- Causal inference (Causal inference)

by Manoj Agravat21 Sep 2016 12:38 - Full-duplex (Full-duplex)

by Muhammad R. A. Khandaker08 Mar 2016 12:48 - Plasma physics (Plasma physics)

by Jim Crumley22 Sep 2015 16:59 - MHD equations (MHD equations)

by Jim Crumley22 Sep 2015 16:57 - Electricity and magnetism (Electricity and magnetism)

by Jim Crumley22 Sep 2015 16:54 - Wigner transform (Wigner transform)

by Dr. Claude Becker06 Apr 2011 14:04 - Geometric flattening (Geometric flattening)

by Dr. Ganna Ivashchenko05 Dec 2010 22:14 - Benjamin-Ono equation (Benjamin-Ono equation)

by Prof. Alexander Abanov03 Nov 2009 21:51 - Fingers of God (Fingers of God)

by Dr. Ganna Ivashchenko18 May 2011 22:42 - Fermi surface (Fermi surface)

by Dr. Vadim Cheianov05 Dec 2010 22:11

- Using $4.479 \times 10^{8}$ $\psi(3686)$ events collected with the BESIII detector, we search for the decays $\psi(3686) \rightarrow e^{+}e^{-}\chi_{c0,1,2}$ and $\chi_{c0,1,2} \rightarrow e^{+}e^{-}J/\psi$. The decays $\psi(3686) \rightarrow e^{+}e^{-}\chi_{c0,1,2}$ and $\chi_{c0,1,2} \rightarrow e^{+}e^{-}J/\psi$ are observed for the first time. The measured branching fractions are $\mathcal{B}(\psi(3686) \rightarrow e^{+}e^{-}\chi_{c0,1,2}) = (11.7 \pm 2.5 \pm 1.0)\times10^{-4}$, $(8.6 \pm 0.3 \pm 0.6)\times10^{-4}$, $(6.9 \pm 0.5 \pm 0.6)\times10^{-4}$, and $\mathcal{B}(\chi_{c0,1,2} \rightarrow e^{+}e^{-}J/\psi) = (1.51 \pm 0.30 \pm 0.13)\times10^{-4}$, $(3.73 \pm 0.09 \pm 0.25)\times10^{-3}$, $(2.48 \pm 0.08 \pm 0.16)\times10^{-3}$. The ratios of the branching fractions $\frac{\mathcal{B}(\psi(3686) \rightarrow e^{+}e^{-}\chi_{c0,1,2})}{\mathcal{B}(\psi(3686) \rightarrow \gamma\chi_{c0,1,2})}$ and $\frac{\mathcal{B}(\chi_{c0,1,2} \rightarrow e^{+}e^{-}J/\psi)}{\mathcal{B}(\chi_{c0,1,2} \rightarrow \gamma J/\psi)}$ are also reported.Monte Carlo methodBranching ratioSystematic errorKinematicsInvariant massCharged particleTime-of-flightQuantum electrodynamicsDecay modeElectromagnetic calorimeter...
- Although the cusp-core controversy for dwarf galaxies is seen as a problem, I argue that the cored central profiles can be explained by flattened cusps because they suffer from conflicting measurements and poor statistics and because there is a large number of conventional processes that could have flattened them since their creation, none of which requires new physics. Other problems, such as "too big to fail", are not discussed.Dark matterDwarf galaxyEllipticityStarMilky WayNavarro-Frenk-White profileStatisticsDark matter haloStar formationUltra compact dwarf galaxy...
- Neutrinos propagating in media (matter and electromagnetic fields) undergo flavor and helicity oscillations, where helicity transitions are instigated both by electromagnetic fields and matter currents. In addition, it has been shown that correlations between neutrinos and antineutrinos of opposite momentum can build up in anisotropic media. We re-derive the neutrino equations of motion in the mean-field approximation for homogeneous yet anisotropic media, confirming previous results except for a small correction in the Majorana case. Furthermore, we derive the mean-field Hamiltonian induced by neutrino electromagnetic interactions. We also provide a phenomenological discussion of pair correlations in comparison with helicity correlations.NeutrinoHamiltonianHelicityMean fieldSupernovaAntineutrinoMajorana neutrinoDensity matrixForm factorNeutrino mass...
- In the nearly 60 years of spaceflight we have accomplished wonderful feats of exploration that have shown the incredible spirit of the human drive to explore and understand our universe. Yet in those 60 years we have barely left our solar system with the Voyager 1 spacecraft launched in 1977 finally leaving the solar system after 37 years of flight at a speed of 17 km/s or less than 0.006% the speed of light. As remarkable as this is we will never reach even the nearest stars with our current propulsion technology in even 10 millennium. We have to radically rethink our strategy or give up our dreams of reaching the stars, or wait for technology that does not currently exist. While we all dream of human spaceflight to the stars in a way romanticized in books and movies, it is not within our power to do so, nor it is clear that this is the path we should choose. We posit a technological path forward, that while not simple, it is within our technological reach. We propose a roadmap to a program that will lead to sending relativistic probes to the nearest stars and will open up a vast array of possibilities of flight both within our solar system and far beyond. Spacecraft from gram level complete spacecraft on a wafer ("wafersats") that reach more than 1/4 c and reach the nearest star in 20 years to spacecraft with masses more than 10^5 kg (100 tons) that can reach speeds of greater than 1000 km/s. These systems can be propelled to speeds currently unimaginable with existing propulsion technologies. To do so requires a fundamental change in our thinking of both propulsion and in many cases what a spacecraft is. In addition to larger spacecraft, some capable of transporting humans, we consider functional spacecraft on a wafer, including integrated optical communications, imaging systems, photon thrusters, power and sensors combined with directed energy propulsion.Solar systemNearest starsStarMultidimensional ArraySpeed of lightVoyager 1CommunicationUniversePhotonMass...
- We present the second release of value-added catalogues of the LAMOST Spectroscopic Survey of the Galactic Anticentre (LSS-GAC DR2). The catalogues present values of radial velocity $V_{\rm r}$, atmospheric parameters --- effective temperature $T_{\rm eff}$, surface gravity log$g$, metallicity [Fe/H], $\alpha$-element to iron (metal) abundance ratio [$\alpha$/Fe] ([$\alpha$/M]), elemental abundances [C/H] and [N/H], and absolute magnitudes ${\rm M}_V$ and ${\rm M}_{K_{\rm s}}$ deduced from 1.8 million spectra of 1.4 million unique stars targeted by the LSS-GAC since September 2011 until June 2014. The catalogues also give values of interstellar reddening, distance and orbital parameters determined with a variety of techniques, as well as proper motions and multi-band photometry from the far-UV to the mid-IR collected from the literature and various surveys. Accuracies of radial velocities reach 5kms$^{-1}$ for late-type stars, and those of distance estimates range between 10 -- 30 per cent, depending on the spectral signal-to-noise ratios. Precisions of [Fe/H], [C/H] and [N/H] estimates reach 0.1dex, and those of [$\alpha$/Fe] and [$\alpha$/M] reach 0.05dex. The large number of stars, the contiguous sky coverage, the simple yet non-trivial target selection function and the robust estimates of stellar radial velocities and atmospheric parameters, distances and elemental abundances, make the catalogues a valuable data set to study the structure and evolution of the Galaxy, especially the solar-neighbourhood and the outer disk.StarLAMOSTAbsolute magnitudeOf starsRadial velocityAbundanceAndromeda galaxyTraining setTriangulum GalaxyPrincipal component...
- We highlight phenomenological aspects of Verlinde's recent proposal to account for the mass anomalies in galactic systems without dark matter -- in particular in their relation to MOND. Welcome addition to the MOND lore as it is, this approach have reproduced, so far, only a small fraction of MOND phenomenology, and is still rather tentative, both in its theoretical foundations and in its phenomenology. What Verlinde has extracted from this approach, so far, is a formula -- of rather limited applicability, and with no road to generalization in sight -- for the effective gravitational field of a spherical, isolated, static baryonic system. This formula cannot be used to calculate the gravitational field of disk galaxies, with their rich MOND phenomenology. Notably, it cannot predict their rotation curves, except asymptotically. It does not apply to the few-, or many-body problem; so, it cannot give, e.g., the two-body force between two galaxies, or be used to conduct N-body calculations of galaxy formation, evolution, and interactions. The formula cannot be applied to the internal dynamics of a system embedded in an external field, where MOND predicts important consequences. etc. MOND is backed by full-fledged, Lagrangian theories that can be, and are, routinely applied to all the above phenomena, and more. Verlinde's formula, as it now stands, strongly conflicts with solar-system and possibly earth-surface constraints, and cannot fully account for the mass anomalies in the cores of galaxy clusters (a standing conundrum in MOND). The recent weak-lensing test of the formula is, in fact, testing a cornerstone prediction of MOND, one that the formula does reproduce, and which has been tested before in the very same way.Modified Newtonian DynamicsMOND phenomenologyGalaxyRotation CurveEarthWeak lensingSolar systemDark matterVerlinde formulaGravitational fields...
- The extension of the Standard Model by right handed neutrinos with masses in the GeV range can simultaneously explain the observed neutrino masses via the seesaw mechanism and the baryon asymmetry of the universe via leptogenesis. It has previously been claimed that the requirement for successful baryogenesis implies that the rate of neutrinoless double $\beta$ decay in this scenario is always smaller than the standard prediction from light neutrino exchange alone. In contrast, we find that the rate for this process can also be enhanced due to a dominant contribution from heavy neutrino exchange. In a small part of the parameter space it even exceeds the current experimental limit, while the properties of the heavy neutrinos are consistent with all other experimental constraints and the observed baryon asymmetry is reproduced. This implies that neutrinoless double $\beta$ decay experiments have already started to rule out part of the leptogenesis parameter space that is not constrained by any other experiment, and the lepton number violation that is responsible for the origin of baryonic matter in the universe may be observed in the near future.Sterile neutrinoNeutrinoLeptogenesisBaryon asymmetry of the UniverseSeesaw mechanismNeutrino massBaryogenesisStandard ModelLepton flavour violationFlavour...
- The velocity distribution of dark matter near the Earth is important for an accurate analysis of the signals in terrestrial detectors. This distribution is typically extracted from numerical simulations. Here we address the possibility of deriving the velocity distribution function analytically. We derive a differential equation which is a function of radius and the radial component of the velocity. Under various assumptions this can be solved, and we compare the solution with the results from controlled numerical simulations. Our findings complement the previously derived tangential velocity distribution. We hereby demonstrate that the entire distribution function, below 0.7 v_esc, can be derived analytically for spherical and equilibrated dark matter structures.Velocity distribution functionNumerical simulationDark matterBoltzmann transport equationDark matter haloRadial velocityJeans equationEarthEscape velocityPhase space...
- If axion-like particles (ALPs) constitute a major part of dark matter (DM), due to the bosonic nature and a relative small mass, they could behave differently from the point like dark matter particles on the formation of the cosmic structures. When studying the structure formation, it is often useful to consider DM as a special fluid with a given density and a given velocity. ALP fluid obeys a same continuity equation comparing to the point-like collisionless DM but has a different first-order velocity equation. In the linear regime of structure formation, the resulted observational differences are negligible for the QCD axions but can be interesting for very light ALPs.Axion-like particleDark matterAxionStructure formationQCD axionAxionic dark matterDark matter particleCold axionContinuity equationFriedmann Robertson Walker...
- We present the discovery and spectroscopic confirmation with the ESO NTT and Gemini South telescopes of eight new 6.0 < z < 6.5 quasars with z$_{AB}$ < 21.0. These quasars were photometrically selected without any star-galaxy morphological criteria from 1533 deg$^{2}$ using SED model fitting to photometric data from the Dark Energy Survey (g, r, i, z, Y), the VISTA Hemisphere Survey (J, H, K) and the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (W1, W2). The photometric data was fitted with a grid of quasar model SEDs with redshift dependent Lyman-{\alpha} forest absorption and a range of intrinsic reddening as well as a series of low mass cool star models. Candidates were ranked using on a SED-model based $\chi^{2}$-statistic, which is extendable to other future imaging surveys (e.g. LSST, Euclid). Our spectral confirmation success rate is 100% without the need for follow-up photometric observations as used in other studies of this type. Combined with automatic removal of the main types of non-astrophysical contaminants the method allows large data sets to be processed without human intervention and without being over run by spurious false candidates. We also present a robust parametric redshift estimating technique that gives comparable accuracy to MgII and CO based redshift estimators. We find two z $\sim$ 6.2 quasars with HII near zone sizes < 3 proper Mpc which could indicate that these quasars may be young with ages < 10$^6$ - 10$^7$ years or lie in over dense regions of the IGM. The z = 6.5 quasar VDESJ0224-4711 has J$_{AB}$ = 19.75 is the second most luminous quasar known with z > 6.5.QuasarDark Energy SurveySpectral energy distributionRankReddeningWide-field Infrared Survey ExplorerTelescopesPhotometryEuropean Southern ObservatorySloan Digital Sky Survey...
- We present here predictions for the spatial distribution of 21 cm brightness temperature fluctuations from high-dynamic-range simulations for AGN-dominated reionization histories that have been tested against available Lyman-alpha and CMB data. We model AGN by extrapolating the observed M-sigma relation to high redshifts and assign them ionizing emissivities consistent with recent UV luminosity function measurements. We assess the observability of the predicted spatial 21 cm fluctuations by ongoing and upcoming experiments in the late stages of reionization in the limit in which the hydrogen 21 cm spin temperature is significantly larger than the CMB temperature. Our AGN-dominated reionization histories increase the variance of the 21 cm emission by a factor of up to ten compared to similar reionization histories dominated by faint galaxies, to values close to 100 mK^2 at scales accessible to experiments (k < 1 h/cMpc). This is lower than the sensitivity claimed to have been already reached by ongoing experiments by only a factor of about two or less. When reionization is dominated by AGN, the 21 cm power spectrum is enhanced on all scales due to the enhanced bias of the clustering of the more massive haloes and the peak in the large scale 21 cm power is strongly enhanced and moved to larger scales due to bigger characteristic bubble sizes. AGN dominated reionization should be easily detectable by LOFAR (and later HERA and SKA1) at their design sensitivity, assuming successful foreground subtraction and instrument calibration. Conversely, these could become the first non-trivial reionization scenarios to be ruled out by 21 cm experiments, thereby constraining the contribution of AGN to reionization.Active Galactic NucleiReionizationHistory of the reionizationHydrogen 21 cm lineIonizationMilky WayCircular velocityQuasarCalibrationLyman recombination continua...
- Pumping a finite energy density into a quantum system typically leads to `melted' states characterized by exponentially-decaying correlations, as is the case for finite-temperature equilibrium situations. An important exception to this rule are states which, while being at high energy, maintain a low entropy. Such states can interestingly still display features of quantum criticality, especially in one dimension. Here, we consider high-energy states in anisotropic Heisenberg quantum spin chains obtained by splitting the ground state's magnon Fermi sea into separate pieces. Using methods based on integrability, we provide a detailed study of static and dynamical spin-spin correlations. These carry distinctive signatures of the Fermi sea splittings, which would be observable in eventual experimental realizations. Going further, we employ a multi-component Tomonaga-Luttinger model in order to predict the asymptotics of static correlations. For this effective field theory, we fix all universal exponents from energetics, and all non-universal correlation prefactors using finite-size scaling of matrix elements. The correlations obtained directly from integrability and those emerging from the Luttinger field theory description are shown to be in extremely good correspondence, as expected, for the large distance asymptotics, but surprisingly also for the short distance behavior. Finally, we discuss the description of dynamical correlations from a mobile impurity model, and clarify the relation of the effective field theory parameters to the Bethe Ansatz solution.Fermi pointFermi seaHamiltonianEntropyBethe ansatzReal spaceFinite sizeDynamic structure factorMobilityEffective field theory...
- Many aspects of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) instrument are still unknown due to its young age. One such aspect is the true nature of the primary beam of each baseline, and how changes to the individual primary beams affect astronomical observations when said changes are ignored during imaging. This paper aims to create a more thorough understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of ALMA through realistic modeling of the primary beams and simulated observations, which in turn can inform the user of the necessity of implementing more computationally costly algorithms, such as A-Projection, and when simpler, quicker algorithms will suffice. We quantify our results by examining the dynamic range of each observation, along with the ability to reconstruct the Stokes I amplitude of the test sources. These tests conclude that for dynamic ranges of less than 1000, for point sources and sources much smaller than the main lobe of the primary beam, the accuracy of the primary beam model beyond the physical size of the aperture simply doesn't matter. In observations of large extended sources, deconvolution errors dominate the reconstructed images and the individual primary beam errors were indistinguishable from each other.Atacama Large Millimeter ArrayMultidimensional ArrayPoint sourceDiffuse sourceSystematic errorInterferometersObservatoriesRay tracingCalibrationImage Processing...
- We review recent results on the phase structure of QCD and bulk QCD thermodynamics. In particular we discuss how universal critical scaling related to spontaneous breaking of the chiral symmetry manifests itself in recent lattice QCD simulations and how the knowledge on non-universal scaling parameter can be utilized in the exploration of the QCD phase diagram. We also show how various (generalized) susceptibilities can be employed to characterize properties of QCD matter at low and hight temperatures, related to deconfining aspects of the QCD transition. Finally, we address the input these lattice QCD calculation can provide for our under standing of the matter created in heavy ion collisions and in particular on the freeze-out conditions met in the hydrodynamic evolution of this matter.Quark massFreeze-outLattice QCDDegree of freedomChiral limitPhase diagramQuark-gluon plasmaDiscretizationChiral symmetryStrange quark...
- Recent data from neutrino experiments gives intriguing hints about the mass ordering, the CP violating phase and non-maximal atmospheric mixing. There seems to be a (one sigma) preference for a normal ordered (NO) neutrino mass pattern, with a CP phase $\delta = -100^{\circ}\pm 50 ^\circ$, and (more significantly) non-maximal atmospheric mixing. Global fits for the NO case yield lepton mixing angle one sigma ranges: $\theta_{23}\approx 41.4^\circ \pm 1.6^\circ$, $\theta_{12}\approx 33.2^\circ \pm 1.2^\circ$, $\theta_{13}\approx 8.45^\circ \pm 0.15^\circ$. Cosmology gives a limit on the total of the three masses to be below about $0.23$ eV, favouring hierarchical neutrino masses over quasi-degenerate masses. Given such experimental advances, it seems an opportune moment to review the theoretical status of attempts to explain such a pattern of neutrino masses and lepton mixing, focussing on approaches based on the four pillars of: {\em predictivity}, {\em minimality}, {\em robustness} and {\em unification}. {\em Predictivity} can result from various mixing sum rules whose status is reviewed. {\em Minimality} can follow from the type I seesaw mechanism, including constrained sequential dominance of right-handed (RH) neutrinos, and the littlest seesaw model. {\em Robustness} requires enforcing a discrete CP and non-Abelian family symmetry, spontaneously broken by flavons with the symmetry preserved in a semi-direct way. {\em Unification} can account for all lepton and quark masses, mixing angles and CP phases, as in Supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories of Flavour, with possible string theory origin.Neutrino massNeutrinoSterile neutrinoCharged leptonFlavourSeesaw mechanismGrand unification theoryMixing angleMajorana massYukawa coupling...
- We show that in a Complementary two-Higgs doublet model(C2HDM) CP violating phase in CKM matrix can be spontaneously generated, dangerous FCNC can be naturally suppressed and meanwhile the strong CP problem can also be avoided. The two Higgs doublets in the model are complementary in the sense that none of them is enough to describe masses of a given type of quarks. We find that the strength of FCNC is determined by the sub-dominant Yukawa coupling and is suppressed by the strength of Yukawa couplings of the first generation so that tree-level FCNC is sufficiently small. Using an explicit example, we show that radiative correction to the assumed Yukawa couplings can modify the discussion about the strong $\theta$ but the correction to strong $\theta$ is estimated to be less than around $10^{-12}$ which is much smaller than the experimental bound.Yukawa couplingCabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrixCP violating phaseFlavour Changing Neutral CurrentsRankHiggs doubletRadiative correctionStandard ModelCP-symmetryCP violation...
- For models with several Higgs doublets we present an alternative method to the one proposed by Branco, Gerard and Grimus, in 1984, to check whether or not CP is spontaneously violated in the Higgs potential. The previous method is powerful and rigorous. It requires the identification of a matrix $U$ corresponding to a symmetry of the Lagrangian and verifying a simple relation involving the vacuum expectation values. The nonexistence of such a matrix signals spontaneous CP violation. However, as the number of Higgs doublets increases, finding such a matrix $U$ may not be straightforward and it may turn out to be easier to analyse the potential by going to the so-called Higgs basis. The transformation to the Higgs basis is straightforward once the vacuum expectation values are known. The method proposed in this work is also powerful and rigorous and can be particularly useful to analyse models with more than two Higgs doublets and with continuous symmetries.Vacuum expectation valueHiggs bosonHiggs doubletCP violationCP-oddHiggs potentialCERNIrreducible representationContinuous symmetryTwo Higgs Doublet Model...
- We estimate the possible accuracies of measurements at the proposed CLIC $e^+e^-$ collider of Higgs and $W^+W^-$ production at centre-of-mass energies up to 3TeV, incorporating also Higgsstrahlung projections at higher energies that had not been considered previously, and use them to explore the prospective CLIC sensitivities to decoupled new physics. We present the resulting constraints on the Wilson coefficients of dimension-6 operators in a model-independent approach based on the Standard Model effective field theory (SM EFT). The higher centre-of-mass energy of CLIC, compared to other projects such as the ILC and CEPC, gives it greater sensitivity to the coefficients of some of the operators we study. We find that CLIC Higgs measurements may be sensitive to new physics scales $\Lambda = \mathcal{O}(10)$TeV for individual operators, reduced to $\mathcal{O}(1)$ TeV sensitivity for a global fit marginalising over the coefficients of all contributing operators. We give some examples of the corresponding prospective constraints on specific scenarios for physics beyond the SM, including stop quarks and the dilaton/radion.Compact Linear ColliderStandard ModelHiggs bosonEffective field theoryRadionLarge Hadron ColliderDilatonElectroweak precision testProduction cross-sectionTLEP experiment...
- We present here the application of a model for a mass circulation mechanism in between the H-burning shell and the base of the convective envelope of low mass AGB stars, aimed at studying the isotopic composition of those presolar grains showing the most extreme levels of 18O depletion and high concentration of 26Mg from the decay of 26Al. The mixing scheme we present is based on a previously suggested magnetic-buoyancy process, already shown to account adequately for the formation of the main neutron source for slow neutron captures in AGB stars. We find that this scenario is also capable of reproducing for the first time the extreme values of the 17O/16O, the 18O/16O, and the 26Al/27Al isotopic ratios found in the mentioned oxide grains, including the highest amounts of 26Al there measured.Presolar grainsIsotopeIsotopyAsymptotic giant branch starConvective envelopeNeutron sourcesNeutron captureOxideBuoyancyMass...
- The Lyman alpha forest power spectrum has been measured on large scales by the BOSS survey in SDSS-III at $z\sim 2.3$, has been shown to agree well with linear theory predictions, and has provided the first measurement of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations at this redshift. However, the power at small scales, affected by non-linearities, has not been well examined so far. We present results from a variety of hydrodynamic simulations to predict the redshift space non-linear power spectrum of the Lyman Alpha transmission for several models, testing the dependence on resolution and box size. A new fitting formula is introduced to facilitate the comparison of our simulation results with observations and other simulations. The non-linear power spectrum has a generic shape determined by a transition scale from linear to non-linear anisotropy, and a Jeans scale below which the power drops rapidly. In addition, we predict the two linear bias factors of the Lyman Alpha forest and provide a better physical interpretation of their values and redshift evolution. The dependence of these bias factors and the non-linear power on the amplitude and slope of the primordial fluctuations power spectrum, the temperature-density relation of the intergalactic medium, and the mean Lyman Alpha transmission, as well as the redshift evolution, is investigated and discussed in detail. A preliminary comparison to the observations shows that the predicted redshift distortion parameter is in good agreement with the recent determination of Blomqvist et al., but the density bias factor is lower than observed. We make all our results publicly available in the form of tables of the non-linear power spectrum that is directly obtained from all our simulations, and parameters of our fitting formula.Intergalactic mediumPlanck missionLine of sightAbsorptivityPeculiar velocityIonizationJeans lengthIntensityEffective optical depthFactorisation...
- We present a low-frequency view of the Perseus cluster with new observations from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) at 230-470 MHz. The data reveal a multitude of new structures associated with the mini-halo. The mini-halo seems to be influenced both by the AGN activity as well as by the sloshing motion of the cool core cluster's gas. In addition, it has a filamentary structure similar to that seen in radio relics found in merging clusters. We present a detailed description of the data reduction and imaging process of the dataset. The depth and resolution of the observations allow us to conduct for the first time a detailed comparison of the mini-halo structure with the X-ray structure as seen in the Chandra X-ray images. The resulting image shows very clearly that the mini-halo emission is mostly contained behind the cold fronts, similar to that predicted by simulations of gas sloshing in galaxy clusters. However, due to the proximity of the Perseus cluster, as well as the quality of the data at low radio frequencies and at X-ray wavelengths, we also find evidence of fine structure. This structure includes several radial radio filaments extending in different directions, a concave radio structure associated with the southern X-ray bay and sharp edges that correlate with X-ray edges. Mini-halos are therefore not simply diffuse, uniform radio sources, but are rather filled with a rich variety of complex structures. These results illustrate the high-quality images that can be obtained with the new JVLA at low radio-frequencies, as well as the necessity to obtain deeper, higher-fidelity radio images of mini-halos and halos in clusters to further understand their origin.Perseus galaxy clusterActive Galactic NucleiVery Large ArrayNGC 1275Galaxy filamentCalibrationImage ProcessingTurbulenceCluster of galaxiesFine structure...
- Continuum and reflection spectral models have each been widely employed in measuring the spins of accreting black holes. However, the two approaches have not been implemented together in a photon-conserving, self-consistent framework. We develop such a framework using the black-hole X-ray binary GX 339-4 as a touchstone source, and we demonstrate three important ramifications: (1) Compton scattering of reflection emission in the corona is routinely ignored, but is an essential consideration given that reflection is linked to the regimes with strongest Comptonization. Properly accounting for this causes the inferred reflection fraction to increase substantially, especially for the hard state. Another important impact of the Comptonization of reflection emission by the corona is the downscattered tail. Downscattering has the potential to mimic the relativistically-broadened red wing of the Fe line associated with a spinning black hole. (2) Recent evidence for a reflection component with a harder spectral index than the power-law continuum is naturally explained as Compton-scattered reflection emission. (3) Photon conservation provides an important constraint on the hard state's accretion rate. For bright hard states, we show that disk truncation to large scales (R much larger than the ISCO radius) is unlikely as this would require accretion rates far in excess of the brightest soft states. Our principal conclusion is that when modeling relativistically-broadened reflection, spectral models should allow for coronal Compton scattering of the reflection features, and when possible, take advantage of the additional constraining power from linking to the thermal disk component.Compton scatteringCoronaLuminosityBlack holeAccreting black holeAccretionBlack hole spinAccretion diskX-ray binaryFe abundance...
- We report the first detection of the prebiotic complex organic molecule CH$_3$NCO in a solar-type protostar, IRAS16293-2422 B. This species is one of the most abundant complex organic molecule detected on the surface of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, and in the insterstellar medium it has only been found in hot cores around high-mass protostars. We have used multi-frequency ALMA observations from 90 GHz to 350 GHz covering 11 unblended transitions of CH$_3$NCO and 40 more transitions that appear blended with emission from other molecular species. Our Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium analysis provides an excitation temperature of 232$\pm$41 K and a column density of (7.9$\pm$1.7)$\times$10$^{15}$ cm$^{-2}$, which implies an abundance of (7$\pm$2)$\times$10$^{-10}$ with respect to molecular hydrogen. The derived column density ratios CH$_3$NCO/HNCO, CH$_3$NCO/NH$_2$CHO, and CH$_3$NCO/CH$_3$CN are $\sim$0.3, $\sim$0.8, and $\sim$0.2, respectively, which are different from those measured in hot cores and in comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Our chemical modelling of CH$_3$NCO reproduces well the abundances and column density ratios CH$_3$NCO/HNCO and CH$_3$NCO/NH$_2$CHO measured in IRAS16293-2422 B, suggesting that the production of CH$_3$NCO could occur mostly via gas-phase chemistry after the evaporation of HNCO from dust grains.AbundanceNormal hierarchyCometProtostarDust grainPrebioticAtacama Large Millimeter ArrayEvaporationHigh massLocal thermal equilibrium...
- In the framework of the color-magnetic interaction, we have systematically studied the mass splittings of the possible hidden-charm pentaquarks $qqqc\bar{c}$ ($q=u,d,s$) where the three light quarks are in a color-octet state. We find that i) the LHCb $P_c$ states fall in the mass region of the studied system; ii) most pentaquarks should be broad states since their $S$-wave open-charm decays are allowed while the lowest state is the $J^P=\frac12^-$ $\Lambda$-like pentaquark with probably the suppressed $\eta_c\Lambda$ decay mode only; and iii) the $J^P=\frac52^-$ states do not decay through $S$-wave and their widths are not so broad. The masses and widths of the two LHCb $P_c$ baryons are compatible with such pentaquark states. We also explore the hidden-bottom and $B_c$-like partners of the hidden-charm states and find the possible existence of the pentaquarks which are lower than the relevant hadronic molecules.PentaquarkHeavy quarkDecay channelsLHCbLight quarkQuark massDiquarkBranching ratioSpin waveIsospin...
- The rare baryonic decay $\Lambda_b\to \Lambda(\to p\pi^-)\mu^+\mu^-$ provides valuable complementary information compared to the corresponding mesonic $b\to s\mu^+\mu^-$ transition. In this paper, using the latest high-precision lattice QCD calculation of the $\Lambda_b\to\Lambda$ transition form factors, we study this interesting decay within the aligned two-Higgs-doublet model, paying particularly attention to effects of the chirality-flipped operators generated by the charged scalars. In order to extract the full set of angular coefficients in this decay, we consider the following ten angular observables that can be derived from the analysis of the subsequent parity-violating $\Lambda\to p\pi^-$ decay: the differential branching fraction ${\rm d}{\cal B}/{\rm d}q^2$, the longitudinal polarization fraction $F_L$, the lepton-, hadron- and combined lepton-hadron-side forward-backward asymmetries $A_{\rm FB}^\ell$, $A_{\rm FB}^\Lambda$ and $A_{\rm FB}^{\ell\Lambda}$, as well as the other five asymmetry observables $Y_i$~($i={\rm 2,\,3s,\,3sc,\,4s,\,4sc}$). Detailed numerical comparisons are made between the SM and NP values for these angular observables. It is found that, under the constraints from the inclusive $B\to X_s\gamma$ branching fraction and the latest global fit results of $b\to s\ell\ell$ data, the contributions of right-handed semileptonic operators $O^{\prime}_{9,10}$, besides reconciling the $P_5^{\prime}$ anomaly observed in $B^0\to K^{\ast 0}\mu^+\mu^-$ decay, could also enhance the values of ${\rm d}{\cal B}/{\rm d}q^2$ and $A_{\rm FB}^\ell$ in the bin $[15,20]~{\rm GeV}^2$, leading to results consistent with the current LHCb measurements.Branching ratioForm factorWilson coefficientsForward-backward asymmetryTwo Higgs Doublet ModelLHCbLattice QCDHelicityFlavourChirality flip...
- Recently, Hoang et al. (arXiv:1608.05284) reported analysis of the interaction of relativistic spacecrafts with interstellar medium (ISM, i.e. gas atoms and dust particles) relevant for the Breakthrough starshot initiative (https://breakthroughinitiatives.org/Initiative/3). The main conclusion is that dust pose much greater threat to the starship than gas atoms. However, analysis used to treat interaction of the spaceship with gas atoms is based on the incorrect use of the Szenes model. Only by proper treatment of the Szenes model can be found if the conclusion remains valid - or not. In the following, the main comments we have raised about the paper are listed. Present text is based on the v2 version of the above mentioned paper [0] that was accepted for publication in Astophysical Journal.Interstellar mediumAtomGasParticles...
- Context. The combination of wideband receivers and spectrometers currently available in (sub-)millimeter observatories deliver wide- field hyperspectral imaging of the interstellar medium. Tens of spectral lines can be observed over degree wide fields in about fifty hours. This wealth of data calls for restating the physical questions about the interstellar medium in statistical terms. Aims. We aim at gaining information on the physical structure of the interstellar medium from a statistical analysis of many lines from different species over a large field of view, without requiring detailed radiative transfer or astrochemical modeling. Methods. We coupled a nonlinear rescaling of the data with one of the simplest multivariate analysis methods, namely the Principal Component Analysis, to decompose the observed signal into components that we interpret first qualitatively and then quantitatively based on our deep knowledge of the observed region and of the astrochemistry at play. Results. We identify 3 principal components, linear compositions of line brightness temperatures, that are correlated at various levels with the column density, the volume density and the UV radiation field. Conclusions. When sampling a sufficiently diverse mixture of physical parameters, it is possible to decompose the molecular emission in order to gain physical insight on the observed interstellar medium. This opens a new avenue for future studies of the interstellar medium.Principal componentInterstellar mediumBrightness temperaturePrincipal component analysisIntensityMolecular cloudUltraviolet backgroundLine of sightRadiative transferField of view...
- Methanol (CH$_3$OH) is found to be abundant and widespread towards the Central Molecular Zone, the inner few hundred parsecs of our Galaxy. Its origin is, however, not fully understood. It was proposed that the high cosmic ray ionisation rate in this region could lead to a more efficient non-thermal desorption of this species formed on grain surfaces, but it would also mean that this species is destroyed in a relatively short timescale. In a first step, we run chemical models with a high cosmic ray ionisation rate and find that this scenario can only reproduce the lowest abundances of methanol derived in this region ($\sim$10$^{-9}$-10$^{-8}$). In a second step, we investigate another scenario based on episodic explosions of grain mantles. We find a good agreement between the predicted abundances of methanol and the observations. We find that the dominant route for the formation of methanol is through hydrogenation of CO on the grains followed by the desorption due to the grain mantle explosion. The cyclic aspect of this model can explain the widespread presence of methanol without requiring any additional mechanism. We also model silicon monoxide (SiO), another species detected in several molecular clouds of the Galactic Centre. An agreement is found with observations for a high depletion of Si (Si/H $\sim$ 10$^{-8}$) with respect to the solar abundance.AbundanceCosmic rayMantleDust temperatureMolecular cloudStandard ModelInterstellar mediumNormal hierarchyFreezingGalactic Center...
- This paper derives an upper limit on the density $\rho_{\scriptstyle\Lambda}$ of dark energy based on the requirement that cosmological structure forms before being frozen out by the eventual acceleration of the universe. By allowing for variations in both the cosmological parameters and the strength of gravity, the resulting constraint is a generalization of previous limits. The specific parameters under consideration include the amplitude $Q$ of the primordial density fluctuations, the Planck mass $M_{\rm pl}$, the baryon-to-photon ratio $\eta$, and the density ratio $\Omega_M/\Omega_b$. In addition to structure formation, we use considerations from stellar structure and Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) to constrain these quantities. The resulting upper limit on the dimensionless density of dark energy becomes $\rho_{\scriptstyle\Lambda}/M_{\rm pl}^4<10^{-90}$, which is $\sim30$ orders of magnitude larger than the value in our universe $\rho_{\scriptstyle\Lambda}/M_{\rm pl}^4\sim10^{-120}$. This new limit is much less restrictive than previous constraints because additional parameters are allowed to vary. With these generalizations, a much wider range of universes can develop cosmic structure and support observers. To constrain the constituent parameters, new BBN calculations are carried out in the regime where $\eta$ and $G=M_{\rm pl}^{-2}$ are much larger than in our universe. If the BBN epoch were to process all of the protons into heavier elements, no hydrogen would be left behind to make water, and the universe would not be viable. However, our results show that some hydrogen is always left over, even under conditions of extremely large $\eta$ and $G$, so that a wide range of alternate universes are potentially habitable.Big bang nucleosynthesisVacuum energyAbundanceHelium-4Structure formationStarFreeze-outDark energyPlanck scaleNucleosynthesis...
- It has been shown recently that relativistic distortions generate a dipolar modulation in the two-point correlation function of galaxies. To measure this relativistic dipole it is necessary to cross-correlate different populations of galaxies with for example different luminosities or colours. In this paper, we construct an optimal estimator to measure the dipole with multiple populations. We show that this estimator increases the signal-to-noise of the dipole by up to 35 percent. Using 6 populations of galaxies, in a survey with halos and number densities similar to those of the millennium simulation, we forecast a cumulative signal-to-noise of 4.4. For the main galaxy sample of SDSS at low redshift z<0.2 our optimal estimator predicts a cumulative signal-to-noise of 2.4. Finally we forecast a cumulative signal-to-noise of 7.4 in the upcoming DESI survey. These forecasts indicate that with the appropriate choice of estimator the relativistic dipole should be detectable in current and future surveys.Statistical estimatorTwo-point correlation functionLuminosityDark Energy Spectroscopic InstrumentMilky WayRedshift binsSloan Digital Sky SurveyCosmic varianceRedshift-space distortionMillennium Run...
- It is usually assumed that in the linear regime the two-point correlation function of galaxies contains only a monopole, quadrupole and hexadecapole. Looking at cross-correlations between different populations of galaxies, this turns out not to be the case. In particular, the cross-correlations between a bright and a faint population of galaxies contain also a dipole. In this paper we present the first attempt to measure this dipole. We discuss the four types of effects that contribute to the dipole: relativistic distortions, evolution effect, wide-angle effect and large-angle effect. We show that the first three contributions are intrinsic anti-symmetric contributions that do not depend on the choice of angle used to measure the dipole. On the other hand the large-angle effect appears only if the angle chosen to extract the dipole breaks the symmetry of the problem. We show that the relativistic distortions, the evolution effect and the wide-angle effect are too small to be detected in the LOWz and CMASS sample of the BOSS survey. On the other hand with a specific combination of angles we are able to measure the large-angle effect with high significance. We emphasise that this large-angle dipole does not contain new physical information, since it is just a geometrical combination of the monopole and the quadrupole. However this measurement, which is in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions, validates our method for extracting the dipole from the two-point correlation function and it opens the way to the detection of relativistic effects in future surveys like e.g. DESI.Two-point correlation functionMagnetic monopoleQuadrupoleBright galaxiesFaint galaxiesCross-correlationStatistical estimatorLine of sightDark Energy Spectroscopic InstrumentLarge scale structure...
- Among the most important goals in cosmology is detecting and quantifying small ($M_\mathrm{halo}\simeq10^{6-9}\,\mathrm{M}_\odot$) dark matter (DM) subhalos. Current probes around the Milky Way (MW) are most sensitive to such substructure within $\sim20$~kpc of the halo center, where the galaxy contributes significantly to the potential. We explore the effects of baryons on subhalo populations in $\Lambda$CDM using cosmological zoom-in baryonic simulations of MW-mass halos from the Latte simulation suite, part of the Feedback In Realistic Environments (FIRE) project. Specifically, we compare simulations of the same two halos run using (1) DM-only (DMO), (2) full baryonic physics, and (3) DM with an embedded disk potential grown to match the FIRE simulation. Relative to baryonic simulations, DMO simulations contain $\sim2\times$ as many subhalos within 100 kpc of halo center; this excess is $\gtrsim5\times$ within 25 kpc. At $z=0$, the baryonic simulations are completely devoid of subhalos down to $3\times10^6\,\mathrm{M}_\odot$ within $15$ kpc of the MW-mass galaxy. Despite the complexities of baryonic physics, the simple addition of an embedded central disk potential to DMO simulations reproduces this subhalo depletion, including trends with radius, remarkably well. Thus, the additional tidal field from the central galaxy is the primary cause of subhalo depletion. Subhalos on radial orbits that pass close to the central galaxy are preferentially destroyed, causing the surviving subhalo population to have tangentially biased orbits compared to DMO predictions. Our method of embedding a disk potential in DMO simulations provides a fast and accurate alternative to full baryonic simulations, thus enabling suites of cosmological simulations that can provide accurate and statistical predictions of substructure populations.Dark matter subhaloMilky WayN-body simulationDark matterStellar massSubhalo countsStellar streamOrientationToo big to fail problemStellar disk...
- We investigate how the hydrostatic suppression of baryonic accretion affects the growth rate of dark matter halos during the Epoch of Reionization. By comparing halo properties in a simplistic hydrodynamic simulation in which gas only cools adiabatically, with its collisionless equivalent, we find that halo growth is slowed as hydrostatic forces prevent gas from collapsing. In our simulations, at the high redshifts relevant for reionization (between ${\sim}6$ and ${\sim}11$), halos that host dwarf galaxies ($\lesssim 10^{9} \mathrm{M_\odot}$) can be reduced by up to a factor of 2 in mass due to the hydrostatic pressure of baryons. Consequently, the inclusion of baryonic effects reduces the amplitude of the low mass tail of the halo mass function by factors of 2 to 4. In addition, we find that the fraction of baryons in dark matter halos hosting dwarf galaxies at high redshift never exceeds ${\sim}90\%$ of the cosmic baryon fraction. When implementing baryonic processes, including cooling, star formation, supernova feedback and reionization, the suppression effects become more significant with further reductions of ${\sim}30\%$ to 60\%. Although convergence tests suggest that the suppression may become weaker in higher resolution simulations, this suppressed growth will be important for semi-analytic models of galaxy formation, in which the halo mass inherited from an underlying N-body simulation directly determines galaxy properties. Based on the adiabatic simulation, we provide tables to account for these effects in N-body simulations, and present a modification of the halo mass function along with explanatory analytic calculations.Virial massReionizationN-body simulationHalo mass functionMass ratioDark matterHydrostaticsDark matter haloFluid dynamicsCooling...
- In this work, we investigate the possibility to interpret two nucleon resonances, the $N(1875)$ and the $N(2100)$ as hadronic molecular states from the $\Sigma^*K$ and $\Sigma K^*$ interactions, respectively. With the help of the effective Lagrangians where the coupling constants are determined by the SU(3) symmetry, the $\Sigma^*K$ and $\Sigma K^*$ interactions are described by the vector-meson and pseudoscalar-meson exchanges. With the one-boson-exchange potential obtained, the bound states from the $\Sigma^*K$ and $\Sigma K^*$ interactions are searched in a quasipotential Bethe-Saltpeter equation approach. A bound state with quantum number $I(J^P)=1/2(3/2^-)$ is produced from the $\Sigma^*K$ interaction, which can be identified as the $N(1875)$ listed in the PDG. It can be seen as a strange partner of the LHCb pentaquark $P_c(4380)$ with same quantum numbers in the molecular state picture. The $\Sigma K^*$ interaction also produce a bound state with quantum number $I(J^P)=1/2(3/2^-)$, which is related to the experimentally observed $N(2100)$ in the $\phi$ photoproduction. Our results suggest that the $N(2120)$ observed in the $K\Lambda(1520)$ photoproduction and the $N(2100)$ observed in the $\phi$ photoproduction have different origins. The former is a conventional three-quark state while the latter is a $\Sigma K^*$ molecular state, which can be seen as a strange partner of the $P_c(4450)$ with different spin-parity.Bound statePentaquarkPhotoproductionLHCbVector mesonCoupling constantConstituent quarkPseudoscalar mesonEffective LagrangianIsospin...
- Stellar mergers are expected to take place in numerous circumstences in the evolution of stellar systems. In particular, they are considered as a plausible origin of stellar eruptions of the V838 Mon type. V1309 Sco is the most recent eruption of this type in our Galaxy. The object was discovered in September 2008. Our aim is to investigate the nature of V1309 Sco. V1309 Sco has been photometrically observed in course of the OGLE project since August 2001. We analyse these observations in different ways. In particular, periodogram analyses were done to investigate the nature of the observed short term variability of the progenitor. We find out that the progenitor of V1309 Sco was a contact binary with an orbital period of ~1.4 day. This period was decreasing with time. Similarly the light curve of the binary was also evolving, indicating that the system evolved toward its merger. The violent phase of the merger, marked by the systematic brightenning of the object, started in March 2008, i.e. half a year before the outburst discovery. We also investigate the observations of V1309 Sco during the outburst and the decline and show that they can be fully accounted for within the merger hypothesis. For the first time in the literature we show, from direct observations, that contact binaries indeed end up by merging into a single object, as it was suggested in numerous theoretical studies of these systems. Our study also shows that stellar mergers indeed result in eruptions of the V838 Mon type.StarLuminosityBinary starEffective temperatureA giantsNovaInstabilityOrbital angular momentum of lightPhotometryStellar classification...
- This article presents measurements of $t\bar{t}$ differential cross-sections in a fiducial phase-space region, using an integrated luminosity of 3.2 fb$^{-1}$ of proton--proton data at a centre-of-mass energy of $\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV recorded by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC in 2015. Differential cross-sections are measured as a function of the transverse momentum and absolute rapidity of the top quark, and of the transverse momentum, absolute rapidity and invariant mass of the $t\bar{t}$ system. The $t\bar{t}$ events are selected by requiring one electron and one muon of opposite electric charge, and at least two jets, one of which must be tagged as containing a $b$-hadron. The measured differential cross-sections are compared to predictions of next-to-leading order generators matched to parton showers and the measurements are found to be consistent with all models within the experimental uncertainties with the exception of the POWHEG-Box + HERWIG++ predictions, which differ significantly from the data in both the transverse momentum of the top quark and the mass of the $t\bar{t}$ system.MuonDifferential cross sectionTop quarkSystematic errorParton distribution functionTransverse momentumPartonNeutrinoRapidityNext-to-leading order computation...
- We study the pages in Albert Einstein's 1916 landmark paper in the Annalen der Physik where he derived his field equations for gravity. Einstein made two heuristic and physically insightful steps. The first was to obtain the field equations in vacuum in a rather geometric fashion. The second step was obtaining the field equations in the presence of matter from the field equations in vacuum. (This transition is an essential principle in physics, much as the principle of local gauge invariance in quantum field theory.) To this end, we go over some quick differential geometric background related to curvilinear coordinates, vectors, tensors, metric tensor, Christoffel symbols, Riemann curvature tensor, Ricci tensor, and see how Einstein used geometry to model gravity.RankCovariant derivativeCurvature tensorRicci tensorVector fieldGravitational fieldsChristoffel symbolsGeneral relativityScalar fieldRiemannian geometry...
- We analyse families of codes for classical data transmission over quantum channels that have both a vanishing probability of error and a code rate approaching capacity as the code length increases. To characterise the fundamental tradeoff between decoding error, code rate and code length for such codes we introduce a quantum generalisation of the moderate deviation analysis proposed by Altug and Wagner as well as Polyanskiy and Verdu. We derive such a tradeoff for classical-quantum (as well as image-additive) channels in terms of the channel capacity and the channel dispersion, giving further evidence that the latter quantity characterises the necessary backoff from capacity when transmitting finite blocks of classical data. To derive these results we also study asymmetric binary quantum hypothesis testing in the moderate deviations regime. Due to the central importance of the latter task, we expect that our techniques will find further applications in the analysis of other quantum information processing tasks.Quantum channelEntropySeparable stateInformation theoryEntanglementQuantum information theoryLower and upperDecay rateType I and type II errorsNull hypothesis...
- We use the NIHAO galaxy formation simulations to make predictions for the baryonic budget in present day galaxies ranging from dwarf to Milky Way masses. The sample is made of 88 independent high resolution cosmological zoom-in simulations. NIHAO galaxies reproduce key properties of observed galaxies, such as the stellar mass vs halo mass and cold gas vs stellar mass relations. Thus they make plausible predictions for the baryon budget. We present the mass fractions of stars, cold gas ($T<10^4$K), cool gas ($10^4 < T < 10^5$K), warm-hot gas ($10^5 < T < 5\times10^6$K), and hot gas (T$> 5\times10^6$K) inside the virial radius, $R_{200}$. Compared to the predicted baryon mass, using the dark halo mass and the universal baryon fraction, $f_{\rm b}\equiv \Omega_{\rm b}/\Omega_{\rm m}=0.15$, we find that all of our haloes are missing baryons. The missing mass has been relocated past 2 virial radii, and cool gas dominates the corona at low mass (M$_{200} < 3 \times 10^{11} M_\odot$) while the warm-hot gas dominates at high mass (M$_{200} > 3 \times 10^{11} M_\odot$). Haloes of mass $\sim 10^{10} M_\odot$ are missing $\sim 90\%$ of their baryons. More massive haloes ($\sim 10^{12} M_\odot$) retain a higher fraction of their baryons, with $\sim 30\%$ missing, consistent with recent observational estimates. Moreover, these more massive haloes reproduce the observed fraction of cold, warm-hot and hot gas. The fraction of cool gas we predict ($0.11\pm0.06$) is significantly lower than the observation from COS-HALOs (0.3-0.47), but agrees with the alternative analysis of Stern et al. 2016.NIHAO simulationVirial massCoolingVirial radiusStellar massHot gasWarm hot intergalactic mediumStarMissing baryonsStar formation...
- This paper presents a novel algorithm for uncertainty quantification of water distribution system measurement data including nodal demands/consumptions as well as real pressure and flow measurements. This procedure, referred to as Confidence Limit Analysis (CLA), is concerned with a deployment of a Least Squares (LS) state estimator based on the loop corrective flows and the variation of nodal demands as independent variables. The confidence limits obtained for the nodal pressures and the inflows/outflows of a water network are determined with the novel algorithm called Error Maximization (EM) method and are evaluated with respect to two other more established CLA algorithms based on an Experimental Sensitivity Matrix (ESM) and on the sensitivity matrix method obtained with the LS nodal heads equations state estimator. The estimated confidence limits obtained for two real water networks show that the proposed EM algorithm is comparable to the other two CLA benchmark algorithms but due to its computational efficiency it is more suitable for online decision support applications in water distribution systems. Both ESM and EM methods work for any operating point, whether arbitrarily or randomly chosen, for any water network although EM method has the advantage of being computationally superior and working with any sets of measurements.Statistical estimatorLeast squaresEM algorithmMeasurementAlgorithmsNetworksPressure...
- We compare model results from a semi-analytic (merger-tree based) framework for high-redshift (z ~ 5-20) galaxy formation against reionization indicators, including the Planck electron scattering optical depth and the ionizing photon emissivity, to shed light on the reionization history and sources in Cold (CDM) and Warm Dark Matter (WDM; particle masses of $m_x = 1.5,3$ and 5 keV) cosmologies. This model includes all the key processes of star formation, supernova feedback, the merger/accretion/ejection driven evolution of gas and stellar mass and the effect of the ultra-violet background (UVB) in photo-evaporating the gas content of low-mass galaxies. We find that the delay in the start of reionization in light (1.5 keV) WDM models can be compensated by a steeper redshift evolution of the ionizing photon escape fraction and a faster mass assembly, resulting in reionization ending at comparable redshifts (z~5.5) in all the DM models considered. We find the bulk of the reionization photons come from galaxies with a halo mass $M_h < 10^9 M_\odot$ and a UV magnitude $ -15 < M_{UV} < -10$ in CDM. The progressive suppression of low-mass halos with decreasing $m_x$ leads to a shift in the reionization population to larger halo masses of $M_h > 10^9 M_\odot$ and $ -17 < M_{UV} < -13$ for 1.5 keV WDM. We find that current observations of the electron scattering optical depth and the Ultra-violet luminosity function are equally compatible with all the (cold and warm) DM models considered in this work. We propose that global indicators including the redshift evolution of the stellar mass density and the stellar mass-halo mass relation, observable with the James Webb Space Telescope, can be used to distinguish between CDM and WDM (1.5 keV) cosmologies.ReionizationWarm dark matterIonizing radiationVirial massDark matter modelStellar massLuminosity functionCosmologySupernovaWDM particles...
- We study present-day galaxy clustering in the EAGLE cosmological hydrodynamical simulation. EAGLE's galaxy formation parameters were calibrated to reproduce the redshift $z = 0.1$ galaxy stellar mass function, and the simulation also reproduces galaxy colours well. The simulation volume is too small to correctly sample large-scale fluctuations and we therefore concentrate on scales smaller than a few megaparsecs. We find very good agreement with observed clustering measurements from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey, when galaxies are binned by stellar mass, colour, or luminosity. However, low-mass red-galaxies are clustered too strongly, which is at least partly due to limited numerical resolution. Apart from this limitation, we conclude that EAGLE galaxies inhabit similar dark matter haloes as observed GAMA galaxies, and that the radial distribution of satellite galaxies as function of stellar mass and colour is similar to that observed as well.Stellar massTwo-point correlation functionGalaxy clusteringMilky WayLuminosityGalaxy FormationDark matter haloStar formation rateEAGLE simulation projectSatellite galaxy...
- The purpose of these lectures is to describe the basic theoretical structures underlying the rich and beautiful physics of the quantum Hall effect. The focus is on the interplay between microscopic wavefunctions, long-distance effective Chern-Simons theories, and the modes which live on the boundary. The notes are aimed at graduate students in any discipline where $\hbar=1$. A working knowledge of quantum field theory is assumed. Contents: 1. The Basics (Landau levels and Berry phase). 2. The Integer Quantum Hall Effect. 3. The Fractional Quantum Hall Effect. 4. Non-Abelian Quantum Hall States. 5. Chern-Simons Theories. 6. Edge Modes.WavefunctionAnyonHamiltonianLandau levelQuantum Hall EffectGauge fieldLaughlin wavefunctionChern-Simons termChern-Simons theoryBerry phase...
- These notes aim at presenting an overview of Bayesian statistics, the underlying concepts and application methodology that will be useful to astronomers seeking to analyse and interpret a wide variety of data about the Universe. The level starts from elementary notions, without assuming any previous knowledge of statistical methods, and then progresses to more advanced, research-level topics. After an introduction to the importance of statistical inference for the physical sciences, elementary notions of probability theory and inference are introduced and explained. Bayesian methods are then presented, starting from the meaning of Bayes Theorem and its use as inferential engine, including a discussion on priors and posterior distributions. Numerical methods for generating samples from arbitrary posteriors (including Markov Chain Monte Carlo and Nested Sampling) are then covered. The last section deals with the topic of Bayesian model selection and how it is used to assess the performance of models, and contrasts it with the classical p-value approach. A series of exercises of various levels of difficulty are designed to further the understanding of the theoretical material, including fully worked out solutions for most of them.Maximum likelihood estimateLikelihood functionBayesianConfidence intervalMonte Carlo Markov chainFrequentist approachBayes factorPoisson distributionBayes' theoremExpectation Value...
- Spectra observed with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) on the European Southern Observatory's VLT exhibit long-range wavelength distortions. These distortions impose a systematic error on high-precision measurements of the fine-structure constant, $\alpha$, derived from intervening quasar absorption systems. If the distortion is modelled using a model that is too simplistic, the resulting bias in $\Delta\alpha/\alpha$ away from the true value can be larger than the statistical uncertainty on the $\alpha$ measurement. If the effect is ignored altogether, the same is true. If the effect is modelled properly, accounting for the way in which final spectra are generally formed from the co-addition of exposures made at several different instrumental settings, the effect can be accurately removed and the correct $\Delta\alpha/\alpha$ recovered.QuasarUVESQuasar spectrumAsteroidsSystematic errorSignal to noise ratioVLT telescopeFine structure constantEuropean Southern ObservatoryStatistical error...
- The squeezed-limit bispectrum, which is generated by nonlinear gravitational evolution as well as inflationary physics, measures the correlation of three wavenumbers, in the configuration where one wavenumber is much smaller than the other two. Since the squeezed-limit bispectrum encodes the impact of a large-scale fluctuation on the small-scale power spectrum, it can be understood as how the small-scale power spectrum "responds" to the large-scale fluctuation. Viewed in this way, the squeezed-limit bispectrum can be calculated using the response approach even in the cases which do not submit to perturbative treatment. To illustrate this point, we apply this approach to the cross-correlation between the large-scale quasar density field and small-scale Lyman-$\alpha$ forest flux power spectrum. In particular, using separate universe simulations which implement changes in the large-scale density, velocity gradient, and primordial power spectrum amplitude, we measure how the Lyman-$\alpha$ forest flux power spectrum responds to the local, long-wavelength quasar overdensity, and equivalently their squeezed-limit bispectrum. We perform a Fisher forecast for the ability of future experiments to constrain local non-Gaussianity using the bispectrum of quasars and the Lyman-$\alpha$ forest. Combining with quasar and Lyman-$\alpha$ forest power spectra to constrain the biases, we find that for DESI the expected $1-\sigma$ constraint is ${\rm err}[f_{\rm NL}]\sim60$. Ability for DESI to measure $f_{\rm NL}$ through this channel is limited primarily by the aliasing and instrumental noise of the Lyman-$\alpha$ forest flux power spectrum. The combination of response approach and separate universe simulations provides a novel technique to explore the constraints from the squeezed-limit bispectrum between different observables.BispectrumFlux power spectrumQuasarPrimordial Non-GaussianitiesLine of sightCross-correlationDark Energy Spectroscopic InstrumentSmall-Scale Power SpectrumFisher information matrixCosmology...