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  • The stability of the Standard Model is determined by the true minimum of the effective Higgs potential. We show that the potential at its minimum when computed by the traditional method is strongly dependent on the gauge parameter. It moreover depends on the scale where the potential is calculated. We provide a consistent method for determining absolute stability independent of both gauge and calculation scale, order by order in perturbation theory. This leads to a revised stability bound mH > (129.4 \pm 1.5) GeV. We also show how to evaluate the effect of new physics on the stability bound without resorting to unphysical field values.
    Gauge invarianceStandard ModelLandau gauge conditionEffective actionNext-to-leading order computationRenormalisation group equationsMetastateInstabilityTop quark massPole mass...
  • We present a rather powerful method in investigations of different phenomena that can appear when neutrinos and electrons are moving in the background matter. This method is based on the use of the modified Dirac equations for the particles wave functions, in which the correspondent effective potentials that account for the matter influence on particles are included. The developed approach establishes a basis for investigation of different phenomena which can arise when neutrinos and electrons move in dense media, including those peculiar for astrophysical and cosmological environments. The approach developed is similar to the Furry representation of quantum electrodynamics, widely used for description of particles interactions in the presence of external electromagnetic fields, and it works when a macroscopic amount of the background particles are confined within the scale of a neutrino or electron de Broglie wave lengths. We consider the modified Dirac equations for neutrinos (of both Dirac and Majorana types) and electrons having the standard model interactions with the background matter, however generalization to extensions of the standard model is just straightforward. To illustrate how the developed method works, we elaborate the quantum theories of the spin light of neutrino ($SL\nu$) and spin light of electron ($SLe$) in matter.
    Exact solutionNeutrino massCharged particleWeak interactionMassive neutrinoFeynman diagramsNeutrino physicsQuantizationDirac neutrinoBeyond the Standard Model...
  • In the minimal standard electroweak gauge model, there is an effective dimension-five operator which generates neutrino masses, and it has only three tree-level realizations. One is the canonical seesaw mechanism with a right-handed neutrino. Another is having a heavy Higgs triplet as recently proposed. The third is to have a heavy Majorana fermion triplet, an example of which is presented here in the context of supersymmetric SU(5) grand unification. The three generic one-loop realizations of this operator are also discussed.
    NeutrinoSee-sawMajorana neutrino massesQuarkInvariant massStandard ModelMinimal supersymmetric Standard ModelBeyond the Standard ModelMassive neutrinoSupermultiplet...
  • The theoretical and experimental issues relevant to neutrinoless double-beta decay are reviewed. The impact that a direct observation of this exotic process would have on elementary particle physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics and cosmology is profound. Now that neutrinos are known to have mass and experiments are becoming more sensitive, even the non-observation of neutrinoless double-beta decay will be useful. If the process is actually observed, we will immediately learn much about the neutrino. The status and discovery potential of proposed experiments are reviewed in this context, with significant emphasis on proposals favored by recent panel reviews. The importance of and challenges in the calculation of nuclear matrix elements that govern the decay are considered in detail. The increasing sensitivity of experiments and improvements in nuclear theory make the future exciting for this field at the interface of nuclear and particle physics.
    IsotopeScintillationCopperDecay rateLiquidsSterile neutrinoSegmentationHamiltonianRadioactivityMultidimensional Array...
  • It is proposed that the equations of motion in periodic relativity which yielded major predictions of general relativity without utilizing Riemannian geometry and geodesic trajectories are exact in nature and can be applied to pulsars and inspiraling compact binaries for analyzing orbital period derivative and two polarization gravitational wave forms. Exactness of these equations eliminates the need for higher order xPN corrections to the orbital energy part of the balance equation. This is mainly due to the introduction of dynamic WEP which states that the gravitational mass is equal to the relativistic mass.
    PulsarPeriastronBinary pulsarGravitational radiationGravitational red shiftBinary starFactorisationGravitational fieldsEccentricityCompanion stars...
  • Low-rank matrix approximations, such as the truncated singular value decomposition and the rank-revealing QR decomposition, play a central role in data analysis and scientific computing. This work surveys and extends recent research which demonstrates that randomization offers a powerful tool for performing low-rank matrix approximation. These techniques exploit modern computational architectures more fully than classical methods and open the possibility of dealing with truly massive data sets. This paper presents a modular framework for constructing randomized algorithms that compute partial matrix decompositions. These methods use random sampling to identify a subspace that captures most of the action of a matrix. The input matrix is then compressed---either explicitly or implicitly---to this subspace, and the reduced matrix is manipulated deterministically to obtain the desired low-rank factorization. In many cases, this approach beats its classical competitors in terms of accuracy, speed, and robustness. These claims are supported by extensive numerical experiments and a detailed error analysis.
    RankingSingular valueOrthonormalityRandom matrixCompressibilityEigenvalueDimension reductionLeast squaresArithmeticSingularity spectrum...
  • Gamma-ray searches for dark matter annihilation and decay in dwarf galaxies rely on an understanding of the dark matter density profiles of these systems. Conversely, uncertainties in these density profiles propagate into the derived particle physics limits as systematic errors. In this paper we quantify the expected dark matter signal from 20 Milky Way dwarfs using a uniform analysis of the most recent stellar-kinematic data available. Assuming that the observed stellar populations are equilibrium tracers of spherically-symmetric gravitational potentials that are dominated by dark matter, we find that current stellar-kinematic data can predict the amplitudes of annihilation signals to within a factor of a few for the ultra-faint dwarfs of greatest interest. On the other hand, the expected signal from several classical dwarfs (with high-quality observations of large numbers of member stars) can be localized to the ~20% level. These results are important for designing maximally sensitive searches in current and future experiments using space and ground-based instruments.
    KinematicsLine of sightHalf-light radiusVelocity dispersionSegue 1Dark matter particleSculptor Dwarf GalaxyDark matter haloPoint spread functionFornax Dwarf spheroidal galaxy...
  • We describe the methodology to include nonlinear evolution, including tidal effects, in the computation of subhalo distribution properties in both cold (CDM) and warm (WDM) dark matter universes. Using semi-analytic modeling, we include effects from dynamical friction, tidal stripping, and tidal heating, allowing us to dynamically evolve the subhalo distribution. We calibrate our nonlinear evolution scheme to the CDM subhalo mass function in the Aquarius N-body simulation, producing a subhalo mass function within the range of simulations. We find tidal effects to be the dominant mechanism of nonlinear evolution in the subhalo population. Finally, we compute the subhalo mass function for $m_\chi=1.5$ keV WDM including the effects of nonlinear evolution, and compare radial number densities and mass density profiles of subhalos in CDM and WDM models. We show that all three signatures differ between the two dark matter models, suggesting that probes of substructure may be able to differentiate between them.
    AbundanceFree streamingTidal radiusMerger treeAquarius simulationDark matter subhaloCold dark matterDark matter modelHalo mass functionMass function...
  • We have examined the spatial and polarimetric properties of these events using a variety of data from the Hinode spacecraft. We have also inferred the atmospheric stratification of the physical parameters by means of the inversion of the observed Stokes profiles employing the Stokes Inversion based on Response functions (SIR) code. Finally, we analyzed their evolution using a time series from the same instrument. Blue-shifted events tend to appear over bright regions at the edge of granules, while red-shifted events are seen predominantly over dark regions on intergranular lanes. Large linear polarization signals can be seen in the region that connects them. The magnetic structure inferred from the time series revealed that the structure corresponds to a $\Omega$-loop, with one footpoint always over the edge of a granule and the other inside an intergranular lane. The physical parameters obtained from the inversions of the observed Stokes profiles in both events show an increase with respect to the Harvard-Smithonian reference atmosphere in the temperature at $\log\tau_{500} \in (-1, -3)$ and a strong magnetic field, $B \ge 1$ kG, at the bottom of the atmosphere that quickly decreases upward until vanishing at $\log\tau_{500} \approx -2$. In the blue-shifted events, the line of sight velocities change from upflows at the bottom to downflows at the top of the atmosphere. Red-shifted events display the opposite velocity stratification. The change of sign in line of sight velocity happens at the same optical depth in which the magnetic field becomes zero. The physical mechanism that best explains the inferred magnetic field configuration and flow motions is a siphon flow along an arched magnetic flux tube. Further investigation is required however, as the expected features of a siphon flow cannot be unequivocally identified.
    Line of sightPhotosphereIntensityInclinationField of viewDoppler effectAzimuthMagnetic field strengthLine of sight velocityGranule...
  • Extremely well! In the $\Lambda$CDM model, the spacetime metric, $g_{ab}$, of our universe is approximated by an FLRW metric, $g_{ab}^{(0)}$, to about 1 part in $10^4$ or better on both large and small scales, except in the immediate vicinity of very strong field objects, such as black holes. However, derivatives of $g_{ab}$ are not close to derivatives of $g_{ab}^{(0)}$, so there can be significant differences in the behavior of geodesics and huge differences in curvature. Consequently, observable quantities in the actual universe may differ significantly from the corresponding observables in the FLRW model. Nevertheless, as we shall review here, we have proven general results showing that---within the framework of our approach to treating backreaction---the large matter inhomogeneities that occur on small scales cannot produce significant effects on large scales, so $g_{ab}^{(0)}$ satisfies Einstein's equation with the averaged stress-energy tensor of matter as its source. We discuss the flaws in some other approaches that have suggested that large backreaction effects may occur. As we also will review here, with a suitable "dictionary," Newtonian cosmologies provide excellent approximations to cosmological solutions to Einstein's equation (with dust and a cosmological constant) on all scales. Our results thereby provide strong justification for the mathematical consistency and validity of the $\Lambda$CDM model within the context of general relativistic cosmology.
    Lambda-CDM modelFriedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker metricMetric perturbationGauge invarianceGravitational radiationExact solutionNumerical simulationHomogenizationCosmological modelGeneral relativity...
  • We combine the equations of motion that govern the dynamics of galaxies in the local volume with Bayesian techniques in order to fit orbits to published distances and velocities of galaxies within 3 Mpc. We find a Local Group (LG) mass $2.1^{+0.7}_{-0.6}\times 10^{12}{\rm M}_\odot$ that is consistent with the combined dynamical masses of M31 and the Milky Way, and a mass ratio $1.29^{+0.24}_{-0.16}$ that rules out models where M31 is more massive than our Galaxy with $\sim 95%$ confidence. The Milky Way's circular velocity at the solar radius is relatively high, $251\pm 23 {\rm km s}^{-1}$, which helps to reconcile the mass derived from the local Hubble flow with the larger value suggested by the `timing argument'. Adopting {\it Planck}'s bounds on $\Omega_\Lambda$ yields a (local) Hubble constant $H_0=67\pm 5{\rm km s}^{-1}{\rm Mpc}^{-1}$ which is consistent with the value found on cosmological scales. Restricted N-body experiments show that substructures tend to fall onto the LG along the Milky Way-M31 axis, where the quadrupole attraction is maximum. Tests against mock data indicate that neglecting this effect slightly overestimates the LG mass without biasing the rest of model parameters. We also show that both the time-dependence of the LG potential and the cosmological constant have little impact on the observed local Hubble flow.
    Peculiar motionNearby galaxiesThe age of the UniverseCosmological parametersKinematicsVacuum energyCold dark matterLocal groupExpansion of the UniverseRadial velocity...
  • We compare the results from several sets of cosmological simulations of cosmic reionization, produced under Cosmic Reionization On Computers (CROC) project, with existing observational data on the high-redshift Ly-alpha forest and the abundance of Ly-alpha emitters. We find good consistency with the observational measurements and the previous simulation work. By virtue of having several independent realizations for each set of numerical parameters, we are able to explore the effect of cosmic variance on observable quantities. One unexpected conclusion we are forced into is that cosmic variance is unusually large at z>6, with both our simulations and, most likely, observational measurements are still not fully converged for even such basic quantities as the average Gunn-Peterson optical depth or the volume-weighted neutral fraction.
    ReionizationGalaxyIonizationStar formationCosmic varianceAbsorptivityLuminosity functionIntergalactic mediumHistory of the reionizationLine of sight...
  • Galaxy rotation curves determined observationally out to a radius well beyond the galaxy cores can provide a critical test of modified gravity models without dark matter. The predicted rotational velocity curve obtained from Scalar-Vector-Tensor Gravity (STVG or MOG) is in excellent agreement with data for the Milky Way without a dark matter halo, with a mass of $5\times 10^{10}\,M_{\odot}$. The velocity rotation curve predicted by modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) does not agree with the data.
    Point sourceScalar-tensor-vector gravityCircular velocityRotation curve of the Milky WaySolar systemRotation CurveEffective potentialGeneral relativityCosmic microwave backgroundModified Newtonian Dynamics...
  • We present the first results of our study of a sample of 101 X-ray galaxy groups and clusters, which is volume-limited in each of three X-ray luminosity bins. The aim of this work is to study the properties of the innermost ICM in the cores of our groups and clusters, and to determine the effect of non-gravitational processes, such as active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback, on the ICM. The entropy of the ICM is of special interest, as it bears the imprint of the thermal history of a cluster, and it also determines a cluster's global properties. Entropy profiles can therefore be used to examine any deviations from cluster self-similarity, as well as the effects of feedback on the ICM. We find that the entropy profiles are well-fitted by a simple powerlaw model, of the form $K(r) = \alpha\times(r/100 \rm{kpc})^{\beta}$, where $\alpha$ and $\beta$ are constants. We do not find evidence for the existence of an "entropy floor", i.e. our entropy profiles do not flatten out at small radii, as suggested by some previous studies.
    Cooling flowCluster of galaxiesGalaxy groups and clustersRadiative coolingIntra-cluster mediumCluster coreAGN feedbackEntropy profileBrightest cluster galaxyScaling law...
  • The present day universe consists of galaxies, galaxy clusters, one-dimensional filaments and two-dimensional sheets or pancakes, all of which combine to form the cosmic web. The so called "Zeldovich pancakes", are very difficult to observe, because their overdensity is only slightly greater than the average density of the universe. Falco et al (2014) presented a method to identify Zeldovich pancakes in observational data, and these were used as a tool for estimating the mass of galaxy clusters. Here we expand and refine that observational detection method. We study two pancakes on scales of 10 Mpc, identified from spectroscopically observed galaxies near the Coma cluster, and compare with twenty numerical pancakes. We find that the observed structures have velocity dispersion about 100 km/sec, which is relatively low compared to typical groups and filaments. These velocity dispersions are consistent with those found for the numerical pancakes. We also confirm that the identified structures are in fact two-dimensional structures. Finally, we estimate the stellar to total mass of the observational pancakes to be 2 x 10^{-4}, within one order of magnitude, which is smaller than that of clusters of galaxies.
    Coma ClusterNumerical simulationGroup of galaxiesEigenvalueGaussian distributionCosmologyLine of sightGalaxy distributionFriends of friends algorithmSimulations of structure formation...
  • We discuss and compare definitions of a black hole based on the existence of event and apparent horizons. In this connection we present a non-singular model of a black hole with a closed apparent horizon and discuss its properties. We propose a massive thin shell model for consistent description of particles creation in black holes. Using this model we demonstrate that for black holes with mass much larger than the Planckian one the backreaction of the domain, where the particles are created, on the black hole parameters is negligibly small.
    EvaporationEvent horizonHorizonGravitational fieldsRegularizationCurvatureVaidya metricEinstein field equationsBlack hole horizonVacuum polarization...
  • Recent high-resolution simulations that include Cold Dark Matter (CDM) and baryons have shown that baryonic physics can dramatically alter the dark matter structure of galaxies. These results modify our predictions for observed galaxy evolution and structure. Given these updated expectations, it is timely to re-examine observational constraints on the dark matter model. A few observations are reviewed that may indirectly trace dark matter, and may help confirm or deny possible dark matter models. Warm Dark Matter (WDM) and Self-Interacting Dark Matter (SIDM) are currently the favorite alternative models to CDM. Constraints on the WDM particle mass require it to be so heavy that WDM is nearly indistinguishable from CDM. The best observational test of SIDM is likely to be in the dark matter distribution of faint dwarf galaxies, but there is a lack of theoretical predictions for galaxy structure in SIDM that account for the role of baryons.
    WDM particlesStar formationThermalisationA dwarfsMilky WayWeakly interacting massive particleWDM particle massDark matter particleStarSterile neutrino...
  • We conduct a joint X-ray and weak-lensing study of four relaxed galaxy clusters (Hydra A, A478, A1689 and A1835) observed by both Suzaku and Subaru out to virial radii, with an aim to understand recently-discovered unexpected feature of the ICM in cluster outskirts. We show that the average hydrostatic-to-lensing total mass ratio for the four clusters decreases from \sim 70% to \sim 40% as the overdensity contrast decreases from 500 to the virial value.The average gas mass fraction from lensing total mass estimates increases with cluster radius and agrees with the cosmic mean baryon fraction within the virial radius, whereas the X-ray-based gas fraction considerably exceeds the cosmic values due to underestimation of the hydrostatic mass. We also develop a new advanced method for determining normalized cluster radial profiles for multiple X-ray observables by simultaneously taking into account both their radial dependence and multivariate scaling relations with weak-lensing masses. Although the four clusters span a range of halo mass, concentration, X-ray luminosity and redshift, we find that the gas entropy, pressure, temperature and density profiles are all remarkably self-similar when scaled with the lensing M_200 mass and r_200 radius.The entropy monotonically increases out to \sim 0.5r_200 following the accretion shock heating model K(r)\propto r^1.1, and flattens at \simgt 0.5r_200.The universality of the scaled entropy profiles indicates that the thermalization mechanism over the entire cluster region (>0.1r_200) is controlled by gravitation in a common to all clusters, although the heating efficiency in the outskirts needs to be modified from the standard law.The bivariate scaling functions of the gas density and temperature reveal that the flattening of the outskirts entropy profile is caused by the steepening of the temperature, rather than the flattening of the gas density.
    Pressure profileIntrinsic scatterVirial cluster massTemperature profileCosmologyCluster of galaxiesWeak lensing mass estimateVirial massGalaxyCluster sampling...
  • We discuss the statistical mechanics of violent relaxation in stellar systems following the pioneering work of Lynden-Bell (1967). The solutions of the gravitational Vlasov-Poisson system develop finer and finer filaments so that a statistical description is appropriate to smooth out the small-scales and describe the ``coarse-grained'' dynamics. In a coarse-grained sense, the system is expected to reach an equilibrium state of a Fermi-Dirac type within a few dynamical times. We describe in detail the equilibrium phase diagram and the nature of phase transitions which occur in self-gravitating systems. Then, we introduce a small-scale parametrization of the Vlasov equation and propose a set of relaxation equations for the coarse-grained dynamics. These relaxation equations, of a generalized Fokker-Planck type, are derived from a Maximum Entropy Production Principle (MEPP). We make a link with the quasilinear theory of the Vlasov-Poisson system and derive a truncated model appropriate to collisionless systems subject to tidal forces. With the aid of this kinetic theory, we qualitatively discuss the concept of ``incomplete relaxation'' and the limitations of Lynden-Bell's theory.
    RelaxationEntropyStar systemsCoarse grainingStatisticsStarVlasov-Poisson equationGlobular clusterPhase spaceVlasov equation...
  • We examine the deviation of Cold Dark Matter particle trajectories from the Newtonian result as the size of the region under study becomes comparable to or exceeds the particle horizon. To first order in the gravitational potential, the general relativistic result coincides with the Zel'dovich approximation and hence the Newtonian prediction on all scales. At second order, General Relativity predicts corrections which overtake the corresponding second order Newtonian terms above a certain scale of the order of the Hubble radius. However, since second order corrections are very much suppressed on such scales, we conclude that simulations which exceed the particle horizon but use Newtonian equations to evolve the particles, reproduce the correct trajectories very well. The dominant relativistic corrections to the power spectrum on scales close to the horizon are at most of the order of $\sim 10^{-5}$ at $z=49$ and $\sim 10^{-3}$ at $z=0$. The differences in the positions of real space features are affected at a level below $10^{-6}$ at both redshifts. Our analysis also clarifies the relation of N-body results to relativistic considerations.
    Zeldovich approximationSecond order lagrangian perturbation theoryCold dark matterGauge invariancePrimordial density perturbationNewtonian gaugeCosmologyHomogenizationNewtonian dynamicsParticle horizon...
  • We discuss the nature of phase transitions in the fermionic King model which describes tidally truncated quantum self-gravitating systems. This distribution function takes into account the escape of high energy particles and has a finite mass. On the other hand, the Pauli exclusion principle puts an upper bound on the phase space density of the system and stabilizes it against gravitational collapse. As a result, there exists a statistical equilibrium state for any accessible values of energy and temperature. We plot the caloric curves and investigate the nature of phase transitions as a function of the degeneracy parameter in both microcanonical and canonical ensembles. We consider stable and metastable states and emphasize the importance of the latter for systems with long-range interactions. Phase transitions can take place between a "gaseous" phase unaffected by quantum mechanics and a "condensed" phase dominated by quantum mechanics. The phase diagram exhibits two critical points, one in each ensemble, beyond which the phase transitions disappear. There also exist a region of negative specific heats and a situation of ensemble inequivalence for sufficiently large systems. We apply the fermionic King model to the case of dark matter halos made of massive neutrinos. The gaseous phase describes large halos and the condensed phase describes dwarf halos. Partially degenerate configurations describe intermediate size halos. We argue that large dark matter halos cannot harbor a fermion ball because these nucleus-halo configurations are thermodynamically unstable (saddle points of entropy). Large dark matter halos may rather contain a central black hole resulting from a dynamical instability of relativistic origin occurring during the gravothermal catastrophe.
    BosonizationKing modelPolytropesDark matterEvaporationGlobular clusterCompact starFirst-order phase transitionsViolent relaxationWillman 1...
  • We study the abilities of the Fermi-LAT instrument on board of the Fermi mission to simultaneously constrain the Milky Way dark matter density profile and some dark matter particle properties, as annihilation cross section, mass and branching ratio into dominant annihilation channels. A single dark matter density profile is commonly assumed to determine the capabilities of gamma-ray experiments to extract dark matter properties or to set limits on them. However, our knowledge of the Milky Way halo is far from perfect, and thus in general, the obtained results are too optimistic. Here, we study the effect these astrophysical uncertainties would have on the determination of dark matter particle properties and conversely, we show how gamma-ray searches could also be used to learn about the structure of the Milky Way halo, as a complementary tool to other type of observational data that study the gravitational effect caused by the presence of dark matter. In addition, we also show how these results would improve if external information on the annihilation cross section and on the local dark matter density were included and compare our results with the predictions from numerical simulations.
    Dark matterDark Matter Density ProfileDark matter haloMilky WayNumerical simulationLocal dark matter densityNavarro-Frenk-White profileGlobular clusterVirial massEinasto profile...
  • We present a unified rotation curve of the Galaxy re-constructed from the existing data by re-calculating the distances and velocities for a set of galactic constants R_0=8 kpc and V_0=200 km/s. We decompose it into a bulge with de Vaucouleurs-law profile of half-mass scale radius 0.5 kpc and mass 1.8 x 10^{10}M_{sun}, an exponential disk of scale radius 3.5 kpc of 6.5 x 10^{10}M_{sun}, and an isothermal dark halo of terminal velocity 200 km/s. The r^{1/4}-law fit was obtained for the first time for the Milky Way's rotation curve. After fitting by these fundamental structures, two local minima, or the dips, of rotation velocity are prominent at radii 3 and 9 kpc. The 3-kpc dip is consistent with the observed bar. It is alternatively explained by a massive ring with the density maximum at radius 4 kpc. The 9-kpc dip is clearly exhibited as the most peculiar feature in the galactic rotation curve. We explain it by a massive ring of amplitude as large as 0.3 to 0.4 times the disk density with the density peak at radius 11 kpc. This great ring may be related to the Perseus arm, while no peculiar feature of HI-gas is associated.
    Circular velocityStarMass distributionDensity WavesSpiral armVelocity dispersionGalactic disksKinematicsLuminosityNavarro-Frenk-White profile...
  • We consider the possibility that dark matter halos are described by the Fermi-Dirac distribution at finite temperature. This is the case if dark matter is a self-gravitating quantum gas made of massive neutrinos at statistical equilibrium. This is also the case if dark matter can be treated as a self-gravitating collisionless gas experiencing Lynden-Bell's type of violent relaxation. In order to avoid the infinite mass problem and carry out a rigorous stability analysis, we consider the fermionic King model. In this paper, we study the non-degenerate limit leading to the classical King model. This model was initially introduced to describe globular clusters. We propose to apply it also to large dark matter halos where quantum effects are negligible. We determine the caloric curve and study the thermodynamical stability of the different configurations. Equilibrium states exist only above a critical energy $E_c$ in the microcanonical ensemble and only above a critical temperature $T_c$ in the canonical ensemble. For $E<E_c$, the system undergoes a gravothermal catastrophe and, for $T<T_c$, it undergoes an isothermal collapse. We compute the profiles of density, circular velocity, and velocity dispersion. We compare the prediction of the classical King model to the observations of large dark matter halos. Because of collisions and evaporation, the central density increases while the slope of the halo density profile decreases until an instability takes place. We show that large dark matter halos are relatively well-described by the King model at, or close to, the point of marginal microcanonical stability. At that point, the King model generates a density profile that can be approximated by the modified Hubble profile. This profile has a flat core and decreases as $r^{-3}$ at large distances, like the observational Burkert profile. Less steep halos are unstable.
    PolytropesTidal radiusRotation CurveEntropyBosonizationQuantum mechanicsGalaxyVegaGravitational collapseBoltzmann distribution...
  • The rotation curve (RC) of the Galaxy, the Milky Way, is constructed starting from its very inner regions (few hundred pc) out to a large galactocentric distance of $\sim 200\kpc$ using kinematical data on a variety of tracer objects moving in the gravitational potential of the Galaxy. We study the effect on the RC due to the uncertainties in the values of the Galactic Constants (GCs) $\rsun$ and $\vsun$ (these being the sun's distance from and circular rotation speed around the Galactic center, respectively) and the velocity anisotropy parameter $\beta$ of the halo tracer objects used for deriving the RC at large galactocentric distances. The resulting RC in the disk region is found to depend significantly on the choice of the GCs, while the dominant uncertainty in the RC at large distances beyond the stellar disk comes from the uncertainty in the value of $\beta$. In general we find that the mean RC steadily declines at distances beyond $\sim50\kpc$. Also, at a given radius, the circular speed is lower for larger values of $\beta$ (i.e., for more radially biased velocity anisotropy). Considering recent results from large numerical simulations, which find an increasingly radially biased velocity ellipsoid of the Galaxy's stellar population at large distances, with stellar orbits tending to be almost purely radial ($\beta\to 1$) beyond $\sim 100\kpc$, our results, for the case of $\beta=1$, give a model independent estimate of the total mass of the Galaxy within $\sim 200\kpc$, $M(200\kpc)\gsim (6.8\pm4.1)\times10^{11}\Msun$. The complete RC of the Galaxy given here may be useful for deriving the phase space properties of the Galaxy's dark matter halo.
    Circular velocityJeans equationStarRadial velocityRotation CurveLocal standard of restDark matter haloGalaxyVelocity dispersionPeculiar motion...
  • Preliminary evidence of solar axions in XMM-Newton observations has quite recently been published by Fraser et al. These authors also estimate the axion mass to be $m_a \simeq 2.3 \cdot 10^{- 6}$ eV. Since an axion with this mass behaves as a cold dark matter particle, the considered preliminary detection directly concerns cold dark matter as well. So, it would be a revolutionary discovery if confirmed. Unfortunately, we have identified three distinct flaws in the analysis by Fraser et al. which ultimately make it totally irrelevant both for axions and for cold dark matter.
    XMM-NewtonCoupling constantCosmic X-ray backgroundCold dark matterGeomagnetic fieldsField of viewBremsstrahlungObservatoriesSolar axion fluxAxionic dark matter...
  • An alternative gravity theory is proposed which does not rely on Riemannian geometry and geodesic trajectories. The theory named periodic relativity (PR) does not use the weak field approximation and allows every two body system to deviate differently from the flat Minkowski metric. PR differs from general relativity (GR) in predictions of the proper time intervals of distant objects. PR proposes a definite connection between the proper time interval of an object and gravitational frequency shift of its constituent particles as the object travels through the gravitational field. PR is based on the dynamic weak equivalence principle which equates the gravitational mass with the relativistic mass. PR provides very accurate solutions for the Pioneer anomaly and the rotation curves of galaxies outside the framework of general relativity. PR satisfies Einstein's field equations with respect to the three major GR tests within the solar system and with respect to the derivation of Friedmann equation in cosmology. This article defines the underlying framework of the theory.
    Gravitational red shiftVibrationSchwarzschild metricPlanetEphemeridesLine elementEarthSunEvent horizonBlack hole...
  • A non-linear non-perturbative relativistic atomic theory introduces spin in the dynamics of particle motion. The resulting energy levels of Hydrogen atom are exactly same as the Dirac theory. The theory accounts for the energy due to spin-orbit interaction and for the additional potential energy due to spin and spin-orbit coupling. Spin angular momentum operator is integrated into the equation of motion. This requires modification to classical Laplacian operator. Consequently the Dirac matrices and the k operator of Dirac's theory are dispensed with. The theory points out that the curvature of the orbit draws on certain amount of kinetic and potential energies affecting the momentum of electron and the spin-orbit interaction energy constitutes a part of this energy. The theory is developed for spin 1/2 bound state single electron in Coulomb potential and then further extended to quarkonium physics by introducing the linear confining potential. The unique feature of this quarkonium model is that the radial distance can be exactly determined and does not have a statistical interpretation. The established radial distance is then used to determine the wave function. The observed energy levels are used as the input parameters and the radial distance and the string tension are predicted. This ensures 100% conformance to all observed energy levels for the heavy quarkonium.
    Wave equationQuarkEigenvalueLaguerre polynomialsOrbital angular momentum of lightSpin-orbit interactionLattice QCDCircular orbitInfinitesimalFine structure constant...
  • Advances in theoretical ideas on how galaxies formed have not been strongly influenced by the advances in observations of what might be in the voids between the concentrations of ordinary optically selected galaxies. The theory and observations are maturing, and the search for a reconciliation offers a promising opportunity to improve our understanding of cosmic evolution. I comment on the development of this situation and present an update of a nearest neighbor measure of the void phenomenon that may be of use in evaluating theories of galaxy formation.
    VoidGalaxyGalaxy FormationStatisticsLow surface brightness galaxyTwo-point correlation functionLambda-CDM modelRedshift spaceSpiral galaxyGas clouds...
  • We consider a possibility to naturally explain tiny neutrino masses without the lepton number violation. We study a simple model with SU(2)_L singlet charged scalars (s_1^+, s_2^+) as well as singlet right-handed neutrino (nu_R). Yukawa interactions for Dirac neutrinos, which are forbidden at the tree level by a softly-broken Z_2 symmetry, are induced at the one-loop level via the soft-breaking term in the scalar potential. Consequently neutrinos obtain small Dirac masses after the electroweak symmetry breaking. It is found that constrains from neutrino oscillation measurements and lepton flavor violation search results (especially for mu to e gamma) can be satisfied. We study the decay pattern of the singlet charged scalars, which could be tested at the LHC and the ILC. We discuss possible extensions also, e.g. to introduce dark matter candidate.
    Majorana massCoupling constantStandard ModelCharged leptonLepton flavour violationHiggs bosonDark matterBosonizationTri Bimaximal mixingScalar field...
  • We extend the scalar sector of the neutrinophilic two Higgs doublet model, where small masses of Dirac neutrinos are obtained via a small vacuum expectation value v_nu of the neutrinophilic SU(2)_L-doublet scalar field which has a Yukawa interaction with only right-handed neutrinos. A global U(1)_X symmetry is used for the neutrinophilic nature of the second SU(2)_L-doublet scalar field and also for eliminating Majorana mass terms of neutrinos. By virtue of an appropriate assignment of the U(1)_X-charges to new particles, our model has an unbroken Z_2 symmetry, under which the lightest Z_2-odd scalar boson can be a dark matter candidate. In our model, v_nu is generated by the one-loop diagram to which Z_2-odd particles contribute. We briefly discuss a possible signature of our model at the LHC.
    Vacuum expectation valueNeutrinoNeutrino massScalar fieldDark matter candidateScalar bosonStandard ModelDark matterMass eigen stateYukawa interaction...
  • Warm dark matter (WDM) has been proposed as an alternative to cold dark matter (CDM), to resolve issues such as the apparent lack of satellites around the Milky Way. Even if WDM is not the answer to observational issues, it is essential to constrain the nature of the dark matter. The effect of WDM on haloes has been extensively studied, but the small-scale initial smoothing in WDM also affects the present-day cosmic web and voids. It suppresses the cosmic "sub-web" inside voids, and the formation of both void haloes and subvoids. In N-body simulations run with different assumed WDM masses, we identify voids with the zobov algorithm, and cosmic-web components with the origami algorithm. As dark-matter warmth increases, the initial-conditions smoothing increases, and the number of voids and subvoids is suppressed. Also, void density profiles change, their shapes become flatter inside the void radius, while edges of the voids remain unchanged. Also, filaments and walls become cleaner, as the sub-structures in between have been smoothed out; this leads to a clear, mid-range peak in the density PDF. These distinct features of voids make them possible observational indicators of the warmth of dark matter.
    Dark matterWDM particlesGalaxyWarm dark matterThermalisationAbundanceCosmologyStructure formationRedshift-space distortionLambda-CDM model...
  • This paper presents a systematic treatment of the linear theory of scalar gravitational perturbations in the synchronous gauge and the conformal Newtonian (or longitudinal) gauge. It differs from others in the literature in that we give, in both gauges, a complete discussion of all particle species that are relevant to any flat cold dark matter (CDM), hot dark matter (HDM), or CDM+HDM models (including a possible cosmological constant). The particles considered include CDM, baryons, photons, massless neutrinos, and massive neutrinos (an HDM candidate), where the CDM and baryons are treated as fluids while a detailed phase-space description is given to the photons and neutrinos. Particular care is applied to the massive neutrino component, which has been either ignored or approximated crudely in previous works. Isentropic initial conditions on super-horizon scales are derived. The coupled, linearized Boltzmann, Einstein and fluid equations that govern the evolution of the metric and density perturbations are then solved numerically in both gauges for the standard CDM model and two CDM+HDM models with neutrino mass densities $\onu=0.2$ and 0.3, assuming a scale-invariant, adiabatic spectrum of primordial fluctuations. We also give the full details of the cosmic microwave background anisotropy, and present the first accurate calculations of the angular power spectra in the two CDM+HDM models including photon polarization, higher neutrino multipole moments, and helium recombination. The numerical programs for both gauges are available at http://arcturus.mit.edu/cosmics/ .
    HorizonMetric perturbationBoltzmann transport equationPhase space densityThomson scatteringIonizationEinstein field equationsRadiation-dominated epochEvolution equationScalar mode fluctuation...
  • We consider some aspects of the perturbation to the luminosity distance $d(z)$ that are of relevance for SN1a cosmology and for future peculiar velocity surveys at non-negligible redshifts. 1) Previous work has shown that the correction to the lowest order perturbation $\delta d / d = -\delta v / c z$ has the peculiar characteristic that it appears to depend on the absolute state of motion of sources, rather than on their motion relative to that of the observer. The resolution of this apparent violation of the equivalence principle is that it is necessary to allow for evolution of the velocities with time, and also, when considering perturbations on the scale of the observer-source separation, to include the gravitational redshift effect. We provide an expression for $\delta d / d$ that provides a physically consistent way to compute the impact of peculiar motions for SN1a cosmology and peculiar velocity surveys. 2) We then calculate the perturbation to the redshift as a function of source flux density, which has been proposed as an alternative probe of large-scale motions. We show how the inclusion of surface brightness modulation modifies the relation between $\delta z(m)$ and the peculiar velocity, and that, while the noise properties of this method might appear promising, the velocity signal is swamped by the effect of galaxy clustering for most scales of interest. 3) We show how, in linear theory, peculiar velocity measurements are biased downwards by the effect of smaller scale motions or by measurement errors (such as in photometric redshifts). Our results nicely explain the effects seen in simulations by Koda et al.\ 2013. We critically examine the prospects for extending peculiar velocity studies to larger scales with near-term future surveys.
    GalaxyRedshift spaceVelocity dispersionLine of sightPrimordial density perturbationThe Dark Energy SurveyWeak lensingCosmic microwave backgroundLuminosityTully-Fisher relation...
  • We continue the study of the impact of baryon physics on the small scale problems of the $\Lambda$CDM model, based on a semi-analytical model (Del Popolo, 2009). Withsuch model, we show how the cusp/core, missing satellite (MSP), Too Big to Fail (TBTF) problems and the angular momentum catastrophe can be reconciled with observations, adding parent-satellite interaction. Such interaction between darkmatter (DM) and baryons through dynamical friction (DF) can sufficiently flattenthe inner cusp of the density profiles to solve the cusp/core problem. Combining, in our model, a Zolotov et al. (2012)-like correction, similarly to Brooks et al. (2013), and effects of UV heating and tidal stripping, the number of massive, luminous satellites, as seen in the Via Lactea 2 (VL2) subhaloes,is in agreement with the numbers observed in the MW, thus resolving the MSP and TBTF problems. The model also produces a distribution of the angular spin parameter and angular momentum in agreement with observations of the dwarfs studied by van den Bosch, Burkert, \\& Swaters (2001).
    EllipticityCircular velocitySmoothed-particle hydrodynamicsN-body simulationStellar massCold dark matterStarHost galaxyStar formationGalaxy...
  • The Higgs field mass term, being superrenomalizable, has a unique status within the standard model. Through the opening it affords, $SU(3) \times SU(2) \times U(1)$ singlet fields can have renormalizable couplings to standard model fields. We present examples that are neither grotesque nor unnatural. A possible consequence is to spread the Higgs particle resonance into several weaker ones, or to afford it additional, effectively invisible decay channels.
    Hidden sectorStandard ModelHiggs fieldHiggs bosonStandard Model fieldQuarkGauge fieldNucleosynthesisChiral symmetry breakingVacuum expectation value...
  • Quasars emit more energy than any other objects in the universe, yet are not much bigger than the solar system. We are almost certain that quasars are powered by giant black holes of up to $10^{10}$ times the mass of the Sun, and that black holes of between $10^6$ and $10^{10}$ solar masses---dead quasars---are present at the centers of most galaxies. Our own galaxy contains a black hole of $4.3\times10^6$ solar masses. The mass of the central black hole appears to be closely related to other properties of its host galaxy, such as the total mass in stars, but the origin of this relation and the role that black holes play in the formation of galaxies are still mysteries.
    ParsecEvent horizonAstrophysical jetNearby galaxiesMilky WayAccretion diskMassive black holeGround telescopesGravitational fieldsAccretion...
  • Magnetic reconnection is a process that changes magnetic field topology in highly conducting fluids. Traditionally, magnetic reconnection was associated mostly with solar flares. In reality, the process must be ubiquitous as astrophysical fluids are magnetized and motions of fluid elements necessarily entail crossing of magnetic frozen in field lines and magnetic reconnection. We consider magnetic reconnection in realistic 3D geometry in the presence of turbulence. This turbulence in most astrophysical settings is of pre-existing nature, but it also can be induced by magnetic reconnection itself. In this situation turbulent magnetic field wandering opens up reconnection outflow regions, making reconnection fast. We discuss Lazarian \& Vishniac (1999) model of turbulent reconnection, its numerical and observational testings, as well as its connection to the modern understanding of the Lagrangian properties of turbulent fluids. We show that the predicted dependences of the reconnection rates on the level of MHD turbulence make the generally accepted Goldreich \& Sridhar (1995) model of turbulence self-consistent. Similarly, we argue that the well-known Alfv\'en theorem on flux freezing is not valid for the turbulent fluids and therefore magnetic fields diffuse within turbulent volumes. This is an element of magnetic field dynamics that was not accounted by earlier theories. For instance, the theory of star formation that was developing assuming that it is only the drift of neutrals that can violate the otherwise perfect flux freezing, is affected and we discuss the consequences of the turbulent diffusion of magnetic fields mediated by reconnection.
    MagnetohydrodynamicsEddyRichardson diffusionDissipationLundquist numberCompressibilityInstabilityNumerical simulationMagnetosphere of a starSolar wind...
  • The rotation curve, the total mass and the gravitational potential of the Galaxy are sensitive measurements of the dark matter halo profile. In this publication cuspy and cored DM halo profiles are analysed with respect to recent astronomical constraints in order to constrain the shape of the Galactic DM halo and the local DM density. All Galactic density components (luminous matter and DM) are parametrized. Then the total density distribution is constrained by astronomical observations: 1) the total mass of the Galaxy, 2) the total matter density at the position of the Sun, 3) the surface density of the visible matter, 4) the surface density of the total matter in the vicinity of the Sun, 5) the rotation speed of the Sun and 6) the shape of the velocity distribution within and above the Galactic disc. The mass model of the Galaxy is mainly constrained by the local matter density (Oort limit), the rotation speed of the Sun and the total mass of the Galaxy from tracer stars in the halo. It is shown from a statistical chi^2 fit to all data that the local DM density is strongly positively (negatively) correlated with the scale length of the DM halo (baryonic disc). Since these scale lengths are poorly constrained the local DM density can vary from 0.2 to 0.4 GeV/cm^3 (0.005 - 0.01 M_sun/pc^3) for a spherical DM halo profile and allowing total Galaxy masses up to 2 * 10^12 M_sun. For oblate DM halos and dark matter discs, as predicted in recent N-body simulations, the local DM density can be increased significantly.
    Globular clusterScale heightMass distributionMilky WayNavarro-Frenk-White profileThin stellar diskDark Matter Density ProfileDark matter haloLocal dark matter densityCircular velocity...
  • Recent work has shown that the z~2.5 Lyman-alpha forest on large scales encodes information about the galaxy and quasar populations that keep the intergalactic medium photoionized. We present the first forecasts for constraining the populations with data from current and next-generation surveys. At a minimum the forest should tell us whether galaxies or, conversely, quasars dominate the photon production. The number density and clustering strength of the ionising sources might be estimated to sub-10% precision with a DESI-like survey if degeneracies (e.g., with the photon mean-free-path, small-scale clustering power normalization and potentially other astrophysical effects) can be broken by prior information. We demonstrate that, when inhomogeneous ionisation is correctly handled, constraints on dark energy do not degrade.
    CosmologyBaryon acoustic oscillationsTwo-point correlation functionLine of sightRadiative transferCovariance matrixRedshift-space distortionCosmological parametersUltraviolet sourcesFisher information matrix...
  • We present a joint estimate of the stellar/dark matter mass fraction in lens galaxies and the average size of the accretion disk of lensed quasars from microlensing measurements of 27 quasar image pairs seen through 19 lens galaxies. The Bayesian estimate for the fraction of the surface mass density in the form of stars is $\alpha=0.21\pm0.14$ near the Einstein radius of the lenses ($\sim 1 - 2$ effective radii). The estimate for the average accretion disk size is $R_{1/2}=7.9^{+3.8}_{-2.6}\sqrt{M/0.3M_\sun}$ light days. The fraction of mass in stars at these radii is significantly larger than previous estimates from microlensing studies assuming quasars were point-like. The corresponding local dark matter fraction of 79\% is in good agreement with other estimates based on strong lensing or kinematics. The size of the accretion disk inferred in the present study is slightly larger than previous estimates.
    Stellar massStatisticsStellar dynamicsStellar surfacesExtinctionMass distributionAccretion diskQuasarPierre Auger ObservatoryMass profile...
  • We use the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) 21cm survey to measure the number density of galaxies as a function of their rotational velocity, Vrot,HI (as inferred from the width of their 21cm emission line). Based on the measured velocity function we statistically connect galaxies with their host halos, via abundance matching. In a LCDM cosmology, low-velocity galaxies are expected to be hosted by halos that are significantly more massive than indicated by the measured galactic velocity; allowing lower mass halos to host ALFALFA galaxies would result in a vast overestimate of their number counts. We then seek observational verification of this predicted trend, by analyzing the kinematics of a literature sample of field dwarf galaxies. We find that galaxies with Vrot,HI<25 km/s are kinematically incompatible with their predicted LCDM host halos, in the sense that hosts are too massive to be accommodated within the measured galactic rotation curves. This issue is analogous to the "too big to fail" problem faced by the bright satellites of the Milky Way, but here it concerns extreme dwarf galaxies in the field. Consequently, solutions based on satellite-specific processes are not applicable in this context. Our result confirms the findings of previous studies based on optical survey data, and addresses a number of observational systematics present in these works. Furthermore, we point out the assumptions and uncertainties that could strongly affect our conclusions. We show that the two most important among them, namely baryonic effects on the abundances and rotation curves of halos, do not seem capable of resolving the reported discrepancy.
    Vector fieldRotation CurveToo big to fail problemInclinationMilky WayDark matter subhaloWDM particlesTHINGS surveyWarm dark matterVelocity Width Function...
  • We have compiled a new sample of 240 halo objects with accurate distance and radial velocity measurements, including globular clusters, satellite galaxies, field blue horizontal branch stars and red giant stars from the Spaghetti survey. The new data lead to a significant increase in the number of known objects for Galactocentric radii beyond 50 kpc, which allows a reliable determination of the radial velocity dispersion profile out to very large distances. The radial velocity dispersion shows an almost constant value of 120 km/s out to 30 kpc and then continuously declines down to 50 km/s at about 120 kpc. This fall-off puts important constraints on the density profile and total mass of the dark matter halo of the Milky Way. For a constant velocity anisotropy, the isothermal profile is ruled out, while both a dark halo following a truncated flat model of mass $1.2^{+1.8}_{-0.5}\times 10^{12}$ M_sun and an NFW profile of mass $0.8^{+1.2}_{-0.2}\times 10^{12}$ M_sun and c=18 are consistent with the data. The significant increase in the number of tracers combined with the large extent of the region probed by these has allowed a more precise determination of the Milky Way mass in comparison to previous works. We also show how different assumptions for the velocity anisotropy affect the performance of the mass models.
    Navarro-Frenk-White profileCircular velocityVelocity dispersionStellar haloProper motionVirial massThomas-Fermi modelGalaxyCore radiusA giants...
  • We present a simple method for fitting parametrized mass models of the Milky Way to observational constraints. We take a Bayesian approach which allows us to take into account input from photometric and kinematic data, and expectations from theoretical modelling. This provides us with a best-fitting model, which is a suitable starting point for dynamical modelling. We also determine a probability density function on the properties of the model, which demonstrates that the mass distribution of the Galaxy remains very uncertain. For our choices of parametrization and constraints, we find disc scale lengths of 3.00 \pm 0.22 kpc and 3.29 \pm 0.56 kpc for the thin and thick discs respectively; a Solar radius of 8.29 \pm 0.16 kpc and a circular speed at the Sun of 239 \pm 5 km/s; a total stellar mass of 6.43 \pm 0.63 * 10^10 M_sun; a virial mass of 1.26 \pm 0.24 * 10^12 M_sun and a local dark matter density of 0.40 \pm 0.04 GeV/cm^3. We find some correlations between the best-fitting parameters of our models (for example, between the disk scale lengths and the Solar radius), which we discuss. The chosen disc scale-heights are shown to have little effect on the key properties of the model.
    GalaxyKinematicsMilky WayScale heightVirial massStellar massSunCold dark matterThin stellar diskThick stellar disk...
  • We derive the mass model of the Milky Way (MW) using a cored dark matter (DM) halo profile and recent data. The method used consists in fitting a spherically symmetric model of the Galaxy with a Burkert DM halo profile to available data: MW terminal velocities in the region inside the solar circle, circular velocity as recently estimated from maser star forming regions at intermediate radii, and velocity dispersions of stellar halo tracers for the outermost Galactic region. The latter are reproduced by integrating the Jeans equation for every modeled mass distribution, and by allowing for different velocity anisotropies for different tracer populations. For comparison we also consider a Navarro-Frenk-White profile. We find that the cored profile is the preferred one, with a shallow central density of rho_H~4x10^7M_s/kpc^3 and a large core radius R_H~10 kpc, as observed in external spirals and in agreement with the mass model underlying the Universal Rotation Curve of spirals. We describe also the derived model uncertainties, which are crucially driven by the poorly constrained velocity dispersion anisotropies of halo tracers. The emerging cored DM distribution has implications for the DM annihilation angular profile, which is much less boosted in the Galactic center direction with respect to the case of the standard \Lambda CDM, NFW profile. Using the derived uncertainties we discuss finally the limitations and prospects to discriminate between cored and cusped DM profile with a possible observed diffuse DM annihilation signal. The present mass model aims to characterize the present-day description of the distribution of matter in our Galaxy, which is needed to frame current crucial issues of Cosmology, Astrophysics and Elementary Particles.
    Navarro-Frenk-White profileSunKinematicsDark Matter Density ProfileThin stellar diskStellar diskBlue horizontal-branch starMilky WayRotation CurveProper motion...
  • We derive new constraints on the mass of the Milky Way's dark matter halo, based on a set of halo stars from SDSS as kinematic tracers. Our sample comprises 2401 rigorously selected Blue Horizontal-Branch (BHB) halo stars drawn from SDSS DR-6. To interpret these distributions, we compare them to matched mock observations drawn from two different cosmological galaxy formation simulations designed to resemble the Milky Way, which we presume to have an appropriate orbital distribution of halo stars. We then determine which value of $\rm V_{cir}(r)$ brings the observed distribution into agreement with the corresponding distributions from the simulations. This procedure results in an estimate of the Milky Way's circular velocity curve to $\sim 60$ kpc, which is found to be slightly falling from the adopted value of $\rm 220 km s^{-1}$ at the Sun's location, and implies M$(<60 \rm kpc) = 4.0\pm 0.7\times 10^{11}$M$_\odot$. The radial dependence of $\rm V_{cir}(r)$, derived in statistically independent bins, is found to be consistent with the expectations from an NFW dark matter halo with the established stellar mass components at its center. If we assume an NFW halo profile of characteristic concentration holds, we can use the observations to estimate the virial mass of the Milky Way's dark matter halo, M$_{\rm vir}=1.0^{+0.3}_{-0.2} \times 10^{12}$M$_\odot$, which is lower than many previous estimates. This estimate implies that nearly 40% of the baryons within the virial radius of the Milky Way's dark matter halo reside in the stellar components of our Galaxy. A value for M$_{\rm vir}$ of only $\sim 1\times10^{12}$M$_\odot$ also (re-)opens the question of whether all of the Milky Way's satellite galaxies are on bound orbits.
    StarBlue horizontal-branch starRadial velocityGalaxyMilky Way haloJeans equationNavarro-Frenk-White profileVelocity dispersionAbsolute magnitudeVirial mass...
  • Several groups have identified an extended excess of gamma rays over the modeled foreground and background emissions towards the Galactic center (GC) based on observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. This excess emission is compatible in morphology and spectrum with a telltale sign from dark matter (DM) annihilation. Here, we present a critical reassessment of DM interpretations of the GC signal in light of the foreground and background uncertainties that some of us recently outlaid in Calore et al. 2014. We find that a much larger number of DM models fits the gamma-ray data than previously noted. In particular: (1) In the case of DM annihilation into $\bar{b}b$, we find that even large DM masses up to $m_\chi \simeq$ 74 GeV are allowed with a $p$-value $> 0.05$. (2) Surprisingly, annihilation into non-relativistic hh gives a good fit to the data. (3) The inverse Compton emission from $\mu^+\mu^-$ with $m_\chi\sim$ 60-70 GeV can also account for the excess at higher latitudes, $|b|>2^\circ$, both in its spectrum and morphology. We also present novel constraints on a large number of mixed annihilation channels, including cascade annihilation involving hidden sector mediators. Finally, we show that the current limits from dwarf spheroidal observations are not in tension with a DM interpretation when uncertainties on the DM halo profile are accounted for.
    Inverse ComptonIntensityDiffuse emissionCosmic rayQuarkBranching ratioStandard ModelPositronBremsstrahlungDwarf spheroidal galaxy...