- Full-duplex (Full-duplex)

by Muhammad R. A. Khandaker08 Mar 2016 12:48 - Plasma physics (Plasma physics)

by Jim Crumley22 Sep 2015 16:59 - MHD equations (MHD equations)

by Jim Crumley22 Sep 2015 16:57 - Electricity and magnetism (Electricity and magnetism)

by Jim Crumley22 Sep 2015 16:54 - Geosynchronous satellites (Geosynchronous satellites)

by Jim Crumley22 Sep 2015 16:51 - RKKY interaction (RKKY interaction)

by Dr. Vadim Cheianov31 Aug 2009 09:28 - Neutrino Minimal Standard Model (Neutrino Minimal Standard Model)

by Prof. Mikhail Shaposhnikov15 Nov 2016 16:20 - Fingers of God (Fingers of God)

by Dr. Ganna Ivashchenko18 May 2011 22:42 - Quantum point contact (Quantum point contact)

by Prof. Carlo Beenakker08 Jan 2011 20:32 - Kaluza-Klein dark matter (Kaluza-Klein dark matter)

by Dr. Geraldine Servant05 Dec 2010 22:13

- In many observed galaxy clusters, jets launched by the accretion process onto supermassive black holes, inflate large scale cavities filled with energetic, relativistic plasma. This process is thought to be responsible for regulating cooling losses, thus moderating the inflow of gas onto the central galaxy, quenching further star formation and maintaining the galaxy in a red and dead state. In this paper, we implement a new jet feedback scheme into the moving mesh-code AREPO, contrast different jet injection techniques and demonstrate the validity of our implementation by comparing against simple analytical models. We find that jets can significantly affect the intracluster medium (ICM), offset the overcooling, as well as drive turbulence, albeit within the jet lobes only. Jet-driven turbulence is, however, a largely ineffective heating source and is unlikely to dominate the ICM heating budget even if the jet lobes efficiently fill the cooling region, as it contains at most only a few percent of the total injected energy. We instead show that the ICM gas motions, generated by orbiting substructures, while inefficient at heating the ICM, drive large scale turbulence and when combined with jet feedback, result in line-of-sight velocities and velocity dispersions consistent with the Hitomi observations of the Perseus cluster.Intra-cluster mediumTurbulenceBlack holeVorticityCluster of galaxiesDark matter subhaloAccretionCoolingInflationAstro-H...
- Recent simulations and observations have shown large scale filaments in the cosmic web connecting nodes, with accreting materials (baryonic and dark matter) flowing through them. Current high sensitivity observations also show that the propagation of shocks through filaments can heat them up, and make filaments visible between two or more galaxy clusters or around massive clusters, based on optical and/or X-ray observations. We are reporting here the special case of the cluster A3017 associated with a hot filament. The temperature of the filament is 3.4$^{-0.77}_{+1.30}$ ~keV and its length is $\sim$ 1 Mpc. We have analysed its archival {\it Chandra} data and report various properties. We also analysed GMRT 235/610 MHz radio data. Radio observations have revealed symmetric two-sided lobes which fill cavities in the A3017 cluster core region, associated with central AGN. In the radio map, we also noticed a peculiar linear vertical radio structure in the X-ray filament region which might be associated with a cosmic filament shock. This radio structure could be a radio phoenix or old plasma where an old relativistic population is re-accelerated by shock propagation. Finally we put an upper limit on the radio luminosity of the filament region.Galaxy filamentCluster of galaxiesActive Galactic NucleiRadio structuresCluster coreRadio sourcesDark matterCosmic webChandra X-ray ObservatoryX-ray cavities...
- Distances to individual stars in our own Galaxy are critical in order to piece together the nature of its velocity and spatial structure. Core helium burning red clump (RC) stars have similar luminosities, are abundant throughout the Galaxy, and thus constitute good standard candles. We build a hierarchical probabilistic model to quantify the quality of RC stars as standard candles using parallax measurements from the first Gaia data release. A unique aspect of our methodology is to fully account for (and marginalize over) parallax, photometry, and dust corrections uncertainties, which leads to more robust results than standard approaches. We determine the absolute magnitude and intrinsic dispersion of the RC in 2MASS bands J, H, Ks, Gaia G band, and WISE bands W1, W2, W3, and W4. We find that the absolute magnitude of the RC in the Ks band is -1.61 $\pm$0.01, while the intrinsic dispersion is $\sim$0.17 $\pm$ 0.02 mag in the Ks band (yielding a typical distance precision of $\sim$8%). The dispersions in other bands are comparable. Thus RC stars are reliable and precise standard candles. In addition, we have also re-calibrated the zero-point of the absolute magnitude of the RC in each band, which provide a benchmark for future studies to estimate distances to RC stars. Finally, the parallax error shrinkage in the hierarchical model outlined in this work can be used to obtain more precise parallaxes than Gaia for the most distant RC stars across the Galaxy.Red giant clumpStarAbsolute magnitudeParallaxStandard candleExtinctionMilky WayPhotometryCalibrationVisual magnitude...
- The Minimal Lepton Flavour Violation (MLFV) framework is discussed after the recent indication for CP violation in the leptonic sector. Among the three distinct versions of MLFV, the one with degenerate right-handed neutrinos will be disfavoured, if this indication is confirmed. The predictions for leptonic radiative rare decays and muon conversion in nuclei are analysed, identifying strategies to disentangle the different MLFV scenarios. The claim that the present anomalies in the semi-leptonic $B$-meson decays can be explained within the MLFV context is critically re-examined concluding that such an explanation is not compatible with the present bounds from purely leptonic processes.FlavourSpurionNeutrino massFlavour symmetryLepton flavour violationCP violationLepton number violationNeutrinoSterile neutrinoBranching ratio...
- The LHCb has measured the ratios of $B\to K^\ast\mu^+\mu^-$ to $B\to K^\ast e^+ e^-$ branching fractions in two dilepton invariant mass squared bins, which deviate from the Standard Model predictions by approximately $2.5\sigma$. These new measurements strengthen the hint of lepton flavor universality breaking which was observed earlier in $B\to K\ell^+\ell^-$ decays. In this work we explore the possibility of explaining these anomalies within the framework of $R$-parity violating interactions. In this framework, $b\to s\ell^+\ell^-$ transitions are generated through tree and one loop diagrams involving exchange of down-type right-handed squarks, up-type left-handed squarks and left-handed sneutrinos. We find that the tree level contributions are not enough to explain the anomalies, but at one loop, simultaneous explanation of the deviations in $B\to K^\ast\ell^+\ell^-$ and $B\to K\ell^+\ell^-$ is feasible for a parameter space of the Yukawa couplings that is consistent with the bounds coming from $B\to K^{(\ast)}\nu\bar{\nu}$ and $D^0\to \mu^+\mu^-$ decays and $B_s-\bar{B}_s$ mixing.Parity violating interactionYukawa couplingBranching ratioLoop integralInvariant massStandard ModelLHCbMeasurementLeptons...
