made$-$ image processing techniques, including the modeling and removal of the scattered light produced by the stars, we manage to isolate the optical diffuse emission by the cirri, allowing their photometric characterization. We find that their optical colors are driven by the dust column density: the cirri become redder as their 100 $\mu$m emission increases. This could explain the extended red emission previously found in dust clouds. In most cases, the optical colors of the Galactic cirri differ significantly from those of extragalactic sources. If future works confirm our findings, it would be possible the use of deep multi-band optical photometry (as the one produced by LSST) to identify the presence of cirri at a higher spatial resolution than those provided by far infrared observations. The combination of very deep data and multi-band photometry would make possible to build dust and extinction maps of unprecedented quality.
    StarPoint spread functionDiffuse emissionSurface brightnessPhotometrySloan Digital Sky SurveyLow surface brightnessGalaxyBright starsFull width at half maximum...
  • Intense, millisecond-duration bursts of radio waves have been detected from beyond the Milky Way [1]. Their extragalactic origins are evidenced by their large dispersion measures, which are greater than expected for propagation through the Milky Way interstellar medium alone, and imply contributions from the intergalactic medium and potentially host galaxies [2]. Although several theories exist for the sources of these fast radio bursts, their intensities, durations and temporal structures suggest coherent emission from highly magnetised plasma [3,4]. Two sources have been observed to repeat [5,6], and one repeater (FRB 121102) has been localised to the largest star-forming region of a dwarf galaxy at a cosmological redshift of 0.19 [7, 8]. However, the host galaxies and distances of the so far non-repeating fast radio bursts are yet to be identified. Unlike repeating sources, these events must be observed with an interferometer with sufficient spatial resolution for arcsecond localisation at the time of discovery. Here we report the localisation of a fast radio burst (FRB 190523) to a few-arcsecond region containing a single massive galaxy at a redshift of 0.66. This galaxy is in stark contrast to the host of FRB 121102, being a thousand times more massive, with a greater than hundred times lower specific star-formation rate. The properties of this galaxy highlight the possibility of a channel for FRB production associated with older stellar populations.
    Fast Radio BurstsMassive galaxiesHost galaxyGalaxyMilky WayStellar populationsInterferometersStar formation rateStar-forming regionIntensity...
  • In this article we investigate some "unexpected" properties of the "Infinite Power Tower". \[y = f(x) = {x^{{x^{{x^{{x^ {\mathinner{\mkern2mu\raise1pt\hbox{.}\mkern2mu \raise4pt\hbox{.}\mkern2mu\raise7pt\hbox{.}\mkern1mu}} }}}}}}}\] The material collected here is also intended as a potential guide for teachers of high-school/undergraduate students interested in planning an activity of investigative mathematics in the classroom, where the knowledge is gained through the active, creative and cooperative use of diversified mathematical tools (and some ingenuity). The activity should possibly be carried on with a laboratorial style, with no preclusions on the paths chosen and undertaken by the students and with little or no information imparted from the teacher's desk. The teacher should then act just as a guide and a facilitator. The mathematical requisites to follow this path are: functions, properties of exponentials and logarithms, sequences, limits and derivatives. The topics presented should then be accessible to undergraduate or "advanced high school" students.
    Peano axiomsLambert W functionExponential functionPile-upSoftwareArithmeticOrientationNumerical simulationWolfram MathematicaBifurcation...
  • Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) are brief radio emissions from distant astronomical sources. Some are known to repeat, but most are single bursts. Non-repeating FRB observations have had insufficient positional accuracy to localize them to an individual host galaxy. We report the interferometric localization of the single pulse FRB 180924 to a position 4 kpc from the center of a luminous galaxy at redshift 0.3214. The burst has not been observed to repeat. The properties of the burst and its host are markedly different from the only other accurately localized FRB source. The integrated electron column density along the line of sight closely matches models of the intergalactic medium, indicating that some FRBs are clean probes of the baryonic component of the cosmic web.
    Fast Radio BurstsGalaxyAustralian SKA PathfinderMilky WayHost galaxyDispersion measureIntergalactic mediumLine of sightSignal to noise ratioAustralia Telescope Compact Array...
  • When surrounded by a transparent emission region, black holes are expected to reveal a dark shadow caused by gravitational light bending and photon capture at the event horizon. To image and study this phenomenon, we have assembled the Event Horizon Telescope, a global very long baseline interferometry array observing at a wavelength of 1.3 mm. This allows us to reconstruct event-horizon-scale images of the supermassive black hole candidate in the center of the giant elliptical galaxy M87. We have resolved the central compact radio source as an asymmetric bright emission ring with a diameter of 42+/-3 micro-as, which is circular and encompasses a central depression in brightness with a flux ratio ~10:1. The emission ring is recovered using different calibration and imaging schemes, with its diameter and width remaining stable over four different observations carried out in different days. Overall, the observed image is consistent with expectations for the shadow of a Kerr black hole as predicted by general relativity. The asymmetry in brightness in the ring can be explained in terms of relativistic beaming of the emission from a plasma rotating close to the speed of light around a black hole. We compare our images to an extensive library of ray-traced general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of black holes and derive a central mass of M = (6.5+/-0.7) x 10^9 Msun. Our radio-wave observations thus provide powerful evidence for the presence of supermassive black holes in centers of galaxies and as the central engines of active galactic nuclei. They also present a new tool to explore gravity in its most extreme limit and on a mass scale that was so far not accessible.
    Event horizonSupermassive black holeTelescopesMessier 87Black holeGeneral relativistic magnetohydrodynamicCalibrationMultidimensional ArraySpeed of lightBlack hole candidate...
  • We present measurements of the properties of the central radio source in M87 using Event Horizon Telescope data obtained during the 2017 campaign. We develop and fit geometric crescent models (asymmetric rings with interior brightness depressions) using two independent sampling algorithms that consider distinct representations of the visibility data. We show that the crescent family of models is statistically preferred over other comparably complex geometric models that we explore. We calibrate the geometric model parameters using general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) models of the emission region and estimate physical properties of the source. We further fit images generated from GRMHD models directly to the data. We compare the derived emission region and black hole parameters from these analyses with those recovered from reconstructed images. There is a remarkable consistency among all methods and data sets. We find that >50% of the total flux at arcsecond scales comes from near the horizon, and that the emission is dramatically suppressed interior to this region by a factor >10, providing direct evidence of the predicted shadow of a black hole. Across all methods, we measure a crescent diameter of 42+/-3 micro-as and constrain its fractional width to be <0.5. Associating the crescent feature with the emission surrounding the black hole shadow, we infer an angular gravitational radius of GM/Dc2 = 3.8+/- 0.4 micro-as. Folding in a distance measurement of 16.8(+0.8,-0.7) Mpc gives a black hole mass of M = 6.5 +/- 0.2(stat) +/-0.7(sys) 10^9 Msun. This measurement from lensed emission near the event horizon is consistent with the presence of a central Kerr black hole, as predicted by the general theory of relativity.
    Black holeEvent horizonTelescopesMessier 87General relativistic magnetohydrodynamicBlack hole massRadio sourcesHorizonGeneral relativitySchwarzschild radius...
  • In this book chapter, we introduce different schemes to create quantum states of matter in engineered graphene nanoribbons. We will focus on the emergence of controllable magnetic interactions, topological quantum magnets, and the interplay of magnetism and superconductivity. We comment on the experimental signatures of those states stemming from their electronic and spin excitations, that can be observed with atomic resolution using scanning probe techniques.
    Zero modeGrapheneGraphene nano-ribbonsHamiltonianMagnetismProximity effectMagnetizationSuperconductivitySpin-orbit interactionHubbard model...
  • Flare loops form an integral part of eruptive events, being detected in the range of temperatures from X-rays down to cool chromospheric-like plasmas. While the hot loops are routinely observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA), cool loops seen off-limb are rare. In this paper we employ unique observations of the SOL2017-09-10T16:06 X8.2-class flare which produced an extended arcade of loops. The Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST) made a series of spectral images of the cool off-limb loops in the Ca II 8542 \r{A} and the hydrogen H$\beta$ lines. Our focus is on the loop apices. Non-LTE spectral inversion is achieved through the construction of extended grids of models covering a realistic range of plasma parameters. The Multilevel Accelerated Lambda Iterations (MALI) code solves the non-LTE radiative-transfer problem in a 1D externally-illuminated slab, approximating the studied loop segment. Inversion of the Ca II 8542 \r{A} and H$\beta$ lines yields two similar solutions, both indicating high electron densities around $2 \times 10^{12}$ cm$^{-3}$ and relatively large microturbulence around 25 kms$^{-1}$. These are in reasonable agreement with other independent studies of the same or similar events. In particular, the high electron densities in the range $10^{12} - 10^{13}$ cm$^{-3}$ are consistent with those derived from the SDO's Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager white-light observations. The presence of such high densities in solar eruptive flares supports the loop interpretation of the optical continuum emission of stars which manifest superflares.
    IntensityCoolingAbundanceSolar Dynamics ObservatoryApexPlasma parameterCalibrationLine of sightMicroturbulenceFull width at half maximum...
  • In this paper we prove a conjecture due to Goncharov and Manin which states that the periods of the moduli spaces $\mathfrak{M}_{0,n}$ of Riemann spheres with $n$ marked points are multiple zeta values. In order to do this, we introduce a differential algebra of multiple polylogarithms on $\mathfrak{M}_{0,n}$, and prove that it is closed under the operation of taking primitives. The main idea is to apply a version of Stokes' formula iteratively, and to exploit the geometry of the moduli spaces to reduce each period integral to multiple zeta values. We also give a geometric interpretation of the double shuffle relations, by showing that they are two extremal cases of general product formulae for periods which arise by considering natural maps between moduli spaces.
    DihedralIsomorphismRegularizationUnipotentPolylogarithmFibrationIterated integralHolomorphCohomologyPolytope...
  • GRB 160821A is the third most energetic gamma ray burst observed by the {\it Fermi} gamma-ray space telescope. Based on the observations made by Cadmium Zinc Telluride Imager (CZTI) on board {\it AstroSat}, here we report the most conclusive evidence to date of (i) high linear polarization ($66^{+26}_{-27} \%$; $5.3 \sigma$ detection), and (ii) variation of its polarization angle with time happening twice during the rise and decay phase of the burst at $3.5 \sigma$ and $3.1 \sigma$ detections respectively. All confidence levels are reported for two parameters of interest. These observations strongly suggest synchrotron radiation produced in magnetic field lines which are highly ordered on angular scales of $1/\Gamma$, where $\Gamma $ is the Lorentz factor of the outflow.
    Gamma ray burstSynchrotron radiationStatistical significanceSystematic errorTellurideMonte Carlo methodTime ResolvedLorentz factorConfidence intervalHardness ratio...
  • We investigate the impact of cosmic rays (CRs) on the circumgalactic medium (CGM) in FIRE-2 simulations, for ultra-faint dwarf through Milky Way (MW)-mass halos hosting star-forming (SF) galaxies. Our CR treatment includes injection by supernovae, anisotropic streaming and diffusion along magnetic field lines, collisional and streaming losses, with constant parallel diffusivity $\kappa\sim3\times10^{29}\,\mathrm{cm^2\ s^{-1}}$ chosen to match $\gamma$-ray observations. With this, CRs become more important at larger halo masses and lower redshifts, and dominate the pressure in the CGM in MW-mass halos at $z\lesssim 1-2$. The gas in these ``CR-dominated'' halos differs significantly from runs without CRs: the gas is primarily cool (a few $\sim10^{4}\,$K), and the cool phase is volume-filling and has a thermal pressure below that needed for virial or local thermal pressure balance. Ionization of the ``low'' and ``mid'' ions in this diffuse cool gas is dominated by photo-ionization, with O VI columns $\gtrsim 10^{14.5}\,\mathrm{cm^{-2}}$ at distances $\gtrsim 150\,\mathrm{kpc}$. CR and thermal gas pressure are locally anti-correlated, maintaining total pressure balance, and the CGM gas density profile is determined by the balance of CR pressure gradients and gravity. Neglecting CRs, the same halos are primarily warm/hot ($T\gtrsim 10^{5}\,$K) with thermal pressure balancing gravity, collisional ionization dominates, O VI columns are lower and Ne VIII higher, and the cool phase is confined to dense filaments in local thermal pressure equilibrium with the hot phase.
    Cosmic rayCircumgalactic mediumCoolingIonizationMass of the Milky WayUltraviolet backgroundGalaxyMilky WayStar formationVirial mass...
  • This research investigates an equation of productivity for workflows regarding its robustness towards the definition of workflows as probabilistic distributions. The equation was formulated across its derivations through a theoretical framework about information theory, probabilities and complex adaptive systems. By defining the productivity equation for organism-object interactions, workflows mathematical derivations can be predicted and monitored without strict empirical methods and allows workflow flexibility for organism-object environments.
    Information theoryComplex adaptive systemObjectProbability...
  • We infer the properties of massive star populations using the far-ultraviolet stellar continua of 61 star-forming galaxies: 42 at low-z observed with HST and 19 at z~2 from the Megasaura sample. We fit each stellar continuum with a linear combination of up to 50 single age and single metallicity Starburst99 models. From these fits, we derive light-weighted ages and metallicities, which agree with stellar wind and photospheric spectral features, and infer the spectral shapes and strengths of the ionizing continua. Inferred light-weighted stellar metallicities span 0.05-1.5 Z$_\odot$ and are similar to the measured nebular metallicities. We quantify the ionizing continua using the ratio of the ionizing flux at 900\AA\ to the non-ionizing flux at 1500\AA\ and demonstrate the evolution of this ratio with stellar age and metallicity using theoretical single burst models. These single burst models only match the inferred ionizing continua of half of the sample, while the other half are described by a mixture of stellar ages. Mixed age populations produce stronger and harder ionizing spectra than continuous star formation histories, but, contrary to previous studies that assume constant star formation, have similar stellar and nebular metallicities. Stellar population age and metallicity affect the far-UV continua in different and distinguishable ways; assuming a constant star formation history diminishes the diagnostic power. Finally, we provide simple prescriptions to determine the ionizing photon production efficiency ($\xi_{ion}$) from the stellar population properties. $\xi_{ion}$ has a range of log($\xi_{ion})=24.4-25.7$ Hz erg$^{-1}$ that depends on stellar age, metallicity, star formation history, and contributions from binary star evolution. These stellar population properties must be observationally determined to determine the number of ionizing photons generated by massive stars.
    Stellar populationsMetallicityIonizing radiationMassive starsGalaxyStellar agesStarStellar windP CygniStar formation...
  • Most of the time, electronic excitations in mesoscopic conductors are well described, around equilibrium, by non-interacting Landau quasi-particles. This allows a good understanding of the transport properties in the linear regime. However, the role of interaction in the non-equilibrium properties beyond this regime has still to be established. A paradigmatic example is the Kondo many body state, which can be realized in a carbon nanotube (CNT) quantum dot for temperatures below the Kondo temperature $T_K$. As CNT possess spin and orbital quantum numbers, it is possible to investigate the twofold degenerate SU(2) Kondo effect as well as the four fold degenerate SU(4) state by tuning the degeneracies and filling factor. This article aims at providing a comprehensive review on our recent works on the Kondo correlations probed by quantum noise measurement both at low and high frequencies and demonstrate how current noise measurements yield new insight on interaction effects and dynamics of a Kondo correlated state.
    Carbon nanotubesQuantum dotsKondo effectShot noiseFermi liquidNumerical renormalization groupBackscatteringHamiltonianDensity of statesQuantum fluctuation...
  • I review the current state of numerical simulations of stellar feedback in the context of star formation at scales ranging from the formation of individual stars to models of galaxy formation including cosmic reionisation. I survey the wealth of algorithms developed recently to solve the radiative transfer problem and to simulate stellar winds, supernovae and protostellar jets. I discuss the results of these simulations with regard to star formation in molecular clouds, the interaction of different feedback mechanisms with each other and with magnetic fields, and in the wider context of galactic-- and cosmological--scale simulations.
    Star formationSupernovaTurbulenceAccretionH II regionSmoothed-particle hydrodynamicsStar formation rateThermalisationInterstellar mediumCooling...
  • Distance metric learning (DML) is to learn the embeddings where examples from the same class are closer than examples from different classes. It can be cast as an optimization problem with triplet constraints. Due to the vast number of triplet constraints, a sampling strategy is essential for DML. With the tremendous success of deep learning in classifications, it has been applied for DML. When learning embeddings with deep neural networks (DNNs), only a mini-batch of data is available at each iteration. The set of triplet constraints has to be sampled within the mini-batch. Since a mini-batch cannot capture the neighbors in the original set well, it makes the learned embeddings sub-optimal. On the contrary, optimizing SoftMax loss, which is a classification loss, with DNN shows a superior performance in certain DML tasks. It inspires us to investigate the formulation of SoftMax. Our analysis shows that SoftMax loss is equivalent to a smoothed triplet loss where each class has a single center. In real-world data, one class can contain several local clusters rather than a single one, e.g., birds of different poses. Therefore, we propose the SoftTriple loss to extend the SoftMax loss with multiple centers for each class. Compared with conventional deep metric learning algorithms, optimizing SoftTriple loss can learn the embeddings without the sampling phase by mildly increasing the size of the last fully connected layer. Experiments on the benchmark fine-grained data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed loss function.
    ClassificationDeep Neural NetworksFully connected layerOptimizationEntropyPositive semi definiteStochastic gradient descentDeep learningHard thermal loopPrincipal component analysis...
  • Neural architecture search (NAS) has witnessed prevailing success in image classification and (very recently) segmentation tasks. In this paper, we present the first preliminary study on introducing the NAS algorithm to generative adversarial networks (GANs), dubbed AutoGAN. The marriage of NAS and GANs faces its unique challenges. We define the search space for the generator architectural variations and use an RNN controller to guide the search, with parameter sharing and dynamic-resetting to accelerate the process. Inception score is adopted as the reward, and a multi-level search strategy is introduced to perform NAS in a progressive way. Experiments validate the effectiveness of AutoGAN on the task of unconditional image generation. Specifically, our discovered architectures achieve highly competitive performance compared to current state-of-the-art hand-crafted GANs, e.g., setting new state-of-the-art FID scores of 12.42 on CIFAR-10, and 31.01 on STL-10, respectively. We also conclude with a discussion of the current limitations and future potential of AutoGAN. The code is available at https://github.com/TAMU-VITA/AutoGAN
    Generative Adversarial NetArchitectureRecurrent neural networkClassificationOptimizationTraining setAttentionReinforcement learningNeural networkSpectral normalization...
  • While deep learning is successful in a number of applications, it is not yet well understood theoretically. A satisfactory theoretical characterization of deep learning however, is beginning to emerge. It covers the following questions: 1) representation power of deep networks 2) optimization of the empirical risk 3) generalization properties of gradient descent techniques --- why the expected error does not suffer, despite the absence of explicit regularization, when the networks are overparametrized? In this review we discuss recent advances in the three areas. In approximation theory both shallow and deep networks have been shown to approximate any continuous functions on a bounded domain at the expense of an exponential number of parameters (exponential in the dimensionality of the function). However, for a subset of compositional functions, deep networks of the convolutional type can have a linear dependence on dimensionality, unlike shallow networks. In optimization we discuss the loss landscape for the exponential loss function and show that stochastic gradient descent will find with high probability the global minima. To address the question of generalization for classification tasks, we use classical uniform convergence results to justify minimizing a surrogate exponential-type loss function under a unit norm constraint on the weight matrix at each layer -- since the interesting variables for classification are the weight directions rather than the weights. Our approach, which is supported by several independent new results, offers a solution to the puzzle about generalization performance of deep overparametrized ReLU networks, uncovering the origin of the underlying hidden complexity control.
    OptimizationCritical pointDeep learningArchitectureStochastic gradient descentClassificationRegularizationExponential typeGraphBinary tree...
  • In this paper, a legless capsule robot (capsubot) comprised of a sealed external body, an internal body, and a rotational actuator is proposed. The aim of this robot is to move in a two-dimensional viscous environment. After the robot is designed and modeled, a four-stage angular velocity profile is proposed to move the robot in one direction. In addition, a camera is used to obtain the position of the robot in the environment while the orientation and the velocity of the robot is estimated with Kalman filter by fusing the IMU, gyro, and the magnetometer sensors. Furthermore, to control the robot a state feedback control is implemented. Finally, experimental results are provided to demonstrate the performance of the robots and the proposed algorithms.
    Kalman filterOrientationMagnetometerVibrationLiquidsAttentionMobile robotPositioning systemImage ProcessingRobotics...
  • Two-Higgs-doublet models (2HDMs) with a flavored U(1)' gauge symmetry are a popular extension to the Standard Model (SM), yet they currently lack a complete survey. In this paper, we present a full classification of anomaly-free 2HDMs within the SM fermion content, resulting in a total of eleven distinct models. Four of these are relatively well-studied, while the rest either partially, or entirely, lack previous treatment. We study these textures under a variety of experimental bounds, focusing mainly on the previously unexplored models. This work is intended to act as a catalog to models worth considering in greater detail.
    Two Higgs Doublet ModelClassificationChiral anomalyStandard ModelStandard Model fermionGauge symmetryU(1)SymmetryCatalogsSurveys...
  • Physics beyond the Standard Model can manifest itself as both new light states and heavy degrees of freedom. In this paper, we assume that the former comprise only a sterile neutrino, $N$. Therefore, the most agnostic description of the new physics is given by an effective field theory built upon the Standard Model fields as well as $N$. We show that Higgs phenomenology provides a sensitive and potentially crucial tool to constrain effective gauge interactions of sterile neutrinos, not yet probed by current experiments. In parallel, this motivates a range of new Higgs decay channels with clean signatures as candidates for the next LHC runs, including $h\to \gamma+p_T^\text{miss}$ and $h\to \gamma\gamma+p_T^\text{miss}$.
    Higgs bosonStandard ModelSterile neutrinoLarge Hadron ColliderEffective field theoryMissing energyNeutrinoEffective field theory of the Standard ModelDrell-Yan processDegree of freedom...
  • The aim of this work is to find a simple mathematical framework for our established description of particle physics. We demonstrate that the particular gauge structure, group representations and charge assignments of the Standard Model particles are all captured by the algebra M(8,$\mathbb{C})$ of complex 8$\times$8 matrices. This algebra is well motivated by its close relation to the normed division algebra of octonions. (Anti-)particle states are identified with basis elements of the vector space M(8,$\mathbb{C})$. Gauge transformations are simply described by the algebra acting on itself. Our result shows that all particles and gauge structures of the Standard Model are contained in the tensor product of all four normed division algebras, with the quaternions providing the Lorentz representations. Interestingly, the space M(8,$\mathbb{C})$ contains two additional elements independent of the Standard Model particles, hinting at a minimal amount of new physics.
    Standard ModelHyperchargeGauge transformationDivision algebraVector spaceAntiparticleWeak isospinHiggs doubletClifford algebraHiggs boson...
  • There are indications that gravity is asymptotically safe. The Standard Model (SM) plus gravity could be valid up to arbitrarily high energies. Supposing that this is indeed the case and assuming that there are no intermediate energy scales between the Fermi and Planck scales we address the question of whether the mass of the Higgs boson $m_H$ can be predicted. For a positive gravity induced anomalous dimension $A_\lambda>0$ the running of the quartic scalar self interaction $\lambda$ at scales beyond the Planck mass is determined by a fixed point at zero. This results in $m_H=m_{\rm min}=126$ GeV, with only a few GeV uncertainty. This prediction is independent of the details of the short distance running and holds for a wide class of extensions of the SM as well. For $A_\lambda <0$ one finds $m_H$ in the interval $m_{\rm min}< m_H < m_{\rm max}\simeq 174$ GeV, now sensitive to $A_\lambda$ and other properties of the short distance running. The case $A_\lambda>0$ is favored by explicit computations existing in the literature.
    Standard ModelAnomalous dimensionGauge coupling constantPlanck scaleHiggs boson massTop quark massHiggs bosonAsymptotic safetyUV fixed pointYukawa coupling...
  • We propose a scenario to retrodict the top and bottom mass and the Abelian gauge coupling from first principles in a microscopic model including quantum gravity. In our approximation, antiscreening quantum-gravity fluctuations induce an asymptotically safe fixed point for the Abelian hypercharge leading to a uniquely fixed infrared value that is observationally viable for a particular choice of microscopic gravitational parameters. The unequal quantum numbers of the top and bottom quark lead to different fixed-point values for the top and bottom Yukawa under the impact of gauge and gravity fluctuations. This results in a dynamically generated mass difference between the two quarks. To work quantitatively, the preferred ratio of electric charges of bottom and top in our approximation lies in close vicinity to the Standard-Model value of $Q_b/Q_t =-1/2$.
    Quantum gravityStandard ModelGauge coupling constantHyperchargeBottom quarkPole massPlanck scaleRenormalisation group flowElectroweak scaleAsymptotic safety...
  • Above a critical dark matter-nucleus scattering cross section any terrestrial direct detection experiment loses sensitivity to dark matter, since the Earth crust, atmosphere, and potential shielding layers start to block off the dark matter particles. This critical cross section is commonly determined by describing the average energy loss of the dark matter particles analytically. However, this treatment overestimates the stopping power of the Earth crust. Therefore the obtained bounds should be considered as conservative. We perform Monte Carlo simulations to determine the precise value of the critical cross section for various direct detection experiments and compare them to other dark matter constraints in the low mass regime. In this region we find parameter space where typical underground and surface detectors are completely blind to dark matter. This "hole" in the parameter space can hardly be closed with an increase in the detector exposure. Dedicated surface or high-altitude experiments may be the only way to directly probe this part of the parameter space.
    Dark matterMonte Carlo methodDark matter particleCRESSTEarthLight dark matterLaboratory dark matter searchXENON1TDark matter particle massScattering cross section...
  • WIMPs are promising dark matter candidates. A WIMP occasionally collides with a mirror equipped with interferometric gravitational wave detectors such as LIGO, Virgo, KAGRA and Einstein Telescope (ET). When WIMPs collide with a mirror of an interferometer, we expect that characteristic motions of the pendulum and mirror are excited, and those signals could be extracted by highly sophisticated sensors developed for gravitational wave detection. We analyze the motions of the pendulum and mirror, and estimate the detectability of these motions. For the "Thin-ET" detector, the signal to noise ratio may be $ 1.7 \left( \frac{ m_{\rm{DM}} }{ 100~\rm{GeV} } \right) $, where $ m_{\rm{DM}} $ is the mass of a WIMP. We may set a more strict upper limit on the cross section between a WIMP and a nucleon than the limits obtained by other experiments so far when $ m_{\rm{DM}} $ is approximately lower than 0.2~GeV. We find an order of magnitude improvement in the upper limit around $ m_{\rm{DM}} = 0.2~{\rm{GeV}} $.
    Weakly interacting massive particleEinstein TelescopeSignal to noise ratioInterferometersGravitational waveLaser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave ObservatoryLasersDark matter signalGravitational wave detectorStatistics...
  • We introduce the public version of the cosmological magnetohydrodynamical moving-mesh simulation code Arepo. This version contains a finite-volume magnetohydrodynamics algorithm on an unstructured, dynamic Voronoi tessellation coupled to a tree-particle-mesh algorithm for the Poisson equation either on a Newtonian or cosmologically expanding spacetime. Time-integration is performed adopting local timestep constraints for each cell individually, solving the fluxes only across active interfaces, and calculating gravitational forces only between active particles, using an operator-splitting approach. This allows simulations with high dynamic range to be performed efficiently. Arepo is a massively distributed-memory parallel code, using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) communication standard and employing a dynamical work-load and memory balancing scheme to allow optimal use of multi-node parallel computers. The employed parallelization algorithms of Arepo are deterministic and produce binary-identical results when re-run on the same machine and with the same number of MPI ranks. A simple primordial cooling and star formation model is included as an example of sub-resolution models commonly used in simulations of galaxy formation. Arepo also contains a suite of computationally inexpensive test problems, ranging from idealized tests for automated code verification to scaled-down versions of cosmological galaxy formation simulations, and is extensively documented in order to assist adoption of the code by new scientific users.
    Fluid dynamicsRankGalaxy FormationGravitational forceStar formationGalaxyMagnetohydrodynamicsPeriodic boundary conditionsDark matter subhaloStar...
  • We demonstrate how the least luminous galaxies in the Universe, ultra-faint dwarf galaxies, are sensitive to their dynamical mass at the time of cosmic reionization. We select a low-mass ($\sim \text{1.5} \times 10^{9} \, \text{M}_{\odot}$) dark matter halo from a cosmological volume, and perform zoom hydrodynamical simulations with multiple alternative histories using "genetically modified" initial conditions. Earlier forming ultra-faints have higher stellar mass today, due to a longer period of star formation before their quenching by reionization. Our histories all converge to the same final dynamical mass, demonstrating the existence of extended scatter ($\geq$ 1 dex) in stellar masses at fixed halo mass due to the diversity of possible histories. One of our variants builds less than 2 \% of its final dynamical mass before reionization, rapidly quenching in-situ star formation. The bulk of its final stellar mass is later grown by dry mergers, depositing stars in the galaxy's outskirts and hence expanding its effective radius. This mechanism constitutes a new formation scenario for highly diffuse ($\text{r}_{1 /2} \sim 820 \, \text{pc}$, $\sim 32 \, \text{mag arcsec}^2$), metal-poor ($\big[ \mathrm{Fe}\, / \mathrm{H} \big]= -2.9$), ultra-faint ($\mathcal{M}_V= -5.7$) dwarf galaxies within the reach of next-generation low surface brightness surveys.
    Stellar massReionizationGalaxyVirial massUltra-faint dwarf spheroidal galaxyStar formationStarMilky WayQuenchingSurface brightness...
  • Recently van Dokkum et al. (2018b) reported that the galaxy NGC 1052-DF2 (DF2) lacks dark matter if located at $20$ Mpc from Earth. In contrast, DF2 is a dark-matter-dominated dwarf galaxy with a normal globular cluster population if it has a much shorter distance near $10$ Mpc. However, DF2 then has a high peculiar velocity wrt. the cosmic microwave background of $886$ $\rm{km\,s^{-1}}$, which differs from that of the Local Group (LG) velocity vector by $1298$ $\rm{km\,s^{-1}}$ with an angle of $117 \, ^{\circ}$. Taking into account the dynamical $M/L$ ratio, the stellar mass, half-light radius, peculiar velocity, motion relative to the LG, and the luminosities of the globular clusters, we show that the probability of finding DF2-like galaxies in the lambda cold dark matter ($\Lambda$CDM) TNG100-1 simulation is at most $1.0\times10^{-4}$ at $11.5$ Mpc and is $4.8\times10^{-7}$ at $20.0$ Mpc. At $11.5$ Mpc, the peculiar velocity is in significant tension with the TNG100-1, TNG300-1, and Millennium simulations, but occurs naturally in a Milgromian cosmology. At $20.0$ Mpc, the unusual globular cluster population would challenge any cosmological model. Estimating that precise measurements of the internal velocity dispersion, stellar mass, and distance exist for $100$ galaxies, DF2 is in $2.6\sigma$ ($11.5$ Mpc) and $4.1\sigma$ ($20.0$ Mpc) tension with standard cosmology. Adopting the former distance for DF2 and assuming that NGC 1052-DF4 is at $20.0$ Mpc, the existence of both is in tension at $\geq4.8\sigma$ with the $\Lambda$CDM model. If both galaxies are at $20.0$ Mpc the $\Lambda$CDM cosmology has to be rejected by $\geq5.8\sigma$.
    Globular clusterGalaxyPeculiar velocityDark matter subhaloCold dark matterLocal groupCosmologyDark matterDwarf galaxyIllustris simulation...
  • Scattering amplitudes in quantum field theories are of widespread interest, due to a large number of theoretical and phenomenological applications. Much is known about the possible behaviour of amplitudes, that is independent of the details of the underlying theory. This knowledge is often neglected in modern QFT courses, and the aim of these notes - aimed at graduate students - is to redress this. We review the possible singularities that amplitudes can have, before examining the generic behaviour that can arise in the high-energy limit. Finally, we illustrate the results using examples from QCD and gravity.
    S-matrixScattering amplitudeBound stateComplex planeUnitarityExchange particleQuantum field theoryLegendre polynomialsUpper half-planeQuantum mechanics...