- Background: Deep learning models are typically trained using stochastic gradient descent or one of its variants. These methods update the weights using their gradient, estimated from a small fraction of the training data. It has been observed that when using large batch sizes there is a persistent degradation in generalization performance - known as the "generalization gap" phenomena. Identifying the origin of this gap and closing it had remained an open problem. Contributions: We examine the initial high learning rate training phase. We find that the weight distance from its initialization grows logarithmically with the number of weight updates. We therefore propose a "random walk on random landscape" statistical model which is known to exhibit similar "ultra-slow" diffusion behavior. Following this hypothesis we conducted experiments to show empirically that the "generalization gap" stems from the relatively small number of updates rather than the batch size, and can be completely eliminated by adapting the training regime used. We further investigate different techniques to train models in the large-batch regime and present a novel algorithm named "Ghost Batch Normalization" which enables significant decrease in the generalization gap without increasing the number of updates. To validate our findings we conduct several additional experiments on MNIST, CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100 and ImageNet. Finally, we reassess common practices and beliefs concerning training of deep models and suggest they may not be optimal to achieve good generalization.OptimizationStatisticsNeural networkRandom walkCovarianceDeep learningOrder statisticGraphTraining setStochastic gradient descent...
- Processing sequential data of variable length is a major challenge in a wide range of applications, such as speech recognition, language modeling, generative image modeling and machine translation. Here, we address this challenge by proposing a novel recurrent neural network (RNN) architecture, the Fast-Slow RNN (FS-RNN). The FS-RNN incorporates the strengths of both multiscale RNNs and deep transition RNNs as it processes sequential data on different timescales and learns complex transition functions from one time step to the next. We evaluate the FS-RNN on two character level language modeling data sets, Penn Treebank and Hutter Prize Wikipedia, where we improve state of the art results to $1.19$ and $1.25$ bits-per-character (BPC), respectively. In addition, an ensemble of two FS-RNNs achieves $1.20$ BPC on Hutter Prize Wikipedia outperforming the best known compression algorithm with respect to the BPC measure. We also present an empirical investigation of the learning and network dynamics of the FS-RNN, which explains the improved performance compared to other RNN architectures. Our approach is general as any kind of RNN cell is a possible building block for the FS-RNN architecture, and thus can be flexibly applied to different tasks.Recurrent neural networkLong short term memoryArchitectureHidden stateNetwork dynamicsOptimizationHyperparameterRegularizationOverfittingEntropy...
- Random quantum circuits yield minimally structured models for chaotic quantum dynamics, able to capture for example universal properties of entanglement growth. We provide exact results and coarse-grained models for the spreading of operators by quantum circuits made of Haar-random unitaries. We study both 1+1D and higher dimensions, and argue that the coarse-grained pictures carry over to operator spreading in generic many-body systems. In 1+1D, we demonstrate that the out-of-time-order correlator (OTOC) satisfies a biased diffusion equation, which gives exact results for the spatial profile of the OTOC, and the butterfly speed $v_{B}$. We find that in 1+1D the `front' of the OTOC broadens diffusively, with a width scaling in time as $t^{1/2}$. We address fluctuations in the OTOC between different realizations of the random circuit, arguing that they are negligible in comparison to the broadening of the front. Turning to higher D, we show that the averaged OTOC can be understood exactly via a remarkable correspondence with a classical droplet growth problem. This implies that the width of the front of the averaged OTOC scales as $t^{1/3}$ in 2+1D and $t^{0.24}$ in 3+1D (KPZ exponents). We support our analytic argument with simulations in 2+1D. We point out that, in a lattice model, the late time shape of the spreading operator is in general not spherical. However when full spatial rotational symmetry is present in 2+1D, our mapping implies an exact asymptotic form for the OTOC in terms of the Tracy-Widom distribution. For an alternative perspective on the OTOC in 1+1D, we map it to the partition function of an Ising-like model. Thanks to special structure arising from unitarity, this partition function reduces to a random walk calculation which can be performed exactly. We also use this mapping to give exact results for entanglement growth in 1+1D circuits.Quantum circuitCoarse grainingEntanglementPartition functionOut of TimeUniversal propertyMany-body systemsUnitarityDiffusion equationRandom walk...
- This article is a brief introduction to the rapidly evolving field of many-body localization. Rather than giving an in-depth review of the subject, our aspiration here is simply to introduce the problem and its general context, outlining a few directions where notable progress has been achieved in recent years. We hope that this will prepare the readers for the more specialized articles appearing in the forthcoming dedicated volume of Annalen der Physik, where these developments are discussed in more detail.ThermalisationEntanglementHamiltonianQuenchingEntanglement entropyDegree of freedomErgodicityEntropyMany-body systemsNumerical simulation...
- We introduce and study dynamical probes of band structure topology in the post-quench time-evolution from mixed initial states of quantum many-body systems. Our construction generalizes the notion of dynamical quantum phase transitions (DQPTs), a real-time counterpart of conventional equilibrium phase transitions in quantum dynamics, to finite temperatures and generalized Gibbs ensembles. The non-analytical signatures hallmarking these mixed state DQPTs are found to be characterized by observable phase singularities manifesting in the dynamical formation of vortex-antivortex pairs in the interferometric phase of the density matrix. Studying quenches in Chern insulators, we find that changes in the topological properties of the Hamiltonian can be identified in this scenario, without ever preparing a topologically non-trivial or low-temperature initial state. Our observations are of immediate relevance for current experiments aimed at realizing topological phases in ultracold atomic gases.QuenchingMixed statesHamiltonianQuantum phase transitionDensity matrixTopological orderAtomic gasesPhase transitionsGeneralized Gibbs ensembleChern number...
- Fractionalization is a hallmark of spin-liquid behavior; it typically leads to response functions consisting of continua instead of sharp modes. However, microscopic processes can enable the formation of short-distance bound states of fractionalized excitations, despite asymptotic deconfinement. Here we study such bound-state formation for the $Z_2$ spin liquid realized in Kitaev's honeycomb compass model, supplemented by a kekule distortion of the lattice. Bound states between flux pairs and Majorana fermions form in the Majorana band gaps. We calculate the dynamic spin susceptibility and show that bound states lead to sharp modes in the magnetic response of the spin liquid, with the momentum dependence of the corresponding spectral weight encoding internal symmetry of the bound state. As a byproduct, we also show that isolated fluxes may produce Majorana bound states at exactly zero energy. Generalizations and implications of the results are discussed.Bound stateSpin liquidMajorana fermionSpin structureDeconfinementBand gapMajorana bound stateHoneycomb latticeSpinonDoping...
- In present work, we investigate the spectrum of several low-lying $sscq\bar{q}$ pentaquark configurations employing the constituent quark model, within which the hyperfine interaction between quarks is taken to be mediated by Goldstone boson exchange. Our numerical results show that four $sscq\bar{q}$ configurations with $J^{P}=1/2^{-}$ or $J^{P}=3/2^{-}$ lie at energies very close to the recently observed five $\Omega_{c}^{0}$ states by LHCb collaboration, this indicates that the $sscq\bar{q}$ pentaquark configurations may form sizable components of the observed $\Omega_{c}^{0}$ resonances.PentaquarkLHCbConstituent quarkGoldstone bosonHamiltonianCharm quarkClebsch-Gordan coefficientsSpin quantum numberConfinementSymmetry breaking...
- Injuries have a great impact on professional soccer, due to their large influence on team performance and the considerable costs of rehabilitation for players. Existing studies in the literature provide just a preliminary understanding of which factors mostly affect injury risk, while an evaluation of the potential of statistical models in forecasting injuries is still missing. In this paper, we propose a multidimensional approach to injury prediction in professional soccer which is based on GPS measurements and machine learning. By using GPS tracking technology, we collect data describing the training workload of players in a professional soccer club during a season. We show that our injury predictors are both accurate and interpretable by providing a set of case studies of interest to soccer practitioners. Our approach opens a novel perspective on injury prevention, providing a set of simple and practical rules for evaluating and interpreting the complex relations between injury risk and training performance in professional soccer.Machine learningClassificationFeature selectionF1 scoreFeature vector3-foldDecision rulesDecision makingFatigueRank...
- We estimate the rate of dark matter scattering in collapsed structures throughout the history of the Universe. If the scattering cross-section is velocity-independent, then the canonical picture is correct that scatterings occur mainly at late times. The scattering rate peaks slightly at redshift z~6, and remains significant today. Half the scatterings occur after z~1, in structures more massive than 10^12 M_sun. Within a factor of two, these numbers are robust to changes in the assumed astrophysics, and the scatterings would be captured in cosmological simulations. However, for particle physics models with a velocity-dependent cross-section (as for Yukawa potential interactions via a massive mediator), the scattering rate peaks before z~20, in objects with mass less than 10^4 M_sun. These precise values are sensitive to the redshift-dependent mass-concentration relation and the small-scale cutoff in the matter power spectrum. In extreme cases, the qualitative effect of early interactions may be reminiscent of warm dark matter and strongly affect the subsequent growth of structure. However, these scatterings are being missed in existing cosmological simulations with limited mass resolution.Dark matterSelf-interacting dark matterMass functionDark matter haloSimulations of structure formationVelocity dispersionDark matter particleNavarro-Frenk-White profileHalo concentrationsVirial mass...
- Using a simple analytic formalism, we demonstrate that significant dark matter self-interactions produce halo cores that obey scaling relations nearly independent of the underlying particle physics parameters such as the annihilation cross section and the mass of the dark matter particle. For dwarf galaxies, we predict that the core density $\rho_c$ and the core radius $r_c$ should obey $\rho_c r_c \approx 41 \,\text{M}_\odot \text{pc}^{-2}$ with a weak mass dependence $\sim M^{0.2}$. Remarkably, such a scaling relation has recently been empirically inferred. Scaling relations involving core mass, core radius, and core velocity dispersion are predicted and agree well with observational data. By calibrating against numerical simulations, we predict the scatter in these relations and find them to be in excellent agreement with existing data. Future observations can test our predictions for different halo masses and redshifts.Scaling lawCore radiusDwarf galaxyNumerical simulationDark matterDark matter haloSelf-interacting dark matterNavarro-Frenk-White profileCalibrationVirial mass...
- Self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) models have been proposed to solve the small-scale issues with the collisionless cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm. We derive equilibrium solutions in these SIDM models for the dark matter halo density profile including the gravitational potential of both baryons and dark matter. Self-interactions drive dark matter to be isothermal and this ties the core sizes and shapes of dark matter halos to the spatial distribution of the stars, a radical departure from previous expectations and from CDM predictions. Compared to predictions of SIDM-only simulations, the core sizes are smaller and the core densities are higher, with the largest effects in baryon-dominated galaxies. As an example, we find a core size around 0.5 kpc for dark matter in the Milky Way, more than an order of magnitude smaller than the core size from SIDM-only simulations, which has important implications for indirect searches of SIDM candidates.Self-interacting dark matterDark matterMilky WayCold dark matterCore radiusGalaxyVelocity dispersionNavarro-Frenk-White profileDark matter haloDark matter particle...
- We investigate the effects of self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) on the tidal stripping and evaporation of satellite galaxies in a Milky Way-like host. We use a suite of five zoom-in, dark-matter-only simulations, two with velocity-independent SIDM cross sections, two with velocity-dependent SIDM cross sections, and one cold dark matter simulation for comparison. After carefully assigning stellar mass to satellites at infall, we find that stars are stripped at a higher rate in SIDM than in CDM. In contrast, the total bound dark matter mass loss rate is minimally affected, with subhalo evaporation having negligible effects on satellites for viable SIDM models. Centrally located stars in SIDM haloes disperse out to larger radii as cores grow. Consequently, the half-light radius of satellites increases, stars become more vulnerable to tidal stripping, and the stellar mass function is suppressed. We find that the ratio of core radius to tidal radius accurately predicts the relative strength of enhanced SIDM stellar stripping. Velocity-independent SIDM models show a modest increase in the stellar stripping effect with satellite mass, whereas velocity-dependent SIDM models show a large increase in this effect towards lower masses, making observations of ultra-faint dwarfs prime targets for distinguishing between and constraining SIDM models. Due to small cores in the largest satellites of velocity-dependent SIDM, no identifiable imprint is left on the all-sky properties of the stellar halo. While our results focus on SIDM, the main physical mechanism of enhanced tidal stripping of stars apply similarly to satellites with cores formed via other means.Self-interacting dark matterDark matter subhaloStellar massStarEvaporationTidal strippingVirial massTidal radiusPeriapsisOf stars...
- Galactic rotation curves are a fundamental constraint for any cosmological model. We use controlled N-body simulations of galaxies to study the gravitational effect of baryons in a scenario with collisionless cold dark matter (CDM) versus one with a self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) component. In particular, we examine the inner profiles of the rotation curves in the velocity range Vmax = 30-250 km/s, whose diversity has been found to be greater than predicted by the Lambda-CDM scenario. We find that the scatter in the observed rotation curves exceeds that predicted by dark matter only mass-concentration relations in either the CDM nor SIDM models. Allowing for realistic baryonic content and spatial distributions, however, helps create a large variety of rotation curve shapes; which is in better agreement with observations in the case of self-interactions due to the characteristic cored profiles being more accommodating to the slowly rising rotation curves than CDM. We find individual fits to model two of the most remarkable outliers of similar Vmax, UGC 5721 and IC 2574, the former a cusp-like rotation curve and the latter a seemingly 8 kpc cored profile. This diversity in SIDM arises as permutations of overly concentrated halos with compact baryonic distributions versus underdense halos with extended baryonic disks. The SIDM solution is promising and its feasibility ultimately depends on the sampling of the halo mass-concentration relation and its interplay with the baryonic profiles, emphasising the need for a better understanding of the frequency of extreme outliers present in current observational samples.Self-interacting dark matterRotation CurveCold dark matterDark matterGalaxyNavarro-Frenk-White profileCircular velocityVirial massConcentration-mass relationVelocity dispersion...
- We investigate how self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) with anisotropic scattering affects the evolution of isolated dark matter haloes as well as systems with two colliding haloes. For isolated haloes, we find that the evolution can be adequately captured by treating the scattering as isotropic, as long as the isotropic cross-section is appropriately matched to the underlying anisotropic model. We find that this matching should not be done using the momentum transfer cross-section, as has been done previously. Matching should instead be performed via a modified momentum transfer cross-section that takes into account that dark matter particles can be relabelled after they scatter, without altering the dynamics. However, using cross-sections that are matched to give the same behaviour in isolated haloes, we find that treating dark matter scattering as isotropic under-predicts the effects of anisotropic dark matter scattering when haloes collide. In particular, the DM-galaxy offset induced by SIDM in colliding galaxy clusters is larger when we simulate the underlying particle model, than if we use a matched isotropic model. On the other hand, well motivated particle models with anisotropic scattering typically have cross-sections with a strong velocity dependence, and we discover a previously unrecognised effect that suppresses DM-galaxy offsets in colliding clusters making it hard for these systems to provide competitive constraints on such particle models.Dark matterDifferential cross sectionSelf-interacting dark matterMomentum transferDark matter scatteringMerging galaxy clusterDark matter particleDark matter haloCluster of galaxiesDwarf galaxy...
- The measurements of $R_{K}$ and $R_K^{*}$ provide hints for the violation of lepton universality. However, it is generally difficult to explain the $R_{K^*}$ measurement in the low $q^2$ range, $0.045 \le q^2 \le 1.1$ GeV$^2$. We check if new lepton nonuniversal interactions mediated by scalar and vector particles of mass between $10-200$ MeV offer an explanation. We find that a 60 MeV scalar that couples to the electron but not the muon can reasonably accommodate the $R_K$ and $R_{K^*}$ measurements in all bins. The scenario is constrained and predicts $R_K \sim 0.25$ in the low $q^2$ bin along with enhanced $\mathcal{B}(B_s \to e^+ e^-)$. A $Z^\prime$ is unable to explain the anomalies in conjunction with other measurements.MuonLight mediatorBranching ratioHamiltonianLHCbLepton universality of gauge couplingsForm factorNeutrinoLight scalarWilson coefficients...
- We discuss the current status and future prospects of heavy neutrino searches at the energy frontier, which might play an important role in vindicating the simplest seesaw paradigm as the new physics responsible for neutrino mass generation. After summarizing the current search limits and potential improvements at hadron colliders, we highlight the unparalleled sensitivities achievable in the clean environment of future lepton colliders.Sterile neutrinoColliderNeutrino massLarge Hadron ColliderLepton number violationSterile neutrino massStandard ModelFuture lepton collidersActive-sterile neutrino mixingLepton flavour violation...
- We report C, N, and Si isotopic data for 59 highly 13C-enriched presolar submicron- to micron-sized SiC grains from the Murchison meteorite, including eight putative nova grains (PNGs) and 29 15N-rich (14N/15N<=solar) AB grains, and their Mg-Al, S, and Ca-Ti isotope data when available. These 37 grains are enriched in 13C, 15N and 26Al with the PNGs showing more extreme enhancements. The 15N-rich AB grains show systematically higher 26Al and 30Si excesses than the 14N-rich AB grains. Thus, we propose to divide the AB grains into groups 1 (14N/15N<solar) and 2 (14N/15N>=solar). For the first time, we have obtained both S and Ti isotopic data for five AB1 grains and one PNG, and found 32S and/or 50Ti enhancements. Interestingly, one AB1 grain had the largest 32S and 50Ti excesses, strongly suggesting a neutron-capture nucleosynthetic origin of the 32S excess and thus the initial presence of radiogenic 32Si (t1/2=153 yr). More importantly, we found that the 15N and 26Al excesses of AB1 grains form a trend that extends to the region in the N-Al isotope plot occupied by C2 grains, strongly indicating a common stellar origin for both AB1 and C2 grains. Comparison of supernova models with the AB1 and C2 grain data indicates that these grains came from SNe that experienced H ingestion into the He/C zones of their progenitors.SupernovaHydrogen burningIsotopyIsotopeMeteoritesNeutron captureNova...
- Exoplanet science promises a continued rapid accumulation of rocky planet observations in the near future, energizing a drive to understand and interpret an unprecedented wealth of data to search for signs of life. The large statistics of exoplanet samples, combined with the ambiguity of our understanding of universal properties of life and its signatures, necessitate a quantitative framework for biosignature assessment. In anticipation of the large, broad, biased, and sparse data that will be generated in the coming years, we present here a Bayesian framework that leverages the diversity of disciplinary perspectives that must come to bear on the problem of detecting alien life. The framework quantifies metrics for the detectability of signs of life in terms of the likelihoods of being produced by non-living or living processing, providing a language to define the conditional probabilities and confidence levels of future life detection. Importantly, the statistical approach adopted provides a framework for constraining the prior probability of life with or without positive detection. We lay out a framework that addresses how the detectability of life necessarily requires understanding: 1) what is not life; 2) the processes of life, spanning the molecular to planetary scales, and scales of seconds to billions of years; and 3) the prior probabilities for the emergence of life and the universals of biological innovation. The goal is to develop a quantitative framework that is not entrained to specific definitions for life or its signatures, and instead frames the problem of remote detection of life in terms of what is observable and what we can infer from those observables based on what is known about non-living and living processes.Extrasolar planetPrior probabilityRocky planetsStatisticsBayesianUniversal propertyLanguageProbabilityLikelihood...
- Faraday's Law of induction is often stated as "a change in magnetic flux causes an EMF"; or, more cautiously, "a change in magnetic flux is associated with an EMF"; It is as well that the more cautious form exists, because the first "causes" form is incompatible with the usual expression $V = - \partial_t \Phi$. This is not, however, to deny the causality as reasonably inferred from experimental observation - it is the equation for Faraday's Law of induction which does not represent the claimed cause-and-effect relationship. Here I investigate a selection of different approaches, trying to see how an explicitly causal mathematical equation, which attempts to encapsulate the "a change in magnetic flux causes ..." idea, might arise.CausalityFaraday's law of inductionLine integralInferenceHall effectInfinitesimalLine elementKramers-Kronig relationKramers theoremMounting...
- I explain a simple definition of causality in widespread use, and indicate how it links to the Kramers Kronig relations. The specification of causality in terms of temporal differential eqations then shows us the way to write down dynamical models so that their causal nature /in the sense used here/ should be obvious to all. To extend existing treatments of causality that work only in the frequency domain, I derive a reformulation of the long-standing Kramers Kronig relations applicable not only to just temporal causality, but also to spacetime "light-cone" causality based on signals carried by waves. I also apply this causal reasoning to Maxwell's equations, which is an instructive example since their casual properties are sometimes debated.CausalityWave equationKramers-Kronig relationConstitutive relationLight conesElectromagnetismIndex of refractionEigenfunctionKramers theoremSpeed of light...
- Thermal fluctuations can lift the degeneracy of a ground state manifold, producing a free energy landscape without accidentally degenerate minima. In a process known as order by disorder, a subset of states incorporating symmetry-breaking may be selected. Here, we show that such a free energy landscape can be controlled in a non-equilibrium setting as the slow motion within the ground state manifold is governed by the fast modes out of it. For the paradigmatic case of the classical pyrochlore XY antiferromagnet, we show that a uniform magnetic field pulse can excite these fast modes to generate a tunable effective free energy landscape with minima at thermodynamically unstable portions of the ground state manifold.Monte Carlo methodGround state manifoldMagnonThermal fluctuationsManifoldFrustrated magnetPyrochloreGoldstone bosonAnisotropyLandau-Lifshitz equation...
- Quantum gravity is understood as a theory that, in some sense, unifies general relativity (GR) and quantum theory, and is supposed to replace GR at extremely small distances (high-energies). It may be that quantum gravity represents the breakdown of spacetime geometry described by GR. The relationship between quantum gravity and spacetime has been deemed "emergence", and the aim of this thesis is to investigate and explicate this relation. After finding traditional philosophical accounts of emergence to be inappropriate, I develop a new conception of emergence by considering physical case studies including condensed matter physics, hydrodynamics, critical phenomena and quantum field theory understood as effective field theory. This new conception of emergence is independent of reduction and derivation. Instead, a low-energy theory is understood as emergent from a high-energy theory if it is novel and autonomous compared to the high-energy theory, and the low-energy physics is dependent (in a particular, minimal sense) on the high-energy physics (this dependence is revealed by the techniques of effective field theory and the renormalisation group). These ideas are important in exploring the relationship between quantum gravity and GR, where GR is understood as an effective, low-energy theory of quantum gravity. Without experimental data or a theory of quantum gravity, we rely on principles and techniques from other areas of physics to guide the way. As well as considering the idea of emergence appropriate to treating GR as an effective field theory, I investigate the emergence of spacetime (and other aspects of GR) in several concrete approaches to quantum gravity, including examples of the condensed matter approaches, the "discrete approaches" (causal set theory, causal dynamical triangulations, quantum causal histories and quantum graphity) and loop quantum gravity.Quantum gravityGeneral relativityEffective field theoryLow energy theoryCausalitySet theoryCondensed matter physicsCondensationCritical phenomenaFluid dynamics...
- Principles are central to physical reasoning, particularly in the search for a theory of quantum gravity (QG), where novel empirical data is lacking. One principle widely adopted in the search for QG is UV completion: the idea that a theory should (formally) hold up to all possible high energies. We argue---\textit{contra} standard scientific practice---that UV-completion is poorly-motivated as a guiding principle in theory-construction, and cannot be used as a criterion of theory-justification in the search for QG. For this, we explore the reasons for expecting, or desiring, a UV-complete theory, as well as analyse how UV completion is used, and how it should be used, in various specific approaches to QG.UV completionGeneral relativityQuantum field theoryString theoryAsymptotic safetyComplete theoryEffective field theoryScale of new physicsPlanck scaleUV fixed point...
- We historically trace various non-conventional explanations for the origin of the cosmic microwave background and discuss their merit, while analyzing the dynamics of their rejection, as well as the relevant physical and methodological reasons for it. It turns out that there have been many such unorthodox interpretations; not only those developed in the context of theories rejecting the relativistic ("Big Bang") paradigm entirely (e.g., by Alfven, Hoyle and Narlikar) but also those coming from the camp of original thinkers firmly entrenched in the relativistic milieu (e.g., by Rees, Ellis, Rowan-Robinson, Layzer and Hively). In fact, the orthodox interpretation has only incrementally won out against the alternatives over the course of the three decades of its multi-stage development. While on the whole, none of the alternatives to the hot Big Bang scenario is persuasive today, we discuss the epistemic ramifications of establishing orthodoxy and eliminating alternatives in science, an issue recently discussed by philosophers and historians of science for other areas of physics. Finally, we single out some plausible and possibly fruitful ideas offered by the alternatives.Cosmic microwave backgroundBig BangRamificationTheory...
- The aim of the present text is twofold: to provide a compendium of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian geometries and to introduce and investigate new analytical Mechanics: Finslerian, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian. The fundamental equations (or evolution equations) of these Mechanics are derived from the variational calculus applied to the integral of action and these can be studied by using the methods of Lagrangian or Hamiltonian geometries. More general, the notions of higher order Lagrange or Hamilton spaces have been introduced and developed by the present author. The applications led to the notions of Lagrangian or Hamiltonian Analytical Mechanics of higher order. For short, in this text we aim to solve some difficult problems: The problem of geometrization of classical non conservative mechanical systems; The foundations of geometrical theory of new mechanics: Finslerian, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian;To determine the evolution equations of the classical mechanical systems for whose external forces depend on the higher order accelerations. My colleagues Professors M. Anastasiei, I. Bucataru, I. Mihai, K. Stepanovici made important remarks and suggestions and Mrs. Carmen Savin prepared an excellent print-form of the hand-written text. Many thanks to all of them.HamiltonianManifoldTensor fieldCotangent bundleTorsion tensorChristoffel symbolsElectrodynamicsTangent bundleMetric connectionDuality...
- The decays $\bar{B} \rightarrow D^{(*)} \tau^- \bar{\nu}_\tau$ are good probes to new physics beyond the Standard Model. The ratios of branching fractions $R(D^{(*)}) \equiv \mathit{BF}(\bar{B} \rightarrow D^{(*)} \tau^- \bar{\nu}_\tau) / \mathit{BF}(\bar{B} \rightarrow D^{(*)} \ell^- \bar{\nu}_\ell)$ (where $\ell^- = e^-, \mu^-$) measured by Belle, BaBar and LHCb show 3.9$\sigma$ deviation from the SM expectations as of 2015. In 2016, the Belle collaboration has shown two new measurements for the $\bar{B} \rightarrow D^{(*)} \tau^- \bar{\nu}_\tau$ decay. These include the first application of the semileptonic tagging to the $R(D^*)$ measurement and the first measurement of the $\tau$ polarization using the hadronic $\tau$ decays. We also review the two measurements for $B^- \rightarrow \tau^- \bar{\nu}_\tau$ at Belle. Along with these results, compatibility with the type-II Two-Higgs-Doublet Model is discussed.Two Higgs Doublet ModelBranching ratioLHCbMeson decaysHeavy Flavor Averaging GroupDecay rateBeyond the Standard ModelSemileptonic decayCabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrixNeutrino...
- We calculate the invariant and helicity amplitudes for the transitions $\Lambda_b~\to~\Lambda^{(\ast)}(J^P)~+~J/\psi$ where the $\Lambda^{(\ast)}(J^P)$ are $\Lambda(sud)$-type ground and excited states with $J^P$ quantum numbers $J^P=\frac12^{\pm},\frac32^{\pm}$. The calculations are performed in the framework of a covariant confined quark model previously developed by us. We find that the values of the helicity amplitudes for the $\Lambda^\ast(1520,\,\frac32^-)$ and the $\Lambda^\ast(1890,\,\frac32^+)$ are suppressed compared with those for the ground state $\Lambda(1116,\,\frac12^+)$ and the excited state $\Lambda^\ast(1405,\,\frac12^-)$. This analysis is important for the identification of the hidden charm pentaquark states $P_c^+(4380)$ and $P_c^+(4450)$ which were discovered in the decay chain $\Lambda_b^0~\to~P_c^+(~\to~p~J/\psi)~+~K^- $ because the cascade decay chain $\Lambda_b~\to~\Lambda^\ast(\frac32^\pm)(~\to~pK^-)~+~J/\psi$ involves the same final state.Excited stateHelicityPentaquarkAmplitudeQuarksQuantum numberGround state...
- Rare $\Lambda_b\to\Lambda l^+l^-$ and $\Lambda_b\to\Lambda\gamma$ decays are investigated in the relativistic quark model based on the quark-diquark picture of baryons. The decay form factors are calculated with the account of all relativistic effects including relativistic transformations of baryon wave functions from rest to moving reference frame and the contribution of the intermediate negative energy states. The momentum transfer squared dependence of the form factors is explicitly determined in the whole accessible kinematical range. The calculated decay branching fractions, various forward-backward asymmetries for the rare decay $\Lambda_b\to\Lambda \mu^+\mu^-$ are found to be consistent with recent detailed measurements by the LHCb Collaboration. Predictions for the $\Lambda_b\to\Lambda \tau^+\tau^-$ decay observables are given.Form factorDiquarkBranching ratioRare decayForward-backward asymmetryRelativistic quark modelWilson coefficientsHelicityLight conesMomentum transfer...
- We advocate a low-cost strategy for long-duration research into the 'milligravity' environment of asteroids, comets and small moons, where surface gravity is a vector field typically less than 1/1000 the gravity of Earth. Unlike the microgravity environment of space, there is a directionality that gives rise, over time, to strangely familiar geologic textures and landforms. In addition to advancing planetary science, and furthering technologies for hazardous asteroid mitigation and in-situ resource utilization, simplified access to long-duration milligravity offers significant potential for advancing human spaceflight, biomedicine and manufacturing. We show that a commodity 3U ($10\times10\times34$ cm$^3$) cubesat containing a laboratory of loose materials can be spun to 1 rpm = $2\pi/60$ s$^{-1}$ on its long axis, creating a centrifugal force equivalent to the surface gravity of a kilometer-sized asteroid. We describe the first flight demonstration, where small meteorite fragments will pile up to create a patch of real regolith under realistic asteroid conditions, paving the way for subsequent missions where landing and mobility technology can be flight-proven in the operational environment, in Low-Earth Orbit (LEO). The 3U design can be adapted for use onboard the International Space Station (ISS) to allow for variable gravity experiments under ambient temperature and pressure for a broader range of experiments.AsteroidsLow Earth orbitSurface gravityMobilityPlanetary scienceMicrogravityMeteoritesCometRegolithEarth...
- Protoplanetary disks around young stars are the sites of planet formation. While the dust mass can be estimated using standard methods, determining the gas mass - and thus the amount of material available to form giant planets - has proven to be very difficult. Hydrogen deuteride (HD) is a promising alternative to the commonly-used gas mass tracer, CO. We aim to examine the robustness of HD as tracer of the disk gas mass, specifically the effect of gas mass on the HD FIR emission and its sensitivity to the vertical structure. Deuterium chemistry reactions relevant for HD were implemented in the thermochemical code DALI and models were run for a range of disk masses and vertical structures. The HD J=1-0 line intensity depends directly on the gas mass through a sublinear power law relation with a slope of ~0.8. Assuming no prior knowledge about the vertical structure of a disk and using only the HD 1-0 flux, gas masses can be estimated to within a factor of 2 for low mass disks (M$_{\rm disk} < 10^{-3}$ M$_\odot$). For more massive disks, this uncertainty increases to more than an order of magnitude. Adding the HD 2-1 line or independent information about the vertical structure can reduce this uncertainty to a factor of ~3 for all disk masses. For TW Hya, using the radial and vertical structure from Kama et al. 2016b the observations constrain the gas mass to $6\cdot10^{-3}$ M$_\odot$ < M$_{\rm disk} < 9\cdot10^{-3}$ M$_\odot$. Future observations require a 5$\sigma$ sensitivity of $1.8\cdot10^{-20}$ W m$^{-2}$ ($2.5\cdot10^{-20}$ W m$^{-2}$) and a spectral resolving power R > 300 (1000) to detect HD 1-0 (HD 2-1) for all disk masses above $10^{-5}$ M$_\odot$ with a line-to-continuum ratio > 0.01. These results show that HD can be used as an independent gas mass tracer with a relatively low uncertainty and should be considered as an important science goal for future FIR missions.Protoplanetary diskAbundanceOptically thick mediumFreeze-outInterstellar mediumPhotodissociationDust grainOpacityScale heightHigh mass...
- We present the measurement of the kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) effect in Fourier space, rather than in real space. We measure the density-weighted pairwise kSZ power spectrum, the first use of this promising approach, by cross-correlating a cleaned Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature map, which jointly uses both Planck Release 2 and Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe nine-year data, with the two galaxy samples, CMASS and LOWZ, derived fr om the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) Data Release 12. With the current data, we constrain the average optical depth $\tau$ multiplied by the ratio of the Hubble parameter at redshift $z$ and the present day, $E=H/H_0$; we find $\tau E = (3.95\pm1.62)\times10^{-5}$ for LOWZ and $\tau E = ( 1.25\pm 1.06)\times10^{-5}$ for CMASS, with the optimal angular radius of an aperture photometry filter to estimate the CMB temperature distortion associ ated with each galaxy. By repeating the pairwise kSZ power analysis for various aperture radii, we measure the optical depth as a function of aperture ra dii. While this analysis results in the kSZ signals with only evidence for a detection, ${\rm S/N}=2.54$ for LOWZ and $1.24$ for CMASS, the combination of future CMB and spectroscopic galaxy surveys should enable precision measurements. We estimate that the combination of CMB-S4 and data from DESI shoul d yield detections of the kSZ signal with ${\rm S/N}=70-100$, depending on the resolution of CMB-S4.GalaxyCosmic microwave backgroundKSZ power spectrumMilky WayBaryon Oscillation Spectroscopic SurveyCovariance matrixLine of sightCMB-S4CovarianceCMB temperature...
- Using a turn-key Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser frequency comb and an off-the-shelf supercontinuum device, we report the generation of a 16 GHz frequency comb spanning an 80 nm band about a center wavelength of 570 nm. The light from this turn-key astro-comb is used to calibrate the HARPS-N astrophysical spectrograph for precision radial velocity measurements. The comb-calibrated spectrograph achieves a stability of $\sim$ 1 cm/s within half an hour of averaging time. We also use the turn-key astro-comb to perform calibration of solar spectra obtained with a compact telescope, and to study intrapixel sensitivity variations on the CCD of the spectrograph.Astro-combSpectrographsLasersCalibrationHigh accuracy radial velocity planetary searchFrequency combElectronic Fabry-Perot interferometerRadial velocityTelescopesSun...
- We aim to use statistical analysis of a large number of various galaxies to probe, model, and understand relations between different galaxy properties and magnetic fields. We have compiled a sample of 55 galaxies including low-mass dwarf and Magellanic-types, normal spirals and several massive starbursts, and applied principal component analysis (PCA) and regression methods to assess the impact of various galaxy properties on the observed magnetic fields. According to PCA the global galaxy parameters (like HI, H2, and dynamical mass, star formation rate (SFR), near-infrared luminosity, size, and rotational velocity) are all mutually correlated and can be reduced to a single principal component. Further PCA performed for global and intensive (not size related) properties of galaxies (such as gas density, and surface density of the star formation rate, SSFR), indicates that magnetic field strength B is connected mainly to the intensive parameters, while the global parameters have only weak relationships with B. We find that the tightest relationship of B is with SSFR, which is described by a power-law with an index of 0.33+-0.03. The observed weaker associations of B with galaxy dynamical mass and the rotational velocity we interpret as indirect ones, resulting from the observed connection of the global SFR with the available total H2 mass in galaxies. Using our sample we constructed a diagram of B across the Hubble sequence which reveals that high values of B are not restricted by the Hubble type. However, weaker fields appear exclusively in later Hubble types and B as low as about 5muG is not seen among typical spirals. The processes of generation of magnetic field in the dwarf and Magellanic-type galaxies are similar to those in the massive spirals and starbursts and are mainly coupled to local star-formation activity involving the small-scale dynamo mechanism.GalaxyStar formation ratePrincipal componentMilky WayMagnetic field strengthDwarf galaxyHubble sequenceStar formationRegressionSmall-scale dynamo...
- In the Kuramoto model, a uniform distribution of the natural frequencies leads to a first-order (i.e., discontinuous) phase transition from incoherence to synchronization, at the critical coupling parameter $K_c$. We obtain the asymptotic dependence of the order parameter above criticality: $r-r_c \propto (K-K_c)^{2/3}$. For a finite population, we demonstrate that the population size $N$ may be included into a self-consistency equation relating $r$ and $K$ in the synchronized state. We analyze the convergence to the thermodynamic limit of two alternative schemes to set the natural frequencies. Other frequency distributions different from the uniform one are also considered.Kuramoto modelFirst-order phase transitionsUniform distributionPhase transitionsCritical pointBifurcationFinite size effectRiemann sumCritical exponentCoherent state...
- It has recently been found that bosonic excitations of ordered media, such as phonons or spinons, can exhibit topologically nontrivial band structures. Of particular interest are magnon and triplon excitations in quantum magnets, as they can easily be manipulated by an applied field. Here we study triplon excitations in an S=1/2 quantum spin ladder and show that they exhibit nontrivial topology, even in the quantum-disordered paramagnetic phase. Our analysis reveals that the paramagnetic phase actually consists of two separate regions with topologically distinct triplon excitations. We demonstrate that the topological transition between these two regions can be tuned by an external magnetic field. The winding number that characterizes the topology of the triplons is derived and evaluated. By the bulk-boundary correspondence, we find that topological triplon excitations imply the presence of localized triplon end states with fractionalized quantum numbers. Experimental signatures and possible physical realizations of the topological paramagnetic phase are discussed.TriplonHamiltonianWinding numberQuantum paramagnetQuantum spin ladderSpin ladderMagnonSpin-orbit interactionTopological orderLocal density of states...
- We explore the potential of INTEGRAL to improve our understanding of the low fluence regime for explosive transients, such as GRBs. We probe the nature of the so-called "WEAK" INTEGRAL triggers, when the gamma-ray instruments record intensity spikes that are below the usual STRONG significance thresholds. In a targeted Swift follow-up campaign, we observed 15 WEAK triggers. We find six of these can be classified as GRBs. This includes GRB150305A, a GRB discovered from our campaign alone. We also identified a source coincident with one trigger, IGRW151019, as a candidate AGN. We show that real events such as GRBs exist within the IBAS WEAK trigger population. A comparison of the fluence distributions of the full INTEGRAL IBAS and Swift BAT GRB samples showed that the two are similar. We also find correlations between the prompt gamma-ray and X-ray properties of the two samples, supporting previous investigations. We find that both satellites reach similar, low fluence levels regularly, although Swift is more sensitive to short, low fluence GRBs.Gamma ray burstINTEGRAL satelliteSPI spectrometerIntensityField of viewActive Galactic NucleiLuminosityDiffuse emissionAstronomical X-ray sourceGamma-Ray Burst Monitor on board of Fermi satellite...
- Planetary atmospheres are subject to mass loss through a variety of mechanisms including irradiation by XUV photons from their host star. Here we explore the consequences of XUV irradiation by supermassive black holes as they grow by the accretion of gas in galactic nuclei. Based on the mass distribution of stars in galactic bulges and disks and the luminosity history of individual black holes, we estimate the probability distribution function of XUV fluences as a function of galaxy halo mass, redshift, and stellar component. We find that about 50% of all planets in the universe may lose the equivalent of a Martian atmosphere, 10% may lose an Earth's atmosphere, and 0.2% may lose the mass of Earth's oceans. The fractions are appreciably higher in the spheroidal components of galaxies, and depend strongly on galaxy mass, but only weakly on redshift.PlanetGalaxyBlack holeStarMilky WayEarthPlanetary atmospheresSupermassive black holeVirial massQuasar...
- This review presents an entry-level introduction to topological quantum computation -- quantum computing with anyons. This approach is inherently resilient against errors, thus promising to overcome one of the main obstacles for the realisation of quantum computers. We introduce the concept of anyon models and review the literature on condensed matter systems where anyons can emerge. Then we discuss the general steps how to use anyons to encode and process quantum information, as well as discuss various ways topological protection might fail. Finally, these abstract concepts are demonstrated in the concrete system of Kitaev's topological nanowire. This model supports localised Majorana zero modes -- the simplest and experimentally most tractable types of non-Abelian anyons -- and it describes the low-energy physics of several experimentally relevant settings.AnyonQuantum computationQubitNon-Abelian anyonTopological orderNanowireStatisticsFusion rulesDomain wallSuperconductor...
- Planck's formula and General Relativity indicate that potential energy influences spacetime. Using Einstein's Equivalence Principle and an extension of his Chock Hypothesis, an explicit description of this influence is derived. We present a new relativity model by incorporating the influence of the potential energy on spacetime in Newton's dynamics for motion under a central force. This model extends the model used by Friedman and Steiner to obtain the exact precession of Mercury without curving spacetime. We also present a solution of this model for a hydrogen-like atom, which explains the reason for a probabilistic description.Newtonian dynamicsMercuryTime dilationEinstein equivalence principleGeneral relativityHarmonic oscillatorEscape velocityHydrogen-like atomPlanck missionLorentz transformation...
- Relativistic Newtonian Dynamics, the simple model used previously for predicting accurately the anomalous precession of Mercury, is now applied to predict the periastron advance of a binary. The classical treatment of a binary as a two-body problem is modified to account for the influence of the gravitational potential on spacetime. Without curving spacetime, the model predicts the identical equation for the relativistic periastron advance as the post-Newtonian approximation of general relativity formalism thereby providing further substantiation of this model.PeriastronGeneral relativityGravitational fieldsMercuryTime dilationPerihelionNewtonian dynamicsEscape velocityPlanck missionTwo-body problem...
- Parity anomaly is a long-studied topic in high energy physics, which predicts that an infinitesimal mass term of Dirac fermion breaks the parity symmetry. In condensed matter physics, the parity anomaly results in the half-quantized anomalous Hall conductance in the Zeeman-doped topological surface state, which is characterized by Chern number $C=\pm1/2$. Here, we propose a different realization of the parity anomaly in the topological surface state after it develops the excitonic instability. Due to the spin-momentum-locking, a topological chiral excitonic insulator is energetically favored. Different from the Zeeman-doped surface state, this insulator phase is characterized by the chiral Chern number $C_c=1/2$, and it exhibits two unusual properties. One is the absence of the half-quantized Hall conductance. The other is the emergence of topological zero modes which display fractionalized electron charges. The charge fractionalization is proved both by the bound state solution with a topological defect and by our effective gauge field theory, where the parity anomaly futher leads to a Chern-Simons field theory of a topological defect.Chiral excitonic insulatorParity anomalyChern numberTopological defectTopological surface stateTopological insulator surfaceDopingGauge fieldHall conductanceZero mode...
- The magnetic insulator Yttrium Iron Garnet can be grown with exceptional quality, has a ferrimagnetic transition temperature of nearly 600 K, and is used in microwave and spintronic devices that can operate at room temperature. The most accurate prior measurements of the magnon spectrum date back nearly 40 years, but cover only 3 of the lowest energy modes out of 20 distinct magnon branches. Here we have used time-of-flight inelastic neutron scattering to measure the full magnon spectrum throughout the Brillouin zone. We find that the existing model of the excitation spectrum, well known from an earlier work titled "The Saga of YIG", fails to describe the optical magnon modes. Using a very general spin Hamiltonian, we show that the magnetic interactions are both longer-ranged and more complex than was previously understood. The results provide the basis for accurate microscopic models of the finite temperature magnetic properties of Yttrium Iron Garnet, necessary for next-generation electronic devices.Yttrium Iron GarnetMagnonMagnon spectrumMagnetic insulatorHamiltonianTime-of-flightInelastic neutron scatteringBrillouin zoneTemperatureMeasurement...
- We study the substructure content of the strong gravitational lens RXJ1131-1231 through a forward modelling approach that relies on generating an extensive suite of realistic simulations. We use a semi-analytic merger tree prescription that allows us to stochastically generate substructure populations whose properties depend on the dark matter particle mass. These synthetic halos are then used as lenses to produce realistic mock images that have the same features, e.g. luminous arcs, quasar positions, instrumental noise and PSF, as the data. We then analyse the data and the simulations in the same way with summary statistics that are sensitive to the signal being targeted and are able to constrain models of dark matter statistically using Approximate Bayesian Computing (ABC) techniques. In this work, we focus on the thermal relic mass estimate and fix the semi-analytic descriptions of the substructure evolution based on recent literature. We are able, based on the HST data for RXJ1131-1231, to rule out a warm dark matter thermal relic mass below 2 keV at the 2$\sigma$ confidence level.StatisticsDark matter subhaloWarm dark matterDark matterApproximate Bayesian Computing techniqueVirial massCold dark matterMerger treeDark matter modelHubble Space Telescope